|Alternative names||Daal, dail, dhal, dahl|
|Place of origin||Indian subcontinent|
|Region or state||Indian subcontinent|
|Main ingredients||Lentils, peas or beans|
Dal (also spelled daal, dail, dhal, dahl; pronunciation: [d̪aːl]) is a term used in the Indian subcontinent for dried, split pulses (legumes) (that is, lentils, peas, and beans). The term is also used for various soups prepared from these pulses. These pulses are among the most important staple foods in South Asian countries, and form an important part of the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent.
The most common way of preparing dal is in the form of a soup to which onions, tomatoes, and various spices may be added. The outer hull may or may not be stripped off. Almost all types of dal come in three forms: (1) unhulled or sabut (meaning whole in Hindi), e.g., sabut urad dal or mung sabut; (2) split with hull left on the split halves is described as chilka (which means skin in Hindi), e.g. chilka urad dal, mung dal chilka; (3) split and hulled or dhuli (meaning washed), e.g., urad dhuli or mung dhuli in Hindi/Urdu.
Dal is frequently eaten with flatbreads such as rotis or chapatis, or with rice. The later combination is called dal bhat in Nepali and Bengali. In addition, certain types of dal are fried and salted and eaten as a dry snack, and a variety of savory snacks are made by frying a paste made from soaked and ground dals in different combinations, to which spices, nuts, cashews, etc. may be added.
Chana dal soup is the variation with added vegetable stock and coconut milk. Chana Dal Farre is easy to prepare, is a quick snack and has its origin in Uttar Pradesh. This snack is prepared using whole wheat flour dumplings with a mixture of ginger, garlic, green chillies and chana dal.
Dal preparations are eaten with rice, roti, chapati, and naan on the Indian subcontinent. The manner in which it is cooked and presented varies by region. In South India, dal is primarily used to make the dish called sambar. It is also used to make pappu that is mixed with charu and rice.
Cooked (boiled) dal contains 9% protein, 70% water, 20% carbohydrates (includes 8% fiber), and 1% fat. It also supplies a rich content (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of the B vitamin, folate (45% DV) and manganese (25% DV), with moderate amounts of thiamine (11% DV) and several dietary minerals, such as iron (19% DV) and phosphorus (18% DV).
Note: Carbohydrates do not include fiber. Source:[ndb.nal.usda.gov]
|cooking Reduction %||10||30||20||25||25||35||0||0||30||10||15||20||10||20||5||10||25|
Note: All nutrient values including protein are in %DV per 100 grams of the food item. Significant values are highlighted in light gray color and bold letters. Cooking reduction = % Maximum typical reduction in nutrients due to boiling without draining for ovo-lacto-vegetables group.
Although dal generally refers to split pulses, whole pulses can be referred to as sabut dhal and split pulses as dhuli dhal.[better source needed] The hulling of a pulse is intended to improve digestibility and palatability, but, as milling of whole grains into refined grains, affects the nutrition provided by the dish, reducing dietary fibre content. Pulses with their outer hulls intact are also quite popular in the Indian subcontinent as the main cuisine. Over 50 different varieties of pulses are known in the Indian subcontinent.
Most dal recipes are quite simple to prepare. The standard preparation begins with boiling a variety of dal (or a mix) in water with some turmeric, salt to taste, and then adding a fried garnish at the end of the cooking process. In some recipes, tomatoes, kokum, unripe mango, jaggery, or other ingredients are addedcooking the dal, often to impart a sweet-sour flavour.
The fried garnish for dal goes by many names, including chaunk, tadka and tarka. The ingredients in the chaunk for each variety of dal vary by region and individual tastes. The raw spices (more commonly cumin seeds, mustard seeds, asafoetida, and sometimes fenugreek seeds and dried red chili pepper) are first fried for a few seconds in the hot oil on medium/low heat. This is generally followed by ginger, garlic, and onion, which are generally fried for 10 minutes. After the onion turns golden brown, ground spices (turmeric, coriander, red chili powder, garam masala, etc.) are added. The chaunk is then poured over the cooked dal.