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|Genre||Dark fantasy, tragedy|
|Written by||Katsura Hoshino|
|Magazine||Weekly Shōnen Jump (May 31, 2004 – May 11, 2009)
Jump Square (November 4, 2009 – December 29, 2012)
Jump SQ.Crown (July 17, 2015 – Present)
|Original run||May 31, 2004 – present|
|Written by||Kaya Kizaki|
|Illustrated by||Katsura Hoshino|
|Original run||May 30, 2005 – December 3, 2010|
|Anime television series|
|Directed by||Osamu Nabeshima
|Written by||Reiko Yoshida|
|Music by||Kaoru Wada|
|Original network||TV Tokyo|
|Original run||October 3, 2006 – September 30, 2008|
|Anime television series|
|Directed by||Yoshiharu Ashino|
|Music by||Kaoru Wada|
|Original network||TV Tokyo, TVO, TVA, BS Japan|
|Original run||July 4, 2016 – September 26, 2016|
D.Gray-man (Japanese: ディー・グレイマン Hepburn: Dī Gureiman) is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Katsura Hoshino. Set in the 19th century, it tells the story of a young Allen Walker, who joins an organization of exorcists named the Black Order. They use an ancient substance, Innocence, to combat a man known as the Millennium Earl and his demonic army of Akuma who intend to destroy humanity. Many characters are adapted from Hoshino's previous works and drafts, such as Zone. The series is noted for its dark narrative; Hoshino once rewrote a scene she thought too violent for her young readers.
The manga began serialization in 2004 in the Weekly Shōnen Jump magazine, published by Shueisha. Production of the series was suspended several times because of Hoshino's health. D.Gray-man made the transition from a weekly to a monthly series in November 2009, when it began serialization in Jump Square. On December 29, 2012, the series went on indefinite hiatus. It resumed serialization on July 17, 2015 after the release of Jump SQ.Crown, a spin-off from the magazine Jump SQ. The manga's chapters have been collected in twenty-five tankōbon volumes. By August 5, 2014, Viz Media had released 24 volumes in the United States.
A spin-off novel series, D.Gray-man Reverse by Kaya Kizaki, explores the history of a number of characters. The manga has been adapted into a 103-episode anime series by TMS Entertainment which aired from October 2006 to September 2008 in Japan and is licensed by Funimation in North America. A 13-episode anime series, D.Gray-Man Hallow, was produced by TMS Entertainment. It aired in Japan from July to September 2016 as a sequel to the first D.Gray-man anime series. Several items of merchandise have been produced, including two video games about the series.
The manga has become one of Shueisha's bestsellers, with over 22.5 million copies sold. In Japan and North America, several individual volumes have appeared in weekly top-ten lists of bestselling manga. Although most reviewers found it similar to other series for the same demographic, they compared its moments of originality and well-developed characters favorably to other shōnen series. Hoshino's artwork has received mixed reviews; critics commented that her characters are visually appealing, but her fight sequences are difficult to follow.
Set in an alternate 19th century, the story focuses on an organization of exorcists, named the Black Order, as they defend humanity against the Noah Family, reincarnations of Noah and his 12 apostles whom bear hatred towards humanity and God led by a man known as the Millennium Earl. The exorcists' main weapon against the Noah Family are sentient holy artifacts called Innocence. Innocence comes in a variety of forms, varying from everyday objects such as boots to grandfather clocks, to weapons such as swords and guns; regardless of their form, each Innocence possesses unique offensive and supportive abilities and will only work for the wielder of their choosing. Out of the 109 Innocence hidden and scattered throughout the world, one of them is the master Innocence; whichever side obtains this Innocence first will win the war. In contrast to the Innocence, the Noah Family's weapons are derived from a power source known as Dark Matter. Dark Matter, grants the Noah superpowers, along with the ability to create and control demons.
