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Central Asia is a diverse land with many ethnic groups, languages, religions and tribes. The nations which make up Central Asia are five of the former Soviet republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, which have a total population of about 70 million. Afghanistan is not always considered part of the region, but when it is, Central Asia has a total population of about 122 million (2016). Additionally, Pakistan has a large population of central Asian peoples even though it is not categorized as a central Asian nation. Most central Asians belong to religions which were introduced to the area within the last 1,500 years, such as Sunni Islam, Shia Islam, Ismaili Islam, Tengriism, and Syriac Christianity. Buddhism, however, was introduced to Central Asia over 2,200 years ago, and Zoroastrianism, over 2,500 years ago.
|Ethnic Group||Center of population in Central Asia||Total roughly estimated population in Central Asia|
|Uzbek||Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan||29,000,000|
|Tajik||Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Northern Afghanistan. It includes the Pamiri people, who are officially categorized as Tajiks in Tajikistan.||25,000,000|
|Russians||Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan||4,000,000 |
|Ukrainian||Northern Kazakhstan||250,000 |
|Uyghur||Northwest China, Eastern Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan||13,000,000|
|Dungan or Hui||Northwest China, Kyrgyzstan||10,500,000|
|British People||Afghanistan or perhaps Kazakhstan, possibly a few in Uzbekistan ||1,500-2,000|
|Karakalpaks||North western Uzbekistan||500,000|
|Pashtun||Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan||12,500,000|
|Aimak||Central and Northwest Afghanistan||1,500,000|
|Nuristani||Far eastern and northern Afghanistan||200,000+|
|Belarusians||Northern Kazakhstan||100,000-200,000 |
|Azeri||Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan||100,000|
The ancestry of modern Central Asian populations is significantly derived from the Indo-Iranian and Turkic expansions. Most modern populations can be aligned with either Indo-Iranian or Turkic descent, with ancestry corresponding well with ethnic boundaries. Mongoloid (East Asian) admixture was found to correlate inversely with Alu deletion at the CD4 locus.
Archaeogenetic studies on the remains from Iron Age Pazyryk culture burials suggest that after the end of the Indo-Iranian (Scythian) expansion, beginning in c. the 7th century BC, there was a gradual east-to-west influx of East Eurasian admixture to the Western steppes.
Populations of farmers and nomadic pastoralists coexisted in Central Asia since the Chalcolithic (4th millennium BC). The two groups differ markedly in descent structure, as pastoralists are organized in exogamous patrilineal clan structures, while farmers are organized in extended families practicing endogamy (cousin marriage). As a consequence, pastoralists have a significantly reduced diversity in patrilineal descent (Y-chromosome) compared to farmers.
|Religion||Approximate population||Center of population|
|Sunni Islam||103,000,000  ||South and East of region: Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Krygzstan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Eastern Xinjiang and Southern Kazakhstan.(most dense in Afghanistan and Uzbekistan)|
|Buddhism||9,084,000 ||500,000 in Russia, 8.44 million in Xinjiang, 140,000 people in Kazakhstan and Afghanistan; (Mongols, Koreans, Daur, Mongour, Tungusic peoples, Tibetans, Tuvans, Yugur)|
|Eastern Christianity||4,000,000||Northern Kazakhstan|
|Shia Islam||4,000,000||Hazaras, Central Afghanistan|
|Atheism and Irreligion||2,500,000+||Throughout the region|