Left to right: eclectic tenement house, fountain at Stanisław Staszic Park, view of May Third Park and Jasna Góra Monastery, view of Holy Virgin Mary Avenue, Częstochowa City Hall
Jasne, że Częstochowa
(Of course Częstochowa)
|• Mayor||Krzysztof Matyjaszczyk (SLD)|
|• City||160 km2 (60 sq mi)|
(31 December 2018)
|• City||222,292 (13th)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
42-200 to 42-229, 42-263, 42-271, 42-280, 42-294
|Area code(s)||+48 34|
Częstochowa (// CHEN-stə-KOH-və, Polish: [tʂɛ̃stɔˈxɔva] (listen)) is a city in southern Poland on the Warta River with 222,292 inhabitants, making it the thirteenth-largest city in Poland. It is situated in the Silesian Voivodeship (administrative division) since 1999, and was previously the capital of the Częstochowa Voivodeship (1975–1998). However, Częstochowa is historically part of Lesser Poland, not of Silesia, and before 1795 (see: Partitions of Poland), it belonged to the Kraków Voivodeship. Częstochowa is located in the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland. It is the 13th most populous city in Poland. It is the largest economic, cultural and administrative hub in the northern part of the Silesian Voivodeship.
The city is known for the famous Pauline monastery of Jasna Góra, which is the home of the Black Madonna painting (Polish: Jasnogórski Cudowny obraz Najświętszej Maryi Panny Niepokalanie Poczętej), a shrine to the Virgin Mary. Every year, millions of pilgrims from all over the world come to Częstochowa to see it. The city also was home to the Frankism movement in the late 18th and the 19th century. There is also a Lusatian culture excavation site and museum in the city, and ruins of a medieval castle in Olsztyn, approximately 25 kilometres (16 miles) from the city centre (see also Trail of the Eagles' Nests).
The name of Częstochowa means Częstoch's place and comes from a personal name of Częstoch mentioned in the medieval documents also as Częstobor and Częstomir. Variations of the name include Czanstochowa used in 1220, and Częstochow used in 1382 and 1558. A part of today's city called Częstochówka was a separate municipality mentioned in the 14th century as the Old Częstochowa (Antiquo Czanstochowa, 1382) and Częstochówka in 1470-80. The city was also known in German as Tschenstochau and in Russian as Ченстохов (Chenstokhov).
According to archaeological findings, the first Slavic settlement in the location of Częstochowa was established in the late 11th century. It was first mentioned in historical documents from 1220, when Bishop of Kraków Iwo Odrowąż made a list of properties of the Mstów monastery. Two villages, Częstochowa and Częstochówka were mentioned in the document. Both of them belonged to the basic territorial unit of Slavic tribes (opole), with its capital at Mstów. Częstochówka was located on a hill on which the Jasna Góra Monastery was later built. In the late 13th century Częstochowa became the seat of a Roman Catholic parish church, which was subjected to the Lelów deanery. The village was located in northwestern corner of Kraków Land, Lesser Poland, near the Royal Castle at Olsztyn. Częstochowa lay along a busy merchant road from Lesser Poland to Greater Poland. The village was ruled by a starosta, who stayed at the Olsztyn Castle. It is not known when Częstochowa was granted town charter, as no documents have been preserved. It happened some time between 1356 - 1377. In 1502, King Alexander Jagiellon granted a new charter, based on Magdeburg rights to Częstochowa. In 1382 the Paulist monastery of Jasna Góra was founded by Vladislaus II of Opole - the Polish Piast prince of Upper Silesia. Two years later the monastery received its famous Black Madonna icon of the Virgin Mary and in subsequent years became a centre of pilgrimage, contributing to the growth of the adjacent town.
Częstochowa prospered in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, due to efforts of Sigismund I the Old, the future king of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. At that time, Sigismund ruled the Duchy of Głogów, and frequently visited Częstochowa on his way to the Duchies of Silesia (1498, 1502, 1502, 1503, 1505, 1505, 1506). In 1504, Częstochowa was granted the right to collect tolls on the Warta river bridge. In 1508, Częstochowa was allowed to organize one fair a year; in 1564, the number of fairs was increased to three annually, and in 1639 to six. In the year 1631, Częstochowa had 399 houses, but at the same time, several residents died in a plague, after which 78 houses were abandoned.