The central character is Allen Walker, a new recruit to the Black Order who started training to control his Innocence after it destroyed the Akuma of his late guardian, Mana. The story begins in a villain of the week fashion, where Allen teams up with various members of the Black Order to search for Innocence while battling Noah's demons on the way. Later, Allen and his friends are ordered to track down exorcist General Cross Marian, Allen's missing teacher. Their search concludes with them stealing one of the Noah's transportation device, referred to as the Noah's Ark; this was made possible since Allen has been instilled the consciousness of Nea, the exiled 14th member of the Noah Family who the Earl wishes to have back. During the Third Exorcists insurrection story arc, Nea's consciousness begins superseding Allen's body. Now hunted by the Black Order, the Noah Family, and a humanoid Innocence called Apocryphos, Allen goes into hiding as he searches for a way to end Nea's resurrection.
A draft of D.Gray-man was sent to Shueisha by manga author Katsura Hoshino on a nonspecified date. She had mixed feelings about writing the series, since she had been offered other jobs (such as developing video games). However, Shueisha liked the draft and the staff asked Hoshino to go ahead with the series believing it would be popular in 2004. She had originally intended to write a story about zombies, but was discouraged by her editor T-shi and decided to abandon the idea during the third chapter. Asked about her inspiration for writing about the supernatural, Hoshino said that she feared it after seeing the 1973 film, The Exorcist. Although the horror film frightened her, it inspired the author to design the manga's Akumas.
The area in the series known as Noah's Ark was based on science fiction rather than the supernatural like the Akumas. After conceiving the Ark's role in the series, Hoshino decided to write a song when Allen is rebuilding it through a piano. She requested help from her editor, a university graduate, but decided to use her own lyrics. She blamed it on her own ego.
Elements of D.Gray-man first appeared in Hoshino's one-shot title, Zone, in which the Akuma, the exorcists, and the Millennium Earl plan to end the world. Although Allen Walker is male, his character is based on Zone's female protagonist. Lavi is based on the protagonist of Hoshino's planned series, Book-man, that she originally wanted to write. Other characters, such as the Millennium Earl, Lenalee Lee, and Komui Lee, are based on real people whom Hoshino has not specifically identified; some are well-known scientists, and Komui is based on Hoshino's boss. The character of Yu Kanda, based on a samurai, was created to vary D.Gray-man's Western setting. Hoshino found the design of some characters difficult early in the series. In 2011, the author visited New York for research, and believed that the city had greatly influenced her work. Hoshino visited cemeteries, and was deeply impressed by her guides' comments at Ground zero of the World Trade Center (left after the September 11 attacks). She said that she would like to spend more time in New York to gather data for the series.
After beginning D.Gray-man, Hoshino considered continuing to use the name Zone and also contemplated naming the series Dolls or Black Noah. She chose "D.Gray-man" for its several meanings, most referring to the state of Allen and the other main characters. Although the title's meaning was not completely explained, Hoshino said that the "D" stands for "dear". According to the author, she got most of her ideas for the series while sleeping in her bathtub for six hours. One exception was the second-volume plot, based on a Noh story entitled "Koi no Omoni".
When the manga moved from weekly to monthly serialization in 2009, Hoshino heard concerns from readers about its possible cancellation and reassured them that the series would continue. She set up Kanda's backstory by introducing the Third Exorcists, characters related to him and Alma Karma. In Hoshino's original drafts, Kanda's past had a number of plot holes. A rewritten, published version had a young Kanda walking along a path surrounded by dead people who had cared for him. Due to its violence, the image was replaced with one in which Kanda learns that Alma Karma had killed them all. When the chapters were collected into a volume, Hoshino added a small chapter which included the corpses.
The author noted that the character of Lavi was popular with fans, placing third in a poll (behind Allen and Kanda) despite infrequent appearances in later story arcs, and she promised that Lavi would return. The story arc involving Alma Karma, featuring several characters, was difficult for the author; as a result, the next arc in which Allen leaves the Black Order contained fewer characters per chapter due to its different format. The character of Apocryphos was introduced to hint at the Heart, a plot element briefly described in a past storyline which would later reappear. Due to Jump Square's (the manga's magazine at the time) readership—older men, rather than children—Hoshino found Allen the most difficult character to write. She does not want Allen's problems in recent story arcs to lead to portraying him as a troubled teenager, preferring to show him as a cheerful person with a balance of strength and sorrow. After D.Gray-man's dark narrative, Hoshino plans to write more lighthearted series in the future.
