Developmental coordination disorder (DCD), also known as developmental dyspraxia or simply dyspraxia, is a chronic neurological disorder beginning in childhood. It is also known to affect planning of movements and co-ordination as a result of brain messages not being accurately transmitted to the body. Impairments in skilled motor movements per a child's chronological age which must interfere with activities of daily living. A diagnosis of DCD is then reached only in the absence of other neurological impairments like cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease. According to CanChild in Canada, this disorder affects 5 to 6 percent of school-aged children; however this disorder does progress towards adulthood, therefore making it a lifelong condition.
Developmental coordination disorder is classified (by doctors) in the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a motor disorder, in the category of neurodevelopmental disorders.
Signs and symptoms
Various areas of development can be affected by developmental coordination disorder and these will persist into adulthood, as DCD has no cure. Often various coping strategies are developed, and these can be enhanced through occupational therapy, psychomotor therapy, physiotherapy, speech therapy, or psychological training.
In addition to the physical impairments, developmental coordination disorder is associated with problems with memory, especially working memory. This typically results in difficulty remembering instructions, difficulty organizing one's time and remembering deadlines, increased propensity to lose things or problems carrying out tasks which require remembering several steps in sequence (such as cooking). Whilst most of the general population experience these problems to some extent, they have a much more significant impact on the lives of dyspraxic people. However, many dyspraxics have excellent long-term memories, despite poor short-term memory. Many dyspraxics benefit from working in a structured environment, as repeating the same routine minimises difficulty with time-management and allows them to commit procedures to long-term memory.
People with developmental coordination disorder sometimes have difficulty moderating the amount of sensory information that their body is constantly sending them, so as a result dyspraxics are prone to sensory overload and panic attacks.
Moderate to extreme difficulty doing physical tasks is experienced by some dyspraxics, and fatigue is common because so much extra energy is expended while trying to execute physical movements correctly. Some (but not all) dyspraxics suffer from hypotonia, low muscle tone, which like DCD can detrimentally affect balance.
Gross motor control
Whole body movement and motor coordination issues mean that major developmental targets including walking, running, climbing and jumping can be affected. The difficulties vary from person to person and can include the following:
- Poor timing
- Poor balance (sometimes even falling over in mid-step). Tripping over one's own feet is also common.
- Difficulty combining movements into a controlled sequence.
- Difficulty remembering the next movement in a sequence.
- Problems with spatial awareness, or proprioception.
- Trouble picking up and holding onto simple objects such as pencils, owing to poor muscle tone or proprioception.
- Clumsiness to the point of knocking things over and bumping into people accidentally.
- Difficulty in determining left from right.
- Cross-laterality, ambidexterity, and a shift in the preferred hand are also common in people with developmental coordination disorder.
- Problems with chewing foods.
Fine motor control
Fine-motor problems can cause difficulty with a wide variety of other tasks such as using a knife and fork, fastening buttons and shoelaces, cooking, brushing one's teeth, styling one's hair, shaving, applying cosmetics, opening jars and packets, locking and unlocking doors, and doing housework.
Difficulties with fine motor co-ordination lead to problems with handwriting, which may be due to either ideational or ideo-motor difficulties.
Problems associated with this area may include:
- Learning basic movement patterns.
- Developing a desired writing speed.
- Establishing the correct pencil grip
- The acquisition of graphemes – e.g. the letters of the Latin alphabet, as well as numbers.
Developmental verbal dyspraxia
Developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD) is a type of ideational dyspraxia, causing speech and language impairments. This is the favoured term in the UK; however, it is also sometimes referred to as articulatory dyspraxia, and in the United States the usual term is childhood apraxia of speech (CAS).
Key problems include:
- Difficulties controlling the speech organs.
- Difficulties making speech sounds
- Difficulty sequencing sounds
- Within a word
- Forming words into sentences
- Difficulty controlling breathing, suppressing salivation and phonation when talking or singing with lyrics.
- Slow language development
Associated disorders and secondary consequences
People who have developmental coordination disorder may also have one or more of these co-morbid conditions:
However, they are unlikely to have all of these conditions. The pattern of difficulty varies widely from person to person, and it is important to understand that an area of major weakness for one dyspraxic can be an area of strength or gift for another. For example, while some dyspraxics have difficulty with reading and spelling due to an overlap with dyslexia, or numeracy due to an overlap with dyscalculia, others may have brilliant reading and spelling or mathematical abilities. Some estimates show that up to 50% of dyspraxics have ADHD.