In the first half of the 17th century, kings of the House of Vasa turned the Jasna Góra Monastery into a modern Dutch-style fortress, which was one of the pockets of Polish resistance against the Swedish armies during Swedish invasion of Poland in 1655 (for more information, see Siege of Jasna Góra). The town of Częstochowa itself was almost completely destroyed by Swedish soldiers. It has been estimated that the town lost 50% of population, and 60% of houses. Nevertheless, the destruction was less severe than at other towns in the area (Przyrów, Olsztyn and Mstów). It took several years for Częstochowa to recover from extensive losses. As late as in the 1680s there still were ruined houses in the town. At the same time, the Jasna Góra Monastery prospered. On February 27, 1670, the wedding of king Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki with princess Eleanor of Austria took place here. Furthermore, in 1682 the celebration of 300 anniversary of the Black Madonna of Częstochowa brought thousands of pilgrims from both Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Silesia. The Jewish community in Częstochowa came into existence by about 1700.
During the Great Northern War, Częstochowa was captured by Swedish army on August 11, 1702. In February 1703 Swedes besieged the monastery, but failed to seize it. In April 1705 the Swedes returned, and appeared at the monastery again in September 1709. Unable to capture the fortified stronghold, they looted villages in the area, set Częstochowa on fire and left towards Wieluń. At that time, a village of Częstochówk also existed next to Częstochowa. The village belonged to the monastery and quickly developed. In 1717 it was granted town charter, and its name was changed into Nowa Częstochowa (New Częstochowa). The town was completely destroyed during the Bar Confederation. On February 8, 1769, the monastery was seized by rebels of the Bar Confederation, commanded by Kazimierz Pułaski. Soon the stronghold was besieged by Russians under German-born General Johann von Drewitz. The Russians gave up on January 15, 1771.
In 1789, the population of Częstochowa (also called Stara Częstochowa, Old Częstochowa) was app. 1,600, which was less than in the 15th century. After the Sejm passed the Constitution of May 3, 1791, local Sejmiks were obliged to legitimize it. On February 14–15, 1792, a sejmik of the szlachta of northern part of Kraków Voivodeship (counties of Lelów and Książ Wielki) took place in Częstochowa. Traditionally, local sejmiks were organized in Żarnowiec; the fact that it was moved to Częstochowa confirms growing importance of the town. In 1760, Jacob Frank, the leader of a Jewish sect mixing Kabbalah, Catholicism and Islam, was imprisoned for heresy in the monastery by the church. His followers established near him, later establishing a cult of his daughter Eve Frank. In August 1772, Frank was released by the Russian general Bibikov, who had taken occupation of the city, promising the Russians that he would convince Jews to convert to Orthodox Christianity.
During the Partitions of Poland, Częstochowa was seized by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1793, and incorporated into the province of South Prussia, Department of Kalisz (Kalisch). The Old Częstochowa became the seat of a county (see Districts of Prussia). During the Napoleonic Wars, in 1807 Częstochowa became part of the Duchy of Warsaw, and in 1815, Russian-controlled Congress Poland, in which it remained until World War One. Old Częstochowa remained the seat of a county in 1807–1830. In 1809, the monastery was unsuccessfully besieged by Austrians (see Polish–Austrian War). On April 2, 1813, Jasna Góra was seized by the Russians (see War of the Sixth Coalition), after a two-week siege.
In 1821, the government of Congress Poland carried out a census, according to which the population of New Częstochowa was 1,036, while the population of Old Częstochowa was 2,758. Furthermore, almost four hundred people lived in several settlements in the area (Zawodzie, Stradom, Kucelin). The idea of a merger of both towns was first brought up in 1815. In 1819, military architect Jan Bernhard planned and started the construction of Aleja Najświętszej Panny Marii—the Holy Virgin Mary Avenue, which is currently the main arterial road of the modern city, and which connected Old Częstochowa with New Częstochowa. Finally, both towns were officially merged on August 19, 1826. The new city quickly emerged as the fourth largest urban centers of Congress Poland; larger were only the cities of Warsaw, Lublin, and Kalisz. On September 8, 1862, a patriotic rally took place in the city, in front of St. Sigismund church. As a reprisal, Russian military authorities destroyed app. 65% of Częstochowa's Old Town, and martial law was introduced. During the January Uprising, several skirmishes took place in the area of Częstochowa, with the last one taking place on July 4, 1864 near Chorzenice.
In 1846 the Warsaw-Vienna Railway line was opened, linking the city with the rest of Europe. After 1870 iron ore started to be developed in the area, which gave a boost to the local industry. Among the most notable investments of the epoch was the Huta Częstochowa steel mill built by Bernard Hantke, as well as several weaveries and paper factories. Up to the Second World War, like many other cities in Europe, Częstochowa had a significant Jewish population: according to Russian census of 1897, out of the total population of 45,130, Jews constituted 12,000 (so around 26% percent). An anti-Semitic pogrom occurred in 1902, Częstochowa pogrom (1902). A mob attacked the Jewish shops, killing fourteen Jews and one gendarme.
Częstochowa entered the 20th century as one of leading industrial centers of Russian Poland (together with Warsaw, Łódź, and Zagłębie Dąbrowskie). The city was conveniently located on the Warta and other smaller rivers (Kucelinka, Stradomka, Konopka). Real estate and land prices were low, compared to Łódź, and the existence of the monastery brought numerous pilgrims, who also were customers of local businesses. In 1904, Częstochowa had 678 smaller workshops, which employed 2,000 workers. In 1902, rail connection to the Prussian border crossing at Herby Stare was opened, and in 1911, the line to Kielce was completed. The Revolution in the Kingdom of Poland (1905–1907) began in Częstochowa as early as May 1904, when first patriotic rallies took place. On December 25, 1904, a man named Wincenty Makowski tried to blow up a monument of Tsar Alexander II, which stood in front of the monastery. In February 1905, general strike action was declared in the city, with workers demanding pay rises. In June 1905 street clashes took place in Częstochowa, in which 20 people were killed by Russian forces. Further protests took place in 1909 and 1912.
In early August 1914, Częstochowa was abandoned by the Imperial Russian Army, and first units of the German Army entered the city on August 3. Four days later drunken German soldiers shot at each other; unknown number died. Residents of the city were accused of killing Germans, and as a punishment, a number of civilians were executed. During German occupation (1914 - 1918), Częstochowa was cut off from its traditional Russian markets, which resulted in widespread poverty and unemployment. Furthermore, German authorities closed down several plants, urging unemployed workers to migrate to Upper Silesia, where they replaced men drafted into the army. Altogether, some 20,000 left for Upper Silesia and other provinces of the German Empire. On February 2, 1915, Częstochowa was visited by Charles I of Austria. Four days later Emperor Wilhelm II came to the city, and on May 17, 1915, Częstochowa hosted King of Saxony Frederick Augustus III. Unlike the city of Częstochowa, the Jasna Góra Monastery was since April 26, 1915 under control of Austria-Hungary, after personal intervention of Emperor Franz Joseph I, who was a pious Roman Catholic. The monastery was manned by soldiers under Austrian Army Captain Josef Klettinger and remained under Austrian control until November 4, 1918. In October 1917, the City Council of Częstochowa demanded permission to destroy the monument to Tsar Alexander II, to which General Governor of Warsaw Hans Hartwig von Beseler agreed. Polish authorities established control over the entire city on November 11, 1918.
On November 12, 1918, three companies of the freshly created Polish Army marched along the Holy Virgin Mary Avenue. In 1919 - 1921, Częstochowa was one of centers of support of Silesian Poles fighting in the Silesian Uprisings. On December 4, 1920, Symon Petliura together with app. 2,000 Ukrainian soldiers. Their arrival spurred widespread protests, as the city, in which food situation was desperate, was obliged to house and feed the Ukrainians.
In the Second Polish Republic, Częstochowa belonged to Kielce Voivodeship, where since 1928 it constituted City County of Częstochowa. In the 1920s, local industry still suffered from World War One losses, and cutting off from Russian markets. Unemployment remained high, and thousands of workers left for France in search of jobs. The Great Depression was particularly difficult, with strikes and street clashes with the police. In 1925, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Częstochowa was created. The city grew in size, when between 1928 and 1934, several local settlements and villages were annexed. In 1939, the population of Częstochowa was 138,000, which made it the 8th largest city of Poland. In 1938, Polish government announced plans to liquidate Kielce Voivodeship, and create Sandomierz Voivodeship, based on Central Industrial Area. According to these plans, Częstochowa was to be transferred either to Łódź Voivodeship, or Silesian Voivodeship, together with Zagłębie Dąbrowskie.
