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One of the manifestation of decommunization is renaming streets. Before 2017 ulica Anny German in Poznań (Anna German Street) was named in honor of Julian Leński[1]

Decommunization is a process of dismantling the legacies of the communist state establishments, culture, and psychology in the post-communist states. It is sometimes referred to as political cleansing.[2] The term is most commonly applied to the former countries of the Eastern Bloc and the post-Soviet states to describe a number of legal and social changes during their periods of postcommunism.

In some states decommunization included bans on Communist symbols. While sharing common traits the processes of decommunization have run differently in different states.[3][4]

Decommunization organizations

Investigators and prosecutors

Prosecution of former communists

Lustration came to refer to government policies of limiting the participation of former communists, and especially informants of the communist secret police, in the successor political appointee positions or even in civil service positions.

Prosecution of Communist state leaders


Communist parties outside the Baltic states were not outlawed and their members were not prosecuted. Just a few places attempted to exclude even members of communist secret services from decision-making. In a number of countries, the communist party simply changed its name and continued to function.[5]

Stephen Holmes of the University of Chicago argued in 1996 that after a period of active decommunization, it was met with a near-universal failure. After the introduction of lustration, demand for scapegoats has become relatively low, and former communists have been elected for high governmental and other administrative positions. Holmes notes that the only real exception was former East Germany, where thousands of former Stasi informers have been fired from public positions.[6]

Holmes suggests the following reasons for the turnoff of decommunization:[6]

  • After 45–70 years of Communism, nearly every family has members associated with the state. After the initial desire "to root out the reds" came a realization that massive punishment is wrong and finding only some guilty is hardly justice.
  • The urgency of the current economic problems of postcommunism makes the crimes of the communist past "old news" for many citizens.
  • Decommunization is believed to be a power game of elites.
  • The difficulty of dislodging the social elite makes it require a totalitarian state to disenfranchise the "enemies of the people" quickly and efficiently and a desire for normalcy overcomes the desire for punitive justice.
  • Very few people have a perfectly clean slate and so are available to fill the positions that require significant expertise.

Deaths attributed to decommunization

Matthew White found a Los Angeles Times article from 1998 and a Times (of London) article from 2000, which both reported that from 3 to 6 million Russians and natives of other former Communist states died or were not born due to decreased living conditions after the fall of communism.[7]

See also


  1. ^ "German zastąpi działacza komunistycznego". (in Polish). Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  2. ^ Jennifer A. Yoder (1999) "From East Germans to Germans?: The New Postcommunist Elites", ISBN 0-8223-2372-9,, pp. 95–97
  3. ^ Lithuanian ban on Soviet symbols, BBC News, 17 June 2008, retrieved 3 June 2016
  4. ^ Shevchenko, Vitaly (14 April 2015). "Goodbye, Lenin: Ukraine moves to ban communist symbols". BBC News. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  5. ^ After socialism: where hope for individual liberty lies. Svetozar Pejovich.
  6. ^ a b Michael Mandelbaum (Ed., 1996) "Post-Communism: Four Perspectives", Council on Foreign Relations ISBN 0876091869
  7. ^ Hough, Jerry (18 August 1998). "Deaths attributed to decommunization (1991–2000)". LA Times. Retrieved 5 March 2018.