Sensory processing disorder
Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) concerns having abnormal oversensitivity or undersensitivity to physical stimuli, such as touch, light, sound, and smell. This may manifest itself as an inability to tolerate certain textures such as sandpaper or certain fabrics such as wool, oral intolerance of excessively textured food (commonly known as picky eating), being touched by another individual (in the case of touch oversensitivity) or may require the consistent use of sunglasses outdoors since sunlight may be intense enough to cause discomfort to a dyspraxic (in the case of light oversensitivity). An aversion to loud music and naturally loud environments (such as clubs and bars) is typical behavior of a dyspraxic individual who suffers from auditory oversensitivity, while only being comfortable in unusually warm or cold environments is typical of a dyspraxic with temperature oversensitivity. Undersensitivity to stimuli may also cause problems. Dyspraxics who are undersensitive to pain may injure themselves without realising. Some dyspraxics may be oversensitive to some stimuli and undersensitive to others.
Specific language impairment
Specific Language Impairment (SLI), research has found that students with developmental coordination disorder and normal language skills still experience learning difficulties despite relative strengths in language. This means that for students with developmental coordination disorder their working memory abilities determine their learning difficulties. Any strength in language that they have is not able to sufficiently support their learning.
Students with developmental coordination disorder struggle most in visual-spatial memory. When compared to their peers who don’t have motor difficulties, students with developmental coordination disorder are seven times more likely than typically developing students to achieve very poor scores in visual-spatial memory. As a result of this working memory impairment, students with developmental coordination disorder have learning deficits as well.
Psychological domain: Children with DCD struggle with lower self-efficacy and lower self-perceived competence in peer and social relations. They demonstrate greater aggressiveness and hyperactivity.
Social domain: Children are more vulnerable to social rejection and bullying, along with higher levels of loneliness.
Assessments for developmental coordination disorder typically require a developmental history, detailing ages at which significant developmental milestones, such as crawling and walking, occurred. Motor skills screening includes activities designed to indicate developmental coordination disorder, including balancing, physical sequencing, touch sensitivity, and variations on walking activities.
The American Psychiatric Association has four primary inclusive diagnostic criteria for determining if a child has developmental coordination disorder.
The criteria are as follows:
- Motor Coordination will be greatly reduced, although the intelligence of the child is normal for the age.
- The difficulties the child experiences with motor coordination or planning interfere with the child's daily life.
- The difficulties with coordination are not due to any other medical condition
- If the child does also experience comorbidities such as mental retardation; motor coordination is still disproportionally affected.
Screening tests which can be used to assess developmental coordination disorder include:-
- Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement-ABC – Movement-ABC 2)
- Peabody Developmental Motor Scales- Second Edition (PDMS-2)
- Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP-BOT-2)
- Motoriktest für vier- bis sechsjährige Kinder (MOT 4-6)
- Körperkoordinationtest für Kinder (KTK)
- Test of Gross Motor Development, Second Edition (TGMD-2)
- Maastrichtse Motoriek Test (MMT)
- Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV)
- Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WAIT-II)
- Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE-2)
- Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCD-Q)
- Children's Self-Perceptions of Adequacy in, and Predilection for Physical Activity (CSAPPA)
Currently there is no single gold standard assessment test.
A baseline motor assessment establishes the starting point for developmental intervention programs. Comparing children to normal rates of development may help to establish areas of significant difficulty.
However, research in the British Journal of Special Education has shown that knowledge is severely limited in many who should be trained to recognise and respond to various difficulties, including developmental coordination disorder, dyslexia and deficits in attention, motor control and perception (DAMP). The earlier that difficulties are noted and timely assessments occur, the quicker intervention can begin. A teacher or GP could miss a diagnosis if they are only applying a cursory knowledge.
"Teachers will not be able to recognise or accommodate the child with learning difficulties in class if their knowledge is limited. Similarly GPs will find it difficult to detect and appropriately refer children with learning difficulties."
There is no cure for the condition. Instead, it is managed through therapy. Occupational therapy or cognitive behavioral therapy can help those living with the condition.
Some people with the condition find it helpful to find alternative ways of carrying out tasks or organizing themselves, such as typing on a laptop instead of writing by hand, or using diaries and calendars to keep organized.
Developmental coordination disorder is a lifelong neurological condition that is more common in males than in females, with a ratio of approximately four males to every female. The exact proportion of people with the disorder is unknown since the disorder can be difficult to detect due to a lack of specific laboratory tests, thus making diagnosis of the condition one of elimination of all other possible causes/diseases. Approximately 5–6% of children are affected by this condition.
Collier first described developmental coordination disorder as 'congenital maladroitness'. A. Jean Ayres referred to developmental coordination disorder as a disorder of sensory integration in 1972, while in 1975 Dr Sasson Gubbay called it the 'clumsy child syndrome'. Developmental coordination disorder has also been called minimal brain dysfunction although the two latter names are no longer in use.
Other names include: Developmental Apraxia, Disorder of Attention and Motor Perception (DAMP) Dyspraxia, Developmental Dyspraxia, Motor Learning Difficulties, Perceptuo-motor dysfunction, Sensorimotor dysfunction.
The World Health Organisation currently lists developmental coordination disorder as Specific Developmental Disorder of Motor Function.
Living people who have publicly stated they have been diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder include actor Daniel Radcliffe,
photographer David Bailey, model Cara Delevingne, singer Florence Welch, and UK politician Emma Lewell-Buck.
- ^ Polatajko H, Fox M, Missiuna C (1995). "An International Consensus on Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder". Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. 62 (1): 3–6. doi:10.1177/000841749506200101.
- ^ a b c d e f Barnhart RC, Davenport MJ, Epps SB, Nordquist VM (August 2003). "Developmental coordination disorder". Physical Therapy. 83 (8): 722–31. PMID 12882613.
- ^ "Consensus Statements". CanChild.
- ^ a b Blank R, Smits-Engelsman B, Polatajko H, Wilson P (January 2012). "European Academy for Childhood Disability (EACD): recommendations on the definition, diagnosis and intervention of developmental coordination disorder (long version)". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 54 (1): 54–93. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2011.04171.x. PMID 22171930.
- ^ a b c Zwicker JG, Missiuna C, Harris SR, Boyd LA (November 2012). "Developmental coordination disorder: a review and update". European Journal of Paediatric Neurology. 16 (6): 573–81. doi:10.1016/j.ejpn.2012.05.005. PMID 22705270.
- ^ a b c d e Henderson SE, Henderson L (2003). "Toward an understanding of developmental coordination disorder: terminological and diagnostic issues". Neural Plasticity. 10 (1-2): 1–13. doi:10.1155/NP.2003.1. PMC 2565424 . PMID 14640303.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Gibbs J, Appleton J, Appleton R (June 2007). "Dyspraxia or developmental coordination disorder? Unravelling the enigma". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 92 (6): 534–9. doi:10.1136/adc.2005.088054. PMC 2066137 . PMID 17515623.
- ^ Magalhães LC, Missiuna C, Wong S (November 2006). "Terminology used in research reports of developmental coordination disorder". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 48 (11): 937–41. doi:10.1017/S0012162206002040. PMID 17044965.
- ^ a b Kirby A, Edwards L, Sugden D, Rosenblum S (2010). "The development and standardization of the Adult Developmental Co-ordination Disorders/Dyspraxia Checklist (ADC)". Research in Developmental Disabilities. 31 (1): 131–9. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2009.08.010. PMID 19819107.
- ^ Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. DSM Library. American Psychiatric Association. 2013-05-22. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm01. ISBN 0890425558.
- ^ Pearsall-Jones JG, Piek JP, Levy F (October 2010). "Developmental Coordination Disorder and cerebral palsy: categories or a continuum?". Human Movement Science. 29 (5): 787–98. doi:10.1016/j.humov.2010.04.006. PMID 20594606.
- ^ "Developmental Coordination Disorder". CanChild (2016-02).
- ^ Evans, Simon. "Dyspraxia Web Links". www.senteacher.org. Retrieved 2018-03-31.
- ^ American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. pp. 74–7. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.
- ^ Harris SR, Mickelson EC, Zwicker JG (June 2015). "Diagnosis and management of developmental coordination disorder". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 187 (9): 659–65. doi:10.1503/cmaj.140994. PMC 4467929 . PMID 26009588.