In the Polish Defensive War of 1939, Częstochowa was defended by the 7th Infantry Division, part of northern wing of Kraków Army. After the Battle of Mokra and other battles, Polish forces withdrew, and the Wehrmacht entered the city on Sunday, September 3, 1939. Częstochowa was renamed into Tschenstochau, and incorporated into the General Government. Monday, September 4, 1939, became known as Bloody Monday or also Częstochowa massacre, when 227 people (205 ethnic Poles and 22 Jews) were killed by the Germans (some estimates of victims put the number at more than 1,000; 990 ethnic Poles and 110 Jews). German occupiers from the very beginning initiated a plan of cultural and physical extermination of the Polish nation. Częstochowa was a city county (Stadkreis Tschenstochau), part of the Radom District of the General Government. The city was located near the border with Upper Silesia Province, and in its area operated units of the Home Army and National Armed Forces (NSZ). On April 20, 1943, a NZS unit attacked the local office of the Bank Emisyjny w Polsce. After the collapse of the Warsaw Uprising, Częstochowa briefly was the capital of the Polish Underground State. In the autumn 1944, Germans fortified the city, preparing for a lengthy defence. On January 16, 1945, however, the Wehrmacht retreated after just one day of fighting.
On April 9, 1941, a ghetto for Jews was created. During World War II approximately 45,000 of Częstochowa's Jews, almost the entire Jewish community living here, were killed by the Germans. Life in Nazi-occupied Częstochowa is depicted in the Pulitzer Prize-winning graphic novel Maus, by Art Spiegelman, the son of a Jewish Częstochowa resident. Before the Holocaust, Częstochowa was considered a great Jewish center in Poland. By the end of WWII, nearly all Jews had been killed or deported to be killed, making Częstochowa what the Nazis called Judenfrei.
Due to the communist idea of fast industrialisation, the inefficient steel mill was significantly expanded and named after Bolesław Bierut. This, combined with the growing tourist movement, led to yet another period of fast city growth, concluded in 1975 with the creation of a separate Częstochowa Voivodeship. In the immediate post-war period, Częstochowa belonged to Kielce Voivodeship (1945–1950), and then the city was transferred to Katowice Voivodeship. In the People's Republic of Poland, Częstochowa emerged not only as an industrial, but also academic center of the region. The city expanded, with first tram lines opened in 1959. On January 1, 1977, several villages and settlements were annexed by Częstochowa. As a result, the area of the city expanded from 90 to 160 square kilometres (35 to 62 sq mi).
In modern times, Pope John Paul II, a native son of Poland, prayed before the Madonna during his historic visit in 1979, several months after his election to the Chair of Peter. The Pope made another visit to Our Lady of Częstochowa in 1983 and again in 1987, 1991, 1997 and 1999. On August 15, 1991, John Paul II was named Honorary Citizen of Częstochowa. On May 26, 2006, the city was visited by Pope Benedict XVI.
It can be said that the climate is humid continental (Köppen: Dfb), but still with some oceanic characteristics (Cfb), especially in recent normals. Częstochowa is in one of the hottest summer regions in Poland, although its inventions are not the most rigorous, they are colder than the more moderate climates of the west and the Baltic Sea.
On average, four hours a day with direct solar radiation. In the course of the year, the best insolation is observed in June, due to the greatest length of the day. There are few windless days in Częstochowa. Lull periods on an annual scale account for an average of 9.2%. Western winds prevail here - 18% and south-west - 18.2%. At the same time, they achieve the highest speeds from these directions - 2.2 m/s. The northern winds are least common - 7.7% and north-eastern winds - 7.4%.
|Climate data for Częstochowa (Parkitka), elevation: 293 m, 1961-1990 normals and extremes|
|Record high °C (°F)||12.2
|Average high °C (°F)||−0.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−2.8
|Average low °C (°F)||−5.5
|Record low °C (°F)||−26.6
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||33
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||8.8||7.8||8.3||7.8||10.3||10.0||10.5||9.1||8.0||7.6||9.5||9.8||107.5|
There are about 26,000 companies registered in Częstochowa. They are represented by the Regional Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Częstochowa. The investment areas form part of the Katowice Special Economic Zone. The main initiator of activities pertaining to the economic development and investments is the Agency of Regional Development. In 2007, in areas surrounding the ISD Częstochowa Steelworks, the Częstochowa Industry Park was established. In 2011, three industry clusters were established - The Cluster of Polymers Manufacturing "Plastosfera", Częstochowa Communal Cluster "Aglomeracja"and the Regional Cluster of Building Industry and Infrastructure "Budosfera".
