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Close-mid front rounded vowel

Close-mid front rounded vowel
ø
IPA number310
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ø
Unicode (hex)U+00F8
X-SAMPA2
KirshenbaumY
Braille⠳ (braille pattern dots-1256)
Listen

The close-mid front rounded vowel, or high-mid front rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. Acoustically, it is a close-mid front-central rounded vowel.[2] The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the sound is ⟨ø⟩, a lowercase letter o with a diagonal stroke through it, borrowed from Danish, Norwegian, and Faroese, which sometimes use the letter to represent the sound. The symbol is commonly referred to as "o, slash" in English.

For the close-mid front rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʏ⟩ or ⟨y⟩, see near-close front rounded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨ø⟩, the vowel is listed here.

Close-mid front compressed vowel

The close-mid front compressed vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨ø⟩, which is the convention used in this article. There is no dedicated diacritic for compression in the IPA. However, the compression of the lips can be shown with the letter ⟨β̞⟩ as ⟨e͡β̞⟩ (simultaneous [e] and labial compression) or ⟨eᵝ⟩ ([e] modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic ⟨  ͍ ⟩ may also be used with a rounded vowel letter ⟨ø͍⟩ as an ad hoc symbol, but 'spread' technically means unrounded.

For the close-mid front compressed vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʏ⟩, see near-close front compressed vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨ø⟩, the vowel is listed here.

Features

IPA: Vowels
Front Central Back

Paired vowels are: unrounded  rounded

Occurrence

Note: Because front rounded vowels are assumed to have compression, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have protrusion.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[3] [example needed]
Northern[4] [example needed] Allophone of /e/ before /l/.[4]
Breton[5] eur [øːʁ] 'hour'
Danish Standard[6] købe [ˈkʰøːb̥ə] 'buy' Also described as near-close [ø̝ː].[7] See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard Belgian[8][9] neus About this sound[nøːs] 'nose' Also described as central [ɵː].[10] In the Standard Northern variety, it is diphthongized to [øʏ̯].[9][11] See Dutch phonology
Many accents[9] Present in many Eastern and Southern varieties.[12] See Dutch phonology
English Broad New Zealand[13][14] bird [bøːd] 'bird' Possible realization of /ɵː/. Other speakers use a more open vowel [ø̞ː ~ œː].[13][15] See New Zealand English phonology
Cardiff[16] Lower [ø̞ː ~ œː] in other southern Welsh accents. It corresponds to mid central unrounded [ɜ̝ː] in other Welsh accents and in RP.[17][18][19]
Port Talbot[20]
Geordie[21][22] Can be mid central unrounded [ɜ̝ː] instead.[21]
South African[23] Used in General and Broad accents; may be mid [ø̞ː] instead. In the Cultivated variety, it is realized as mid central unrounded [ɜ̝ː].[23] See South African English phonology
Estonian[24] köök [køːk] 'kitchen' See Estonian phonology
Faroese Standard[25] høgur [ˈhøːʋʊɹ] 'high' May be a diphthong [øœ ~ øə] instead.[26] See Faroese phonology
Suðuroy dialect[27] bygdin [ˈpɪktøn] 'bridges' Realization of unstressed /i/ and /u/.[27] See Faroese phonology
French[28][29] peu [pø] 'few' See French phonology
German Standard[30][31] schön About this sound[ʃøːn]  'beautiful' See Standard German phonology
Southern accents[32] Hölle [ˈhølə] 'hell' Common realization of /œ/ in Southern Germany, Switzerland and Austria.[32] See Standard German phonology
Hungarian[33] nő [nøː] 'woman' See Hungarian phonology
Iaai[34] møøk [møːk] 'to close eyes'
Limburgish Most dialects[35][36] beuk [bøːk²] 'beech' Central [ɵː] in Maastricht;[37] the example word is from the Hamont dialect.
Lombard Most dialects[38] nööf / noeuv [nøːf] 'new'
Low German[39] sön / zeun [zøːn] 'son' May be realized as a narrow closing diphthong in certain dialects.[39]
Portuguese Micaelense[40] boi [bø] 'ox' Allophone of /o/. See Portuguese phonology
Some European speakers[41] dou [d̪øw] 'I give'
Ripuarian[42] meusj [møːʃ²] 'sparrow' The example word is from the Kerkrade dialect.
Saterland Frisian[43] Göäte [ˈɡøːtə] 'gutter' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨œː⟩. Phonetically, it is nearly identical to /ʏ/ ([ʏ̞]). The vowel typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨øː⟩ is actually near-close [ø̝ː].[43]
West Frisian Hindeloopers[44] beuch [bøːx] [translation needed] Diphthongized to [øy̑] in Standard West Frisian.[44] See West Frisian phonology

