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Debra (community development block)

Debra
Community development block
Debra is located in West Bengal
Debra
Debra
Location in West Bengal, India
Coordinates: 22°23′26″N 87°34′02″E / 22.3906°N 87.5673°E / 22.3906; 87.5673
Country India
StateWest Bengal
DistrictPaschim Medinipur
Government
 • TypeCommunity development block
Area
 • Total342.41 km2 (132.21 sq mi)
Elevation12 m (39 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total288,619
 • Density840/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialBengali, English
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Telephone/STD code03222
ISO 3166 codeIN-WB
Literacy82.03%
Lok Sabha constituencyGhatal
Vidhan Sabha constituencyDebra
Websitepaschimmedinipur.gov.in

Debra is a community development block that forms an administrative division in the Kharagpur subdivision of Paschim Medinipur district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

History

Naxalite movement in Debra-Gopiballavpur

In 1968 many revolutionary intellectuals, broadly termed as Naxalites, settled in Gopiballavpur. Amongst them was Santosh Rana, who was a local person. In September 1969 a guerrilla squad killed an oppressive landlord. The landlords fled to the towns and a big peasant movement began. Landlords’ crops were forcibly harvested. Around 150 people were killed. Santosh Rana was the key figure in virtually “liberating” Debra, Gopiballavpur and neighbouring areas in West Bengal, as well as in Odisha and Jharkhand (then it was Bihar). The movement gradually split and collapsed in the early seventies.[1][2][3]

Geography

Debra CD Block is largely a flood prone marshy wetland. In this block 100% of the cultivated area has highly productive alluvial soil.[4]

Debra is located at 22°23′26″N 87°34′02″E / 22.3906°N 87.5673°E / 22.3906; 87.5673.

Debra CD Block is bounded by Daspur I CD Block in the north, Panskura CD Block, in Purba Medinipur district, in the east, Pingla CD Block in the south and Kharagpur II and Keshpur CD Blocks in the west.

It is located 28 km from Midnapore, the district headquarters.

Debra CD Block has an area of 342.41 km2. It has 1 panchayat samity, 14 gram panchayats, 214 gram sansads (village councils), 477 mouzas and 460 inhabited villages. Debra police station serves this block.[5] Headquarters of this CD Block is at Balichak.[6]

Debra CD Block had a forest cover of 540 hectares, against a total geographical area of 34,231 hectares in 2005-06.[7]

Gram panchayats of Debra block/ panchayat samiti are: Bhabanipur, Bharatpur, Debra I, Debra II,Duan I,Duan II, Golgram, Jalimanda, Khanamohan, Malighati, Radhamohanpur I, Radhamohanpur II, Satyapur and Snarpur Lowada.[8]

Demographics

Population

As per the 2011 Census of India Debra CD Block had a total population of 288,619, of which 274,835 were rural and 13,784 were urban. There were 145,559 (50%) males and 143,060 (50%) females. Population below 6 years was 31,859. Scheduled Castes numbered 37,503 (12.99%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 59,122 (20.48%).[9]

As per 2001 census, Debra block had a total population of 255,196, out of which 129,109 were males and 126,087 were females. Debra block registered a population growth of 15.80 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for the combined Midnapore district was 14.87 per cent.[10] Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.45 per cent.[11]

Census Towns in Debra CD Block are (2011 census figures in brackets): Balichak (13,784).[9]

Large villages (with 4,000+ population) in Debra CD Block are (2011 census figures in brackets): Baragar (4,329).[9]

Other villages in Debra CD Block include (2011 census figures in brackets): Debra (2,347), Bhawanipur (1,700), Bharatpur (826), Golgram (3,984), Malighati (2,379), Satyapur (3,091), Jalimanda (2,263), Duan (3,497), Radhamohanpur (3,604), Khana Mohan (559) and Shanrpur (1,252).[9]

Literacy

As per the 2011 census the total number of literates in Debra CD Block was 210,618 (82.03% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 114,992 (88.78% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 95,626 (75.16% of the female population over 6 years). The gender gap in literacy rates was 13.62%.[9]

Language and religion

Bengali is the local language in these areas.

Religion in Debra CD Block
Hindu
88.16%
Muslim
10.34%
Others
1.50%

In the 2011 census Hindus formed 88.16% and Muslims formed 10.34% of the population. Others including Addi Bassi, Marang Boro, Santal, Saranath, Sari Dharma, Sarna, Alchchi, Bidin, Sant, Saevdharm, Seran, Saran, Sarin, Kheria,[12] Christian and other religious communities.[13] formed 1.50% of the population.[13]

BPL families

In Debra CD Block 37.37% families were living below poverty line in 2007.[14]

According to the District Human Development Report of Paschim Medinipur: The 29 CD Blocks of the district were classified into four categories based on the poverty ratio. Nayagram, Binpur II and Jamboni CD Blocks have very high poverty levels (above 60%). Kharagpur I, Kharagpur II, Sankrail, Garhbeta II, Pingla and Mohanpur CD Blocks have high levels of poverty (50-60%), Jhargram, Midnapore Sadar, Dantan I, Gopiballavpur II, Binpur I, Dantan II, Keshiari, Chandrakona I, Gopiballavpur I, Chandrakona II, Narayangarh, Keshpur, Ghatal, Sabang, Garhbeta I, Salboni, Debra and Garhbeta III CD Blocks have moderate levels of poverty (25-50%) and Daspur II and Daspur I have low levels of poverty (below 25%).[14]

Economy

Infrastructure

458 or 96% of mouzas in Debra CD block were electrified by 31 March 2014.[15]

473 mouzas in Debra CD Block had drinking water facilities in 2013-14. There were 84 fertiliser depots, 36 seed stores and 37 fair price shops in the CD Block.[15]

Agriculture

Persons engaged in agriculture
in Debra CD Block

  Bargadars (6.76%)
  Patta holders (19.74%)
  Small farmers (3.63%)
  Marginal farmers (23.33%)
  Agricultural labourers (46.53%)

Although the Bargadari Act of 1950 recognised the rights of bargadars to a higher share of crops from the land that they tilled, it was not implemented fully. Large tracts, beyond the prescribed limit of land ceiling, remained with the rich landlords. From 1977 onwards major land reforms took place in West Bengal. Land in excess of land ceiling was acquired and distributed amongst the peasants.[16]Following land reforms land ownership pattern has undergone transformation. In 2013-14, persons engaged in agriculture in Debra CD Block could be classified as follows: bargadars 6.76%, patta (document) holders 19.74%, small farmers (possessing land between 1 and 2 hectares) 3.63%, marginal farmers (possessing land up to 1 hectare) 23.33% and agricultural labourers 46.53%.[15]

In 2005-06 the nett cropped area in Debra CD Block was 29,287 hectares and the area in which more than one crop was grown was 25,376 hectares.[17]

The extension of irrigation has played a role in growth of the predominantly agricultural economy.[18]In 2013-14, the total area irrigated in Debra CD Block was 26,730 hectares, out of which 2,200 hectares were irrigated by tank water, 23,700 hectares by deep tubewells and 830 hectares by river lift irrigation.[15]

In 2013-14, Debra CD Block produced 4,635 tonnes of Aman paddy, the main winter crop, from 5,299 hectares, 224 tonnes of Aus paddy (summer crop) from 121 hectares, 65,627 tonnes of Boro paddy (spring crop) from 18,987 hectares, 27 tonnes of wheat from 12 hectares and 135,764 tonnes of potatoes from 5,235 hectares. It also produced pulses and oilseeds.[15]

Banking

In 2013-14, Debra CD Block had offices of 14 commercial banks and 2 gramin banks.[15]

Transport

Debra CD Block has 5 ferry services and 13 originating/ terminating bus routes.[15]

