In the 6th century, the city was embellished and fortified by Byzantine EmperorJustinian. It was however taken by the Muslims in 637 and known at that time under the name of Qorosh and later by the Crusaders in the 11th century. Nur ad-Din Zangi recaptured it in 1150. Muslim travelers of the 13th and 14th century report it both as a large city and as largely in ruins.
The well-preserved Roman amphitheatre is among the largest in Syria.
The city has been excavated by the Lebanese Syrian Archaeological Mission of Cyrrhus. Initial results indicate a square layout with Hippodamiangrid road plan and a central main road with Colonnades typical of the Hellenistic east . The road layout seems to have survived until into the Islamic times.
Remains in Cyrrhus include two RomanBridge s in working order, a dilapidated theatre outside the town and foundations of a Basilicachurch and some city fortifications.
In the 6th century a Byzantine citadel was built on the top of the hill behind the theatre. with evidence of Greek and Egyptian influences in the design work. This citadel is still largely unexcavated.
A magnificent basilica held the relics of Saints Cosmas and Damian, who had suffered martyrdom in the vicinity about 283, and whose bodies had been transported to the city, whence it was also called Hagioupolis. Many holy personages, moreover, chiefly hermits, had been or were then living in this territory, among them Saints Acepsimas, Zeumatius, Zebinas, Polychronius, Maron (the patron of the Maronite Church), Eusebius, Thalassius, Maris, James the Wonder-worker, and others. Bishop Theodoret devoted an entire work to the illustration of their virtues and miracles.
Ignazio Nasalli-Ratti (Italian), (1819.12.17 – 1827.06.25), later Cardinal-Priest of S. Agnese fuori le mura (1827.09.17 – death 1831.12.02)
Luca de Cigalla (1832.07.27 – 1847.02.12), first while Bishop of Santorini (insular Greece) (1828.12.15 – 1847.02.12 ?not possessed), then as Coadjutor Apostolic Vicar of Constantinopole (Ottoman Turkey) (1832.07.27 – 1847.02.12 not possessed)
Loudovico of St. Teresa Martini, O.C.D. (Italian) (1845.09.30 – death 1883.07.12) while Apostolic Vicar of Verapoly (British India) (1844.12.07 – 1855.11.10) and as emeritus; previously Titular Bishop of Europus (1839.06.07 – 1845.09.30) as Coadjutor Vicar Apostolic of Verapoly (1839.06.07 – succession 1844.12.07)
Nikolaus Adames (1883.11.02 – death 1887.02.13) as emeritus: previously Titular Bishop of Halicarnassus (1863.03.27 – 1870.09.27 as Pro-Vicar Apostolic of Luxembourg (native Luxembourg) (1848.05.07 – 1863.03.27) and (promoted) last Vicar Apostolic of Luxembourg (Luxembourg) (1863.03.27 – 1870.09.27); next (see promoted) first Bishop of Luxembourg (1870.09.27 – retired 1883.09.27)
Ludovít Szmrecsányi (1912.03.26 – 1912.08.20) (born Slovakia) as Coadjutor Archbishop of Archdiocese of Eger (Hungary) (1912.03.26 – succession 1912.08.20); previously Titular Bishop of Magyddus (1904.11.14 – 1912.03.26) without actual prelature; later Metropolitan Archbishop of above Eger (1912.08.20 –death 1943.01.28)
BIOs to ELABORATE
Joaquim José Vieira (1912.11.08 – 1917.07.08)
Vilmos Batthyány (1920.12.16 – 1923.11.24)
Serafino Cimino, Friars Minor (O.F.M.) (1924.12.18 – 1928.05.04)
^Richard Stillwell, William L. MacDonald, Marian Holland McAllister, Stillwell, Richard, MacDonald, William L., McAlister, Marian Holland KYRRHOS Syria. in The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites]