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|Close-mid front rounded vowel|
The close-mid front rounded vowel, or high-mid front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. Acoustically, it is a close-mid front-central rounded vowel. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the sound is ⟨ø⟩, a lowercase letter o with a diagonal stroke through it, borrowed from Danish, Norwegian, and Faroese, which sometimes use the letter to represent the sound. The symbol is commonly referred to as "o, slash" in English.
For the close-mid near-front rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʏ⟩ or ⟨y⟩, see near-close near-front rounded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨ø⟩, the vowel is listed here.
The close-mid front compressed vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨ø⟩, which is the convention used in this article. There is no dedicated diacritic for compression in the IPA. However, the compression of the lips can be shown with the letter ⟨β̞⟩ as ⟨e͡β̞⟩ (simultaneous [e] and labial compression) or ⟨eᵝ⟩ ([e] modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic ⟨ ͍ ⟩ may also be used with a rounded vowel letter ⟨ø͍⟩ as an ad hoc symbol, but 'spread' technically means unrounded.
For the close-mid near-front compressed vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʏ⟩, see near-close near-front compressed vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨ø⟩, the vowel is listed here.
Note: Because front rounded vowels are assumed to have compression, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have protrusion.
|Bavarian||Amstetten dialect||[example needed]||Near-front.|
|Northern||[example needed]||Allophone of /e/ before /l/.|
|Danish||Standard||købe||[ˈkʰø̠ːb̥ə]||'buy'||Near-front. See Danish phonology|
|Dutch||Standard Belgian||neus||[nø̠ːs]||'nose'||Near-front; also described as mid central [ɵ̞ː]). In the Standard Northern variety, it is diphthongized to [ø̠y̑]. See Dutch phonology|
|Many accents||Near-front; present in many Eastern and Southern varieties. See Dutch phonology|
|Standard Northern||deur||[dø̠ːr]||'door'||Near-front; allophone of /øː/ before /r/, also described as a centering diphthong [ø̠ə̯] (hear the word: [dø̠ə̯r]). Realized as a closing diphthong [ø̠y̑] in other positions. See Dutch phonology|
|English||Broad South African||bird||[bø̠ːd]||'bird'||Near-front; may be lower [ø̞̈ː]. In the Cultivated variety, it is realized as [əː]. See English phonology and South African English phonology|
|General South African|
|Tyneside||Near-front. See English phonology|
|Estonian||köök||[kø̠ːk]||'kitchen'||Near-front. See Estonian phonology|
|Faroese||Standard||høgur||[ˈhøːʋʊɹ]||'high'||May be a diphthong [øœ ~ øə] instead. See Faroese phonology|
|Suðuroy dialect||bygdin||[ˈpɪktøn]||'bridges'||Realization of unstressed /i/ and /u/. See Faroese phonology|
|French||peu||[pø]||'few'||See French phonology|
|German||Standard||schön||[ʃø̠ːn] (help·info)||'beautiful'||Near-front; also described as mid [ø̞̈ː]. See Standard German phonology|
|Some dialects||Löwen||[ˈl̪øːfɱ̍]||'lions'||Used by some dialect speakers in cognates of Standard German words. The example word is from the Chemnitz dialect.|
|Southern accents||Hölle||[ˈhølə]||'hell'||Common realization of /œ/ in Southern Germany, Switzerland and Austria. See Standard German phonology|
|Hungarian||nő||[nø̠ː]||'woman'||Near-front. See Hungarian phonology|
|Iaai||møøk||[mø̠ːk]||'to close eyes'||Near-front.|
|Limburgish||Most dialects||beuk||[bø̠ːk]||'books'||Near-front. The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.|
|Lombard||Most dialects||nööf / noeuv||[nøːf]||'new'|
|Low German||sön / zeun||[zøːn]||'son'||May be realized as a narrow closing diphthong in certain dialects.|
|Luxembourgish||blöd||[bløːt]||'stupid'||Occurs only in loanwords. See Luxembourgish phonology|
|Portuguese||Micaelense||boi||[bø]||'ox'||Allophone of /o/. See Portuguese phonology|
|Some European speakers||dou||[d̪øw]||'I give'|
|Ripuarian||Kerkrade dialect||meusj||[²møːʃ]||[translation needed]|
|Saterland Frisian||Göäte||[ˈɡø̠ːtə]||'gutter'||Near-front; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨œː⟩. Phonetically, it is nearly identical to /ʏ/ ([ʏ̞]). The vowel typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨øː⟩ is actually near-close [ʏː].|
|West Frisian||Standard||put||[pøt]||'well'||See West Frisian phonology|
|Hindeloopers||beuch||[bøːx]||[translation needed]||Diphthongized to [øy̑] in Standard West Frisian. See West Frisian phonology|
|Close-mid front protruded vowel|
Catford notes that most languages with rounded front and back vowels use distinct types of labialization, protruded back vowels and compressed front vowels. However, a few, such as the Scandinavian languages, have protruded front vowels. One of them, Swedish, even contrasts the two types of rounding in front vowels (see near-close near-front rounded vowel, with Swedish examples of both types of rounding).
As there are no diacritics in the IPA to distinguish protruded and compressed rounding, an old diacritic for labialization, ⟨ ̫⟩, will be used here as an ad hoc symbol for protruded front vowels. Another possible transcription is ⟨øʷ⟩ or ⟨eʷ⟩ (a close-mid front vowel modified by endolabialization), but that could be misread as a diphthong.
For the close-mid near-front protruded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʏ⟩, see near-close near-front protruded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨ø⟩, the vowel is listed here.
Acoustically, the sound is in between the more typical compressed close-mid front vowel [ø] and the unrounded close-mid front vowel [e].
|Norwegian||Urban East||søt||[sø̫ːt]||'sweet'||Near-front; also described as close-mid central [ɵː], mid near-front [ø̽ː] and ranging from mid near-front [ø̽ː] to open-mid near-front [œ̠ː]. See Norwegian phonology|
|Swedish||Central Standard||öl||[ø̫ːl̪] (help·info)||'beer'||Near-front; may be diphthongized to [øə̯]. See Swedish phonology|