The Howrah-Kharagpur line passes through this CD Block. Balichak is a station on this line.[19]

The Dankuni-Kharagpur sector of NH 16 (old number NH 6) passes through this block.[20]

Education

In 2013-14, Debra CD Block had 206 primary schools with 15,473 students, 13 middle schools with 941 students, 18 high schools with 7,963 students and 21 higher secondary schools with 19,923 students. Debra CD Block had 1 general college with 1,688 students, 2 technical / professional institutions with 200 students and 585 institutions for special and non-formal education with 19,938 students.[15]

The United Nations Development Programme considers the combined primary and secondary enrolment ratio as the simple indicator of educational achievement of the children in the school going age. The infrastructure available is important. In Debra CD Block out of the total 206 primary schools in 2008-2009, 76 had pucca buildings, 54 partially pucca, 6 kucha and 70 multiple type.[21]

Debra Thana Sahid Kshudiram Smriti Mahavidyalaya is a co-educational college established in 2006 at Gangaram Chak. Affiliated to Vidyasagar University, it offers honours courses in Bengali, English, Sanskrit, history, philosophy, geography, education, physics and mathematics.[22]

Healthcare

In 2014, Debra CD had one superspeciality hospital, 1 rural hospital, 5 primary health centres and 14 private nursing homes with total 232 beds and 14 doctors. It had 44 family welfare sub centres and 1 family welfare centre. 5,851 patients were treated indoor and 123,807 patients were treated outdoor in the hospitals, health centres and subcentres of the CD Block.[15]

References

  1. ^ "30 Years of Naxalbari". Naxalbari-type Upsurge – (3) Debra-Gopiballavpur. Revolutionary Publications. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  2. ^ Chaudhuri, Arindam. "Santosh Rana". Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  3. ^ "Interview with Santosh Rana". Seminar, March 2010 (issue on Red Resurgence). Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  4. ^ "District Human Development Report: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). pages 4-5 (About Paschim Medinipur), page 26 (Predominant Soil), pages 265- 268 (Identification of Flood prone areas, Names of drought prone blocks). Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  5. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Paschim Medinipur". Tables 2.1, 2.2. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
  6. ^ "District Census Handbook: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). Map of Paschim Medinipur with CD Block HQs and Police Stations (on the fifth page). Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  7. ^ "District Human Development Report, Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). Table 2.4, Page 28. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, May 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  8. ^ "Directory of District, Subdivision, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal". Purba Medinipur - Revised in March 2008. Panchayats and Rural Development Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  9. ^ a b c d e "C.D. Block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". 2011 census: West Bengal – District-wise CD Blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 3 May 2016.
  10. ^ "Provisional population totals, West Bengal, Table 4, (erstwhile) Medinipur District". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
  11. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  12. ^ "ST-14 A Details Of Religions Shown Under 'Other Religions And Persuasions' In Main Table". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  13. ^ a b "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  14. ^ a b "District Human Development Report: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). May 2011. Page 177. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Paschim Medinipur". Tables 2.1, 8.2, 16.1, 17.2, 18.2, 18.1, 20.1, 21.2, 4.4, 3.1, 3.3 – arranged as per use. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  16. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". (1) Chapter 1.2, South 24 Parganas in Historical Perspective, pages 7-9 (2) Chapter 3.4, Land reforms, pages 32-33. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
  17. ^ "District Human Development Report, Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). Table 2.4, Page 28. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, May 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  18. ^ "District Human Development Report: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). Chapter V: Economic Livelihoods, pages 129-131. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  19. ^ "Kharagpur-Howrah Local 38606". Indiarailinfo. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
  20. ^ "Rationalisation of Numbering Systems of National Highways" (PDF). New Delhi: Department of Road Transport and Highways. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
  21. ^ "District Human Development Report: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). May 2011. Page: 60. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  22. ^ "Debra Thana Sahid Kshudiram Smriti Mahavidyalaya". DTSKSM. Retrieved 5 January 2017.