According to Hoshino, the series' main theme focuses on tragedy. Many characters such as Allen across the series suffer poor fates such as losing a loved one and being tempted to revive them by the Earl. Although this works, the people are revived as Akumas who consume the skin of their loved ones. This has led to state that an initial theme is that people should not be brought back to life. Although some characters like Kanda express unconditional love to Alma, their happiness is short-lived due to Alma dying shortly after this with another writer finding fitting for the series' dark narrative. Additionally, Allen's life becomes sadder across the series as he is forced to abandon the Black Order due to the Pope removing his rights as an exorcist and he is treated as Noah due to his connections with these characters. Nevertheless, Hoshino still tried to make it fun for the readers, stating that Allen will always have allies.
In the book Representing Multiculturalism in Comics and Graphic Novels Carolene Ayaka states another theme set in the series is identity. This is reflected in Allen and the exorcists familiarizing themselves with their own supernatural powers in order to become more humanize themselves. On the other hand, Allen's revelation that he is the 14th Noah which makes him less human. Another theme is grief, as seen in the Millennium Earl's appearance as a tired, middle-aged man who is constantly searching for a former comrade, Nea. Hoshino believes that the Millennium Earl, the series' main antagonist, would fit the manga's demographic. In the book Anime and Philosophy: Wide Eyed Wonder Josef Steiff and Tristan D. Tamplin discuss how D.Gray-man, alongside Spriggan and Ulysses 31, focus on the "end of the world" with D.Gray-man and Spriggan taking references from the blibical flood.
During production of the first anime adaptation, the author often visited the TMS Entertainment studio, where the voice actors requested advice about their characters. Although Hoshino was nervous about talking with them, she was surprised by their dedication in practising their characters—particularly Sanae Kobayashi (Allen), Takahiro Sakurai (Kanda), Katsuyuki Konishi (Komui), and Hiroki Tōchi (Cross Marian)—and joked that Lenalee seemed more beautiful after she saw Shizuka Itō's work. Early in production, Hoshino was shown an early version of the first opening theme: "Innocent Sorrow" by the Japanese rock band Abingdon Boys School. When she saw the video, Hoshino began to cry in delight while the staff laughed to her. Tyki Mikk's voice actor, Toshiyuki Morikawa, remembered the recording sessions for the series as "lively" because of the presence of many popular actors. After the anime finished, the actors (who became friends during production) kept in touch.
The anime's sequel was subtitled Hallow, referring to Halloween; the holiday celebrates the "revival of the dead", and TMS Entertainment celebrated the "revival of the D.Gray-man anime series". Although it is a sequel, Hoshino called it a completely new D.Gray-man anime and thanked fans for following it. The original Japanese actors were replaced, with Ayumu Murase voicing Allen and Shinnosuke Tachibana voicing Howard Link; both anime adaptations retained most of Funimation's English-language cast. In the English version, Allen was voiced by Todd Haberkorn, who said that voicing the character was a career highlight.
Written and drawn by Hoshino, the D.Gray-man manga began its serializion in Shueisha's Weekly Shōnen Jump on May 31, 2004. The series went on hiatus several times due to issues with Hoshino's health. Publication resumed on March 9, 2009. The series reappeared in the seasonal magazine Akamaru Jump on August 17. After its run in Akamaru Jump, D.Gray-Man resumed publication on November 4, 2009 in the monthly magazine Jump SQ. The manga began another hiatus on December 29, 2012, beginning serialization again on July 17, 2015 in the quarterly Jump SQ.Crown. Individual chapters have been published in tankōbon format by Shueisha. The first complete volume was published on October 9, 2004, and the 25th volume, and last as of 2017, appeared on June 3, 2016.