- ^ Alloway TP, Rajendran G, Archibald LM (2009). "Working memory in children with developmental disorders". Journal of Learning Disabilities. 42 (4): 372–82. doi:10.1177/0022219409335214. PMID 19380495.
- ^ a b c Biggs V (2005). "3 A Survival Guide to School". Caged in chaos : a dyspraxic guide to breaking free. London ; Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ISBN 978-1-84310-347-9. OCLC 57316751.
- ^ a b c Missiuna C, Gaines R, Soucie H, McLean J (October 2006). "Parental questions about developmental coordination disorder: A synopsis of current evidence". Paediatrics & Child Health. 11 (8): 507–12. PMC 2528644 . PMID 19030319.
- ^ a b Geuze RH (2005). "Postural control in children with developmental coordination disorder". Neural Plasticity. 12 (2-3): 183–96; discussion 263–72. doi:10.1155/NP.2005.183. PMC 2565450 . PMID 16097486.
- ^ Wilson PH, McKenzie BE (September 1998). "Information processing deficits associated with developmental coordination disorder: a meta-analysis of research findings". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines. 39 (6): 829–40. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00384. PMID 9758192.
- ^ a b c Polatajko HJ, Cantin N (December 2005). "Developmental coordination disorder (dyspraxia): an overview of the state of the art". Seminars in Pediatric Neurology. 12 (4): 250–8. doi:10.1016/j.spen.2005.12.007. PMID 16780296.
- ^ Rosenblum S (2013). "Handwriting measures as reflectors of executive functions among adults with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD)". Frontiers in Psychology. 4: 357. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00357. PMC 3693067 . PMID 23805113.
- ^ Lacquaniti F (August 1989). "Central representations of human limb movement as revealed by studies of drawing and handwriting". Trends in Neurosciences. 12 (8): 287–91. doi:10.1016/0166-2236(89)90008-8. PMID 2475946.
- ^ Vargha-Khadem F, Gadian DG, Copp A, Mishkin M (February 2005). "FOXP2 and the neuroanatomy of speech and language" (PDF). Nature Reviews. Neuroscience. 6 (2): 131–8. doi:10.1038/nrn1605. PMID 15685218.
- ^ Bacon C, Rappold GA (November 2012). "The distinct and overlapping phenotypic spectra of FOXP1 and FOXP2 in cognitive disorders". Human Genetics. 131 (11): 1687–98. doi:10.1007/s00439-012-1193-z. PMC 3470686 . PMID 22736078.
- ^ Scharff C, Petri J (July 2011). "Evo-devo, deep homology and FoxP2: implications for the evolution of speech and language". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 366 (1574): 2124–40. doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0001. PMC 3130369 . PMID 21690130.
- ^ a b c Kirby A, Sugden DA (April 2007). "Children with developmental coordination disorders". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 100 (4): 182–6. doi:10.1258/jrsm.100.4.182. PMC 1847727 . PMID 17404341.
- ^ Fliers EA, Franke B, Buitelaar JK (2011). "[Motor problems in children with ADHD receive too little attention in clinical practice]". Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde (in Dutch). 155 (50): A3559. PMID 22186361.
- ^ a b c d e f Gillberg C, Kadesjö B (2003). "Why bother about clumsiness? The implications of having developmental coordination disorder (DCD)". Neural Plasticity. 10 (1-2): 59–68. doi:10.1155/NP.2003.59. PMC 2565425 . PMID 14640308.
- ^ Dziuk MA, Gidley Larson JC, Apostu A, Mahone EM, Denckla MB, Mostofsky SH (October 2007). "Dyspraxia in autism: association with motor, social, and communicative deficits". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 49 (10): 734–9. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2007.00734.x. PMID 17880641.
- ^ Jeste SS (April 2011). "The neurology of autism spectrum disorders". Current Opinion in Neurology. 24 (2): 132–9. doi:10.1097/WCO.0b013e3283446450. PMC 3160764 . PMID 21293268.
- ^ Miyahara M (2013). "Meta review of systematic and meta analytic reviews on movement differences, effect of movement based interventions, and the underlying neural mechanisms in autism spectrum disorder". Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience. 7: 16. doi:10.3389/fnint.2013.00016. PMC 3607787 . PMID 23532374.