Industry Częstochowa is the main city in the Częstochowa Industrial District, which is the third biggest in the Silesian Voivodship. Since the medieval times, the metal industry has been developing, thanks to the iron ore deposits. The main factories in the city include:
Trade and commerce In Częstochowa, there is the Jurajska Shopping Mall, which was opened in 2009. It has 200 shops, service and catering outlets and a Cinema City multiplex. It provides clients with a multi-storey car park with 2000 parking spaces. Additionally, there are hypermarkets - M1 Shopping Centre and Auchan Northern Częstochowa (previously Real, opened in 1997), Tesco (opened in 1999) and Auchan Częstochowa Poczesna (opened in 2001).
Currently the city is one of the main tourist attractions of the area and is sometimes called the little Nuremberg because of the number of souvenir shops. It attracts millions (4.5 mln - 2005) of tourists and pilgrims every year. The Black Madonna of Częstochowa, housed at the Jasna Góra Monastery, is a particularly popular attraction.
Throughout the centuries, many buildings have been erected, most of them now have status of tourist attractions and historical monuments since Częstochowa was established already in the Middle Ages. Among those attractions are old townhouses and the urban core of the city centre. The most popular with religious tourism as mentioned above is the Jasna Góra Monastery.
The main representative artery in the city centre is the Najświętszej Maryi Panny Avenue (The Holy Virgin Mary Avenue). It was first built in the beginning of the 19th century, as a road linking Częstochowa with New Częstochowa, cities which were administratively merged in 1826. The most characteristic feature of the avenue is its layout, whereby the lanes are separated by the pedestrianised boulevard. During the pilgrimage period, the Avenues are used by pilgrims heading for Jasna Góra Monastery. The avenues are 1.5 km long and 44 m wide; primarily they perform trade, service, financial and cultural functions. The housing consists mostly of classicist, late-classicist houses, rarely eclectic. More modern buildings can also be noticed. The most interesting townhouses include:
Main road connections from Częstochowa include a connection with Warsaw (to the north-east) and Katowice (to the south) via the European route E75 (Motorway ). There are also three other national roads: to Wieluń, to Opole and to Piotrków Trybunalski. Furthermore, Częstochowa is a major railroad hub, located at the intersection of two important lines - west-east (from Lubliniec to Kielce) and north-south (from Warsaw to Katowice). Also, an additional northbound line stems from Częstochowa, which goes to Chorzew Siemkowice, where it joins the Polish Coal Trunk-Line. There are six railway stations in the city, the biggest ones being Częstochowa Osobowa and Częstochowa Stradom. The city has direct connections to many Polish cities as Warsaw, Cracow, Katowice, Wrocław and Szczecin, proteza koniecpolska makes some of the connections more comfortable. 
The public transport is managed by the Częstochowa City Council of Roads and Transport. The public transport carriage is contracted to the City Public Transport Corporation (Miejskie Przedsiębiorstwo Komunikacyjne). The public transport in Częstochowa comprises 3 tram lines, 30 city bus lines and 8 suburban lines connecting Częstochowa with Blachownia, Mstów, Konopiska, Poczesna, Olsztyn. The bus transport connecting Częstochowa Bus Station with other towns and villages in the Częstochowa region is operated by the Częstochowa Bus Transport Ltd. (PKS Częstochowa).
National Road DK 1 in Częstochowa
In Częstochowa on top of the Jasna Góra Monastery serving the museum and exhibition functions, other similar institutions include:
The Bronisław Huberman Philharmonic of Częstochowa is located in the city centre on Wilson Street, in the building erected between 1955 and 1965 on foundations of New Synagogue, which had been burnt down on 25 December 1939. The Philharmonic has at its disposal two concert halls and one rehearsal hall. The large concert hall can accommodate 825 people, whilst the small hall has 156 seats.
The concert hall of the Philharmonic of Częstochowa is a place where concerts of symphonic orchestra take place. The building itself is younger than the history of symphonic concerts in Częstochowa, as the first concert took place in March 1945. The mixed choir has been functioning since the Philharmonic was set up. The choir was professionalized in September 2012 and it was named The Częstochowa Philharmonic Choir "Collegium Cantorum".
The Philharmonic is also a co-organiser and a co-performer of operas, operettas and ballets. It is also a place where various exhibitions take place. The Philharmonic annually organises Bronisław Huberman International Violin Festival, Reszek Vocal Competition, Festival of Traditional Jazz "Hot Jazz Spring". The Philharmonic also engages in organising the "Night of Culture", the International Festival of Sacral Music "Gaude Mater" and the Bach Family Music Festival.