At the 2005 San Diego Comic-Con International, D.Gray-man was licensed for English-language publication in North America by Viz Media. The company published the first collected volume of the series on May 2, 2006 and the 24th volume on August 5, 2014. The twenty-fifth volume is set to be released on May 2, 2017. Viz Media reissued the series in a 3-in-1 format, publishing eight 3-volumes-in-1 editions from July 2, 2013 to November 3, 2015. Madman Entertainment published Viz's 24-volume English edition in Australia and New Zealand, from August 10, 2008 to September 10, 2014.
In June 2006, Shueisha announced that the D.Gray-man manga would be adapted as an anime. Its first episodes were directed by Osamu Nabeshima and produced by Dentsu, TMS Entertainment, Aniplex, and TV Tokyo. TMS Entertainment provided the animation, while Aniplex provided the music. The series began airing on October 3, 2006 on TV Tokyo. The anime's 51-episode first season, known as the "1st stage", ended on September 25, 2007. The 52-episode second season, known as the "2nd stage", began on October 2, 2007 and ended on September 30, 2008, for a total of 103 episodes. The anime adapts the manga's storyline from the beginning and concludes after the destruction of the Black Order headquarters. The episodes were released by Aniplex on 26 DVDs from February 7, 2007 to March 4, 2009.
The English-language versions of the first 51 episodes was licensed by Funimation in May 2008, and released in North America on DVD from March 31, 2009 to January 5, 2010. The anime made its North American television debut on the Funimation Channel in September 2010. The first 51 episodes were released on four DVDs by Madman Entertainment from August 19, 2009 to May 13, 2010, and a DVD box set was released on June 6, 2012. In the United Kingdom, Manga Entertainment released the first season in four parts from February 22 to October 18, 2010. A box set was released on December 6, 2010. On June 30, 2016, it was announced that Funimation had acquired the rights to the anime's second season. In August 2017, Funimation announced they would release the series' second half on home media version starting on October of the same year. In August, Crunchyroll started streaming the first 25 episodes of the series.
A second TV anime series was announced at Shueisha's 2016 Jump Festa. Hoshino called the new series a sequel of the first anime, rather than a reboot. It starts where the first series finished and ends with Allen's departure from the Order. The new series, D.Gray-man Hallow, directed by Yoshiharu Ashino and written by Michiko Yokote, Tatsuto Higuchi, and Kenichi Yamashita, has character designs by Yosuke Kabashima and music by Kaoru Wada. Crunchyroll aired the series on its channel. It aired on TV Tokyo from July 4 to September 26, 2016, and was broadcast on Animax Asia. Hallow's home-media release was delayed, and in March 2017, the official D.Gray-man Hallow website stated the home media release was cancelled due to "various circumstances".
The music for the D.Gray-man anime series was composed by Kaoru Wada, and four CD soundtracks have been released in Japan by Sony Music Entertainment. The first, 34-track D.Gray-man Original Soundtrack 1 (including its first opening theme and the first two ending themes), was released on March 21, 2007. It was followed by the 32-track CD D.Gray-man Original Soundtrack 2, released on December 19, 2007, which includes the series' second opening theme and its third and fourth closing themes. The series' opening and closing themes were collected on a CD, D.Gray-man Complete Best, which was released on September 24, 2008. Its limited edition includes a DVD with credit-less footage of the series' introduction and closing scenes and anime illustrations.
The third soundtrack, D.Gray-man Original Soundtrack 3 with 31 tracks, was released in Japan on December 17, 2008. It includes the series' third and fourth opening themes, the fifth to eighth closing themes and the insert song "Hands Sealed With a Kiss" (つないだ手にキスを Tsunaida Te Ni Kisu o) by Sanae Kobayashi (Allen Walker's first Japanese voice actor). Another soundtrack, based on the Hallow sequel, was released on September 28, 2016. Entitled D.Gray-man Hallow Original Soundtrack, the 40-track release includes the opening and closing themes of the Hallow series.
Two D.Gray-man adventure games, based on the first anime series, have been released. The first, D.Gray-man: Kami no Shitotachi (D.Gray-man 神の使徒達, lit. "D. Gray-man The Apostles of God") for Nintendo DS, was released in Japan by Konami on March 29, 2007 with Allen and his comrades as playable characters. The second, D.Gray-man: Sousha no Shikaku (D.Gray-man 奏者ノ資格, lit. "D. Gray-man Player"), was released for PlayStation 2 on September 11, 2008. In it, Allen trains in the Asian headquarters of the Black Order to regain powers lost after a previous battle so he can rejoin his allies to fight the Akuma and Noah. Allen and other series characters appear in the Nintendo DS fighting game Jump Super Stars and its sequel, Jump Ultimate Stars, and he is a supporting character in the fighting game J-Stars Victory VS.
A three-volume light novel based on the manga series, D.Gray-man: Reverse by Kaya Kizaki, was published by Shueisha. The first volume, published on May 30, 2005, focuses on Allen's journey to the Black Order after he finishes his exorcism training, Yu Kanda's mission to find a witch, and Asian branch head Bak Chan, who tries to learn how Komui Lee was elected European branch head (instead of himself). The second volume, published on July 4, 2006, is set in the Black Order. Allen and other characters attend a party, Lavi trains to be the next Bookman before he meets Allen, and the Millennium Earl searches for people to create Akuma. The third volume was published on December 3, 2010. Its first chapter follows Black Order scientist Rohfa's search for Allen, with whom she is infatuated. In the second chapter, Allen lives with a circus as a child after he is abandoned by his parents.
Several other series-related books also exist published by Shueisha. The D.Gray-man Official Fanbook: Gray Ark was published on June 4, 2008, and TV Animation D.Gray-man Official Visual Collection: Clown Art on September 4. Three omnibus editions were published on November 13 and December 11, 2009 and January 15, 2010. They were followed by an illustrated book, D.Gray-man Illustrations Noche, on February 4, 2010. Noche was published by Viz Media on December 6, 2011. The artist's book also contains two interviews with Hoshino and manga artists Osamu Akimoto and Takeshi Obata. D.Gray-man Character Ranking Book, a compilation of character popularity polls with character profiles by Hoshino and the one-shot "Exorcist no Natsu Yasumi" (エクソシストの夏休み, lit. "Exorcist's Summer Vacation"), was published on July 4, 2011. A new book, D.Gray-man Official Fan Book - Gray Log (Gray's Memory), will be released in Japan on August 4, 2017.
The manga has been popular in Japan. One of Weekly Shōnen Jump's bestselling series, individual volumes have appeared on annual Japanese top-50 manga sales lists; in 2008, volumes 14, 15, and 16 were on the list. Later volumes were also Japanese bestsellers. In October 2016, the series had a Japanese circulation of over 22.5 million copies. Manga author Katsura Hoshino is grateful to the editors assisting her to the point of saying that she owes the series' success to them.
Volumes of Viz's English version of the series have appeared on bestselling manga lists in the New York Times and Nielsen BookScan. In its summer 2008 and Q3 2008 lists, ICv2 ranked D.Gray-man the 15th-bestselling manga property in North America. In 2009 and 2010, the series was North America's bestselling shōnen property and the bestselling manga overall. It was ranked as the 24th and 23rd North American manga property on ICv2's Top 25 Manga list in 2011 and 2012, respectively.
Zassosha's manga magazine, Puff, ranked the series the seventh-best long-story manga of 2006. In France, it received the Best Manga Series of 2006 award at the Anime and Manga 2007 French Grand Prix (organized by Animeland) and the 2006 Manga of the Year award from Webotaku. The anime DVDs have also been popular, ranking high on several Japanese animation DVD lists from 2007 to 2009, and the series was listed as a most-watched anime of the week. Its novelizations were also well-received; the second volume was the third-bestselling novel in Japan in 2006. D.Gray-man's characters have also inspired cosplay.