- ^ Pieters S, Desoete A, Van Waelvelde H, Vanderswalmen R, Roeyers H (2012). "Mathematical problems in children with developmental coordination disorder". Research in Developmental Disabilities. 33 (4): 1128–35. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2012.02.007. PMID 22502838.
- ^ Van Waelvelde H, Hellinckx T, Peersman W, Smits-Engelsman BC (August 2012). "SOS: a screening instrument to identify children with handwriting impairments". Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics. 32 (3): 306–19. doi:10.3109/01942638.2012.678971. PMID 22515913.
- ^ Pickering SJ (2012). "Chapter 2: Working Memory in Dyslexia". In Packiam Alloway T, Gathercole SE. Working Memory and Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-1-135-42134-2.
- ^ Elbasan B, Kayıhan H, Duzgun I (April 2012). "Sensory integration and activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder". Italian Journal of Pediatrics. 38 (1): 14. doi:10.1186/1824-7288-38-14. PMC 3395584 . PMID 22546072.
- ^ a b c Biggs V (2005). "2 The Hidden People at Home". Caged in chaos : a dyspraxic guide to breaking free. London; Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ISBN 978-1-84310-347-9. OCLC 57316751.
- ^ a b Alloway TP, Archibald L (2008). "Working memory and learning in children with developmental coordination disorder and specific language impairment". Journal of Learning Disabilities. 41 (3): 251–62. doi:10.1177/0022219408315815. PMID 18434291.
- ^ Schoemaker MM, van der Wees M, Flapper B, Verheij-Jansen N, Scholten-Jaegers S, Geuze RH (March 2001). "Perceptual skills of children with developmental coordination disorder" (PDF). Human Movement Science. 20 (1-2): 111–33. doi:10.1016/s0167-9457(01)00031-8. PMID 11471393.
- ^ Barkley RA (1990). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford Press. ISBN 0-89862-443-6. OCLC 21335369.
- ^ Cravedi E, Deniau E, Giannitelli M, Xavier J, Hartmann A, Cohen D (2017-12-04). "Tourette syndrome and other neurodevelopmental disorders: a comprehensive review". Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health. 11: 59. doi:10.1186/s13034-017-0196-x. PMC 5715991 . PMID 29225671.
- ^ Miller LJ, Anzalone ME, Lane SJ, Cermak SA, Osten ET (2007). "Concept evolution in sensory integration: a proposed nosology for diagnosis" (PDF). The American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 61 (2): 135–40. doi:10.5014/ajot.61.2.135. PMID 17436834. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-24.
- ^ Alloway TP (January 2007). "Working memory, reading, and mathematical skills in children with developmental coordination disorder". Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 96 (1): 20–36. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2006.07.002. PMID 17010988.
- ^ Alloway TP, Temple K (2007). "A Comparison of Working Memory Profiles and Learning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Moderate Learning Difficulties". Applied Cognitive Psychology. 21 (4): 473–487. doi:10.1002/acp.1284.
- ^ a b Zwicker JG, Harris SR, Klassen AF (July 2013). "Quality of life domains affected in children with developmental coordination disorder: a systematic review". Child. 39 (4): 562–80. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2012.01379.x. PMID 22515477.
- ^ Kirby A, Sugden DA (April 2007). "Children with developmental coordination disorders". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 100 (4): 182–6. doi:10.1177/014107680710011414. PMC 1847727 . PMID 17404341.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Cools W, Martelaer KD, Samaey C, Andries C (June 2009). "Movement skill assessment of typically developing preschool children: a review of seven movement skill assessment tools". Journal of Sports Science & Medicine. 8 (2): 154–68. PMC 3761481 . PMID 24149522.
- ^ Wright HC, Sugden DA (December 1996). "A two-step procedure for the identification of children with developmental co-ordination disorder in Singapore". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 38 (12): 1099–105. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.1996.tb15073.x. PMID 8973295.
- ^ Venetsanou F, Kambas A, Ellinoudis T, Fatouros I, Giannakidou D, Kourtessis T (2011). "Can the movement assessment battery for children-test be the "gold standard" for the motor assessment of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder?". Research in Developmental Disabilities. 32 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2010.09.006. PMID 20940096.