Close-mid front protruded vowel

Close-mid front protruded vowel
ø̫
øʷ

Catford notes that most languages with rounded front and back vowels use distinct types of labialization, protruded back vowels and compressed front vowels. However, a few, such as the Scandinavian languages, have protruded front vowels. One of them, Swedish, even contrasts the two types of rounding in front vowels (see near-close near-front rounded vowel, with Swedish examples of both types of rounding).

As there are no diacritics in the IPA to distinguish protruded and compressed rounding, an old diacritic for labialization, ⟨  ̫⟩, will be used here as an ad hoc symbol for protruded front vowels. Another possible transcription is ⟨øʷ⟩ or ⟨⟩ (a close-mid front vowel modified by endolabialization), but that could be misread as a diphthong.

For the close-mid front protruded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʏ⟩, see near-close front protruded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨ø⟩, the vowel is listed here.

Acoustically, the sound is in between the more typical compressed close-mid front vowel [ø] and the unrounded close-mid front vowel [e].

Features

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Norwegian[45][46] søt [sø̫ːt] 'sweet' The example word is from Urban East Norwegian, in which the vowel has also been described as central [ɵː].[47] See Norwegian phonology
Swedish Central Standard[48] öl About this sound[ø̫ːl̪]  'beer' May be diphthongized to [øə̯]. See Swedish phonology

See also

Notes

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Geoff Lindsey (2013) The vowel space, Speech Talk
  3. ^ Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  4. ^ a b Rowley (1990), p. 422.
  5. ^ Ternes (1992), pp. 431, 433.
  6. ^ Basbøll (2005), p. 46.
  7. ^ Basbøll & Wagner (1985:40), cited in Basbøll (2005:48).
  8. ^ Gussenhoven (1999), p. 74.
  9. ^ a b c Collins & Mees (2003), pp. 133–134.
  10. ^ Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  11. ^ Gussenhoven (1999), p. 76.
  12. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), pp. 133–135.
  13. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 607.
  14. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), pp. 582, 591.
  15. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 591.
  16. ^ Collins & Mees (1990), p. 95.
  17. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 380–381.
  18. ^ Tench (1990), p. 136.
  19. ^ Penhallurick (2004), p. 104.
  20. ^ Connolly (1990), p. 125.
  21. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 375.
  22. ^ Watt & Allen (2003), pp. 268–269.
  23. ^ a b Lass (2002), p. 116.
  24. ^ Asu & Teras (2009), p. 368.
  25. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 68, 74–75.
  26. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 68, 75.
  27. ^ a b Þráinsson (2004), p. 350.
  28. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  29. ^ Collins & Mees (2013), p. 225.
  30. ^ Kohler (1999), p. 87.
  31. ^ Hall (2003), pp. 95, 107.
  32. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 64.
  33. ^ Szende (1994), p. 92.
  34. ^ Maddieson & Anderson (1994), p. 164.
  35. ^ Peters (2006), p. 119.
  36. ^ Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  37. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  38. ^ Loporcaro, Michele (2015). Vowel Length from Latin to Romance. Oxford University Press. pp. 93–96. ISBN 978-0-19-965655-4.
  39. ^ a b Prehn (2012), p. 157.
  40. ^ Variação Linguística no Português Europeu: O Caso do Português dos Açores (in Portuguese)
  41. ^ Lista das marcas dialetais e outros fenómenos de variação (fonética e fonológica) identificados nas amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP (in Portuguese)
  42. ^ Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997), p. 16.
  43. ^ a b Peters (2017), p. ?.
  44. ^ a b van der Veen (2001), p. 102.
  45. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 13, 20.
  46. ^ While Vanvik (1979) does not describe the exact type of rounding of this vowel, some other sources (e.g. Haugen (1974:40)) state explicitly that it is protruded.
  47. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), pp. 16–17, 33–35, 37, 343.
  48. ^ Engstrand (1999), pp. 140-141.

References