The effects of dissociatives can include sensory dissociation, hallucinations, mania, catalepsy, analgesia and amnesia. The characteristic features of dissociative anesthesia were described as catalepsy, amnesia and analgesia. According to Pender (1972), "the state has been designated as dissociative anesthesia since the patient truly seems disassociated from his environment." Both Pender (1970) and Johnstone et al. (1959) reported that patients under anaesthesia due to either ketamine or phencyclidine were prone to purposeless movements and had hallucinations (or "dreams") during and after anaesthesia. Some patients found the hallucinations euphoric while others found them disturbing.
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