- ^ Ellinoudis T, Evaggelinou C, Kourtessis T, Konstantinidou Z, Venetsanou F, Kambas A (2011). "Reliability and validity of age band 1 of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--second edition". Research in Developmental Disabilities. 32 (3): 1046–51. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2011.01.035. PMID 21333488.
- ^ Schoemaker MM, Niemeijer AS, Flapper BC, Smits-Engelsman BC (April 2012). "Validity and reliability of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 Checklist for children with and without motor impairments". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 54 (4): 368–75. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2012.04226.x. PMID 22320829.
- ^ Venetsanou F, Kambas A, Aggeloussis N, Serbezis V, Taxildaris K (November 2007). "Use of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency for identifying children with motor impairment". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 49 (11): 846–8. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2007.00846.x. PMID 17979863.
- ^ Venetsanou F, Kambas A, Aggeloussis N, Fatouros I, Taxildaris K (August 2009). "Motor assessment of preschool aged children: A preliminary investigation of the validity of the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency - short form". Human Movement Science. 28 (4): 543–50. doi:10.1016/j.humov.2009.03.002. PMID 19443065.
- ^ Lucas BR, Latimer J, Doney R, Ferreira ML, Adams R, Hawkes G, Fitzpatrick JP, Hand M, Oscar J, Carter M, Elliott EJ (September 2013). "The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form is reliable in children living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities". BMC Pediatrics. 13: 135. doi:10.1186/1471-2431-13-135. PMC 3844452 . PMID 24010634.
- ^ Kambas A, Venetsanou F, Giannakidou D, Fatouros IG, Avloniti A, Chatzinikolaou A, Draganidis D, Zimmer R (2012). "The Motor-Proficiency-Test for children between 4 and 6 years of age (MOT 4-6): an investigation of its suitability in Greece". Research in Developmental Disabilities. 33 (5): 1626–32. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2012.04.002. PMID 22543059.
- ^ Schoemaker MM, Flapper B, Verheij NP, Wilson BN, Reinders-Messelink HA, de Kloet A (August 2006). "Evaluation of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire as a screening instrument". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 48 (8): 668–73. doi:10.1017/S001216220600140X. PMID 16836779.
- ^ Hay JA, Hawes R, Faught BE (April 2004). "Evaluation of a screening instrument for developmental coordination disorder". The Journal of Adolescent Health. 34 (4): 308–13. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2003.07.004. PMID 15041000.
- ^ Kirby A, Davies R, Bryant A (2005). "Do teachers know more about specific learning difficulties than general practitioners?". British Journal of Special Education. 32 (3): 122–126. doi:10.1111/j.0952-3383.2005.00384.x. ISSN 0952-3383.
- ^ [www.nhs.uk]
- ^ Gaines R, Missiuna C, Egan M, McLean J (January 2008). "Educational outreach and collaborative care enhances physician's perceived knowledge about Developmental Coordination Disorder". BMC Health Services Research. 8: 21. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-8-21. PMC 2254381 . PMID 18218082.
- ^ Ayres AJ (1972). "Types of sensory integrative dysfunction among disabled learners". The American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 26 (1): 13–8. PMID 5008164.
- ^ a b Willoughby C, Polatajko HJ (September 1995). "Motor problems in children with developmental coordination disorder: review of the literature". The American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 49 (8): 787–94. doi:10.5014/ajot.49.8.787. PMID 8526224.
- ^ Gubbay SS (October 1978). "The management of developmental apraxia". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 20 (5): 643–6. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.1978.tb15283.x. PMID 729912.
- ^ Irvine C (2008-08-17). "Harry Potter's Daniel Radcliffe has dyspraxia". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2010-05-16.
- ^ Walsh, John (2 January 2016). "David Bailey was a scowling, socially mobile rude boy". The Independent.
- ^ Haskell R (19 June 2015). "Cara Delevingne Opens Up About Her Childhood, Love Life, and Why Modeling Just Isn't Enough". Vogue. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- ^ Hussey P (15 May 2008). "Interview: Florence & The Machine". Run Riot. Retrieved 7 March 2010.
- ^ Irvine C (2013-09-28). "'I'd love to wear eyeliner, but that requires a steady hand' Labour MP Emma Lewell-Buck struggled with clumsiness, until a diagnosis of dyspraxia helped her become a politician". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2013-09-28.