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Dülük

Dülük
Village
Dülük is located in Turkey
Dülük
Dülük
Location in Turkey
Coordinates: 37°09′N 37°22′E / 37.150°N 37.367°E / 37.150; 37.367
Country Turkey
ProvinceGaziantep Province
DistrictŞehitkamil
Elevation
950 m (3,115 ft)
Population
 (2012)
 • Total2,256
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
27000
Area code(s)0342
Licence plate27

Dülük (Armenian: Տլուք, romanizedTlukʿ) is a village in Şehitkamil district, a district of Greater Gaziantep, Turkey. At 37°09′N 37°22′E / 37.150°N 37.367°E / 37.150; 37.367, it is about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from Gaziantep city center. The population of Dülük was 2,256[1] as of 2012. As ancient Doliche (Greek: Δολίχη), a former bishopric, it remains a Latin Catholic titular see.

History

Finds in Tell Dülük include stone tools from 30-40 thousand years ago. These tools are from a Neolithic culture, unofficially dubbed the "Dulicien culture" by researchers.

Hittite period

During the Hittite period, it was a stop on the road connecting the Mediterranean to Mesopotamia. It was also a religious center. The sanctuary of the Hittite god Teshub was just to the north of the village.[2]

Hellenistic period

In the literary sources, the existence of the hellenistic colony is not attested before the 2nd century BC. It is speculated that part of the original colonial population of Doliche came from the homonymous Thessalian city. The discovery of Rhodean amphorea handles suggest communications with the Aegean Sea during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC.[3] The Seleucids adopted the worship of the local storm-god as Zeus Dolichenus, identified with Baal.[4] At this time it was a small city on the road from Germanicia to Zeugma.[4]

Doliche was at one time considered to belong to the ancient region of Cyrrhestica.[4] It was ruled by the Kingdom of Commagene "for about 35 years";[5] after being governed by Antiochus Theos, it might have been incorporated into the Roman province of Syria as early as 31 BCE.[6]

Roman period

Commagene was definitively annexed to the Roman Empire in 72 CE.[7] It was incorporated into the Roman province of Syria, Under Roman rule, Doliche remained part of the region of Commagene, a region of the Roman province of Syria, and as that was portioned of the provinces Coele-Syria and ultimately of Syria Euphratensis.

The worship of Jupiter Dolichenus became widespread from the mid-second to the mid-third century CE, particularly though not exclusively in the Roman army.[8] A number of religious monuments of Jupiter Dolichenus refer to him as the "god of the Commagenians".[9]

Doliche struck its own coins from the reign of Marcus Aurelius to Caracalla.[10] Archaeological finds in Doliche include an underground Mithraic temple, rock graves and stone quarries from which giant rock blocks are produced.

The Marcianus (Ancient Greek: Μαρκιανὸς), who was Apollonius of Athens follower, was from Doliche.[11]

In 2014, a team of German archaeologists from the University of Münster announced the excavation of a relief depicting an Iron Age deity previously unknown to them on a stele among the remains of Mar Solomon,[12] a medieval monastery uncovered during 2010 excavations in Doliche. The monastery had been known only through writings indicating that it had been used through the era of the crusades. The University of Münster's Asia Minor Research Centre has been conducting excavation work at the main sanctuary of Jupiter Dolichenus under the direction of Engelbert Winter and Michael Blömer and is supported by the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgesellschaft, DFG). The international group consists of archaeologists, historians, architects, conservators, archaeozoologists, geoinformation scientists, and excavation workers. Winter's field work at the sanctuary dates back to 2001.

Medieval history

The town, of strategic importance due to its location at the intersection of roads linking the major cities of the region, was conquered by Iyad ibn Ghanm during the first decades of the Muslim conquests. It hence became a frontier outpost of the nascent Islamic Caliphate against the Byzantine Empire, forming part of the fortified frontier zone (al-'Awasim) after the reign of Harun al-Rashid.[13]

In the middle of the 10th century, it played a role in the conflict between resurgent Byzantium and the Hamdanid emirate of Sayf al-Dawla, and was retaken by the Byzantines in 962.[13] The town again became a battleground during the Crusades until it was definitely captured by atabeg Nur al-Din of Aleppo in 1155; by that time, it had declined to obscurity, its fortress in ruins and the once prosperous town reduced to a small village.[13]

During the Crusades, the town was called Tulupa, and part of the Crusader County of Edessa.