Reception of the series has been generally positive. In his review of volume one, Carlo Santos of Anime News Network said that certain plot points "come out of nowhere" and the story was kept from its full potential due to finding some points like the designs generic. However, he enjoyed the series' quick-moving plot, exposition, and backstory. A.E. Sparrow of IGN also reviewed the first volume, comparing the series' antagonist to three of Batman's villains due to his likeability despite his role. Sparrow also enjoyed Allen's characterization based on his tragic backstory. Calling the early volumes an "amateur comic", reviewer Leroy Douresseaux of comicbookbin.com noted that the plot and art improved significantly with each volume. Ross Liversidge of the UK Anime Network enjoyed the first three volumes; Hoshino had "an excellent quality of storytelling" in juggling dark plot, light comedy and appealing characters. According to Brian Henson of Mania Beyond Entertainment, the series became better over time; although some elements seemed derivative, it developed a unique identity. Yussif Osman of Japanator said that the characters were some of the deepest seen in shōnen manga, citing Lavi's backstory and the Noah Family.
Later volumes were also praised; Otaku USA's Joseph Luster appreciated the series' battles and Allen's development. The revelation that Allen would be an enemy of the Order and the 14th Noah was well received by Grant Goodman of Pop Culture Shock and Chris Beveridge of the Fandom Post. However, Goodman criticized early-volume reliance on comedy rather than plot. Beveridge and Erkael of Manga News were impressed with Kanda's dark past. Douresseaux liked Allen's situation in volume 21 (due to the character's connections with the Noah), and wanted to see more of that and less of Kanda's fight with Alma Karma.
Hoshino's art received mixed reviews. According to Casey Brienza of ANN, as of volume twelve, the battles were "practically unintelligible" yet liked the rest of the artwork. She described Hoshino's drawing style as the "aesthetic yet dynamic, superbly beautiful yet super-violent" style made famous by female manga artists arising from the late-1980s and early-1990s dōjinshi subculture, citing Clamp and Yun Kōga as examples. Brienza also talked about Hoshino's character designs, believing fans of both sexes would find them appealing. Douresseaux called Hoshino's art "highly stylish" and reminiscent of work by Joe Madureira, Kelley Jones, and Chris Bachalo. Describing her backgrounds as eerie and Lovecraftian, Douresseaux wrote that Hoshino made appealing scenes that combined both gothic and violent elements. Brian Henson criticized changes made to the Viz Media version, such as the replacement of Japanese sound effects with less-appealing ones and awkward translations of character names.
According to Funimation Entertainment president and CEO Gen Fukunaga, the anime series was popular in Japan and the United States. Carl Kimlinger of Anime News Network reviewed the first episode, calling it derivative with "absolutely nothing original" but not boring. Noting that Allen's use of the anti-Akuma weapon might seem clichéd, Todd Douglass Jr. of DVD Talk found its use in the anime entertaining. Active Anime's Sandra Scholes and UK Anime Network's Kevin Leathers enjoyed the anime series and, similarly to Douglass, found its small borrowings from other series appealing. Both reviewers praised Allen Walker's characterization. Anime Insider's Kimberly Morales said that the series' animation quality varied and although the story was appealing, voice actor Travis Willingham was miscast as Kanda. However, Morales liked the series and its cast overall. Tom Tonhat of Escapist praised the cast due to how it inspired multiple cosplaying and noted the impact of the Earl's characterization as it involved about how the dead cannot be brought back to life.
UK Anime's Kevin Leathers criticized its lack of entertaining story arcs, and Anime News Network's Casey Brienza called the anime a poor adaptation of the manga. Allen's English-language voice actor, Todd Haberkorn, said that anime sales were poor despite generally-positive reviews; he suggested that fans buy DVDs on sale to keep the series from being cancelled.
The anime's sequel, D.Gray-man Hallow, was one of the most-anticipated anime series of summer 2016 by followers of Anime News Network and the Japanese web portal goo. Since he had not watched the original anime for some time, Alex Osborn of IGN appreciated the brief exposition in the sequel's first episode to remind the audience of the plot. Although he enjoyed the interaction among the main cast, Osborn was confused by the revelation that Allen would become the 14th Noah and had to watch the scene again in order to understand it. In a later review, Osborn said he was amazed by Allen's first possession by the 14th Noah; although it was "disturbing", it enhanced the character's development. Anne Laurenroth remarked Kanda's character development in Hallow, particularly his fight against Alma Karma and his return to the Order in the finale. Laurenroth noted Hallow's poor animation and pacing but, although most of its episodes were grim, its final moments were upbeat.
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