Music education is also an important part of the Philharmonic's activity. Its educational functions are carried out through series of concerts such as "Music for children", "FEEL harmony - feel the climate!" and "Sunday Mornings with Philharmonic". In 2010, the building of The Philharmonic of Cżęstochowa was refurbished through the financial support from the European Fund of Regional Development.
In Częstochowa, there are many functioning female, male and mixed choirs. The oldest is the Male Choir "Pochodnia" (Torch). Others include the Academic Choir of the Częstochowa University of Technology, the Jasna Góra Vocal Ensemble "Camerata" and the Archcathedral Choir of the Holy Family "Basilica Cantans".
Adam Mickiewicz Theatre is located on Kiliński Street in the city centre. The building was erected between 1928 and 1931. Between 1979 and 1984 it was refurbished. The theatre has three halls: Big, Small, Histrion and Marek Perepeczko Foyer. The Theatre organises "Festival of Important Plays - Through Touch", "Festival of High School Theatres" and "Children's Land of Sensitivity". It also takes part in annually organised "Night of Culture".
The Centre for the Promotion of Culture 'Gaude Mater' is a cultural institution established in 1991. It is the organiser of various cultural events in Częstochowa, such as:
In Częstochowa, there are three cinemas. Two are part of chain of cinemas Cinema City Poland: Cinema City "Wolność" (Freedom), which has 1766 seats, and Cinema City Galeria Jurajska, opened in 2009. There is also an independent cinema, Ośrodek Kultury Filmowej (Centre of Cinematography), established in 1991.
Some of the tertiary educational institutions in Częstochowa include:
Częstochowa is a city with powiat rights. Residents of Częstochowa elect 28 city councilors. The executive branch of local government is a city mayor. The city hall is located in Śląska Street 11/13.
The city is divided into 20 neighborhoods. The residents of each neighborhood elect Neighborhood Council members.
The neighborhoods of Częstochowa include: Błeszno, Częstochówka-Parkitka, Dźbów, Gnaszyn-Kawodrza, Grabówka, Kiedrzyn, Lisiniec, Mirów, Ostatni Grosz, Podjasnogórska, Północ, Raków, Stare Miasto, Stradom, Śródmieście, Trzech Wieszczów, Tysiąclecie, Wrzosowiak, Wyczerpy-Aniołów, and Zawodzie-Dąbie.
In the Częstochowa 2018 mayoral elections the results were as follows: Krzysztof Matyjaszczyk (Democratic Left Alliance) 59.76%, Artur Warzocha (Law and Justice) 25.54%, Marcin Maranda (Residents of Częstochowa) 6.17%, Tomasz Jaskóła (Kukiz'15) 5.27%, Jacek Krawczyk (Civic Coalition) 2.83%, Martin Saczek (Razem) 0.43%.
In the Częstochowa City Council Elections 2018 the results were as follows. Seats in the city council: Left Democratic Alliance (32.80%) 12, Law and Justice (26.04%) 10, Civic Coalition (15.98%) 5, Together for Częstochowa (Independents) (8.77%) 1. After elections in Częstochowa was formed a centre-left coalition between liberal and pro-market Civic Coalition and social democratic Left Democratic Alliance. Conservative Law and Justice remained in oppossition.
|1. District (central):
Podjasnogórska, Stare Miasto,
Śródmieście, Trzech Wieszczów
|2. District (northwestern):
|3. District (northeastern):
Mirów, Północ, Wyczerpy-Aniołów,
|4. District (southeastern):
Ostatni Grosz, Raków, Wrzosowiak
|5. District (southwestern):
Błeszno, Dźbów, Gnaszyn-Kawodrza,
Grabówka, Lisiniec, Stradom
|lower house of Parliament (Sejm)||higher house of Parliament (Senate)||Silesian Regional Assembly|
|Szymon Giżyński (PiS), Mariusz Trepka (PiS),||Artur Warzocha (PiS),||Marta Salwierak (PO),|
There are also published cultural quarterlies such as: Aleje 3, Bulion; a monthly Puls Regionu and an annual – Ziemia Częstochowska
In addition to the Roman Catholic Church and Polish Orthodox Church, various denominations are present in Częstochowa, including Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Poland, Baptist Union of Poland, Jehovah Witnesses, Pentecostal Church, Plymouth Brethren, Seventh-day Adventist Church, and Polish Catholic Church. Częstochowa is the Seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Częstochowa, as well as Holy Family Archdiocese Cathedral in Częstochowa, and the Jasna Góra Monastery along with 50 Catholic Parish Churches.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Częstochowa.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Czenstochowa.|