Ecclesiastical history

Doliche was an episcopal see, suffragan of the Metropolitan of Hierapolis Bambyce (capital of Euphratensis, in the civil diocese of Oriens), in the sway of the patriarchate of Antioch.

The names of eight of its Byzantine bishops are known :

The see figures in the first Notitiae Episcopatuum,[16] about 840. There is a dubious claim that Doliche later took the place of Hierapolis as metropolis.[17]

Although the Arab conquest wiped the Byzantine institutions, Christianity persisted. Fourteen Jacobite Bishops are known from the eighth to ninth century.[10][18]

Titular see

The diocese was nominally restored in the eighteenth century by the Roman Catholic Church as Latin titular bishopric of Doliche (Latin = Curiate Italian) / Dolichen(us) (Latin).[10]

It is vacant, having had the following incumbents, so far of the fitting Episcopal (lowest) rank :

BIOS TO ELABORATE
  • Miguel Saturnino Aurrecoechea Palacios, Capuchin Franciscans (O.F.M. Cap.) (1955.12.19 – 1997.09.08)
  • Yves-Joseph-Marie Plumey, Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate (O.M.I.) (later Archbishop) (1953.03.24 – 1955.09.14)
  • Pierre-Marie-Joseph Puech (1947.06.07 – 1952.03.18)
  • Johannes Michael Buckx, Dehonians (S.C.I.) (1923.05.23 – 1946.09.22)
  • Alberto Bitter (later Archbishop) (1893.06.15 – 1922.10.09)
  • Francesco Gandolfi (1882.01.24 – 1892.02.22)

References

  1. ^ Statistical Institute[permanent dead link]
  2. ^ Ministry of Culture and Tourism page (in Turkish)
  3. ^ Getzel_M._Cohen, The Hellenistic Settlements in Syria, the Red Sea and Africa, California University Press, 2006, ISBN 0-520-24148-7, p. 156.
  4. ^ a b c Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition, 1911, s.v. Aintab, p. 441.
  5. ^ Michael Blömer; Engelbert Winter (2011). Commagene: The Land of the Gods between the Taurus and the Euphrates. Homer Kitabevi. p. 19. ISBN 978-9944-483-35-3.
  6. ^ Fergus Millar (1993). The Roman Near East, 31 BC – AD 337. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 453. ISBN 0-674-77885-5.
  7. ^ Ewald, Heinrich (1886). The history of Israel, Volume 8. Longmans, Green, & Co. p. 23.
  8. ^ Michael Speidel (1978). The Religion of Jupiter Dolichenus in the Roman Army. Leiden: Brill.
  9. ^ CIL III, 07834; CIL III, 07832; AE 1988, 00962.
  10. ^ a b c d Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907-1912
  11. ^ Philostratus, Lives of the Sophists, §2.26.1
  12. ^ Cluster of Excellence, Unique Roman relief discovered: Depiction of unknown god in Turkey; Relics from 2,000 years of cult history excavated, ScienceDaily, 10 November 2014. (with image of the deity)
  13. ^ a b c Sourdel, Dominique (1991). "Dulūk". The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume II: C–G. Leiden and New York: BRILL. p. 624. ISBN 90-04-07026-5.
  14. ^ Brooks, The Sixth Book of Select Letters of Severus, London, 1904, II, 89, 90, 345-350, 352)
  15. ^ Lequien (Or. Christ., II, 937)
  16. ^ ed. Parthey
  17. ^ Vailhe, in Échos d'Orient, X, 94 sqq. and 367 sqq.)
  18. ^ "Revue de l'Orient chretien", VI, 195

Sources and external links

Bibliography - ecclesiastical history
  • Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 436
  • Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, vol. II, coll. 937-940
  • Konrad Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, vol. 3, p. 187; vol. 6, p. 198
  • Franz Cumont, Etudes syriennes, Paris 1917, pp. 173 seq.
  • Raymond Janin, lemma 'Doliché', in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. XIV, Paris 1960, coll. 578-580