The attacks killed 51 people and injured 49. Brenton Tarrant, a 28-year-old man from Grafton, New South Wales, Australia, described in media reports as a white supremacist and part of the alt-right, was arrested and initially charged with one murder. Tarrant was later charged with 51 murders, 40 attempted murders, and engaging in a terrorist act; he pleaded not guilty to all charges, with the trial expected to start in June 2020. The attacks have been linked to an increase in white supremacism and alt-right extremism globally observed since about 2015. Politicians and world leaders condemned the attacks, and Prime MinisterJacinda Ardern described it as "one of New Zealand's darkest days". The government established a royal commission of inquiry into its security agencies in the wake of the attacks, which are the deadliest mass shootings in modern New Zealand history.
New Zealand has often been considered a safe country, and has a relatively low level of homicide. These attacks were the first mass shooting in the country since the Raurimu massacre in 1997. Prior to that, the deadliest public mass shooting was the 1990 Aramoana massacre, in which 13 people died. While the country has rarely been associated with the extreme right, experts have suggested that far-right extremism has been growing in New Zealand. The sociologist Paul Spoonley has called Christchurch a hotbed for white supremacists and the extreme nationalist movement, a suggestion rejected by Christchurch MP Gerry Brownlee. Australia, where the alleged gunman was from, has also seen an increase in xenophobia, racism, and Islamophobia.
The gunman arrived at the Al Noor Mosque, Riccarton, and began shooting worshippers at around 1:40 p.m. Police received the first emergency call at 1:41 p.m. Between three hundred and five hundred people may have been inside the mosque attending Friday Prayer at the time of the shooting. A neighbour of the mosque told reporters he saw the gunman flee and drop what appeared to be a firearm in the driveway.
The gunman spent several minutes inside the mosque, shooting attendees indiscriminately. He killed three people near the entrance and dozens more inside a prayer hall. A strobe-light attached to one of his weapons was used to disorient victims. During the attack, a worshipper, Naeem Rashid, charged at him and was shot; Rashid later died from his injuries. The gunman fired indiscriminately at worshippers in the prayer hall from close range, shooting many of his victims multiple times. He then left the mosque and fired on more people outside. Returning to his vehicle, he retrieved another weapon before returning to the mosque and again opening fire; many of those fired upon were already wounded and unable to escape. The gunman exited the mosque once more and killed a woman lying wounded on the footpath as she pleaded for help. He then returned to his car and fled the scene to the music of "Fire" by The Crazy World of Arthur Brown, in which the singer proclaims: "I am the god of hellfire!"
He had spent about six minutes at the Al Noor Mosque. As the gunman drove away from the mosque, the first emergency services arrived on scene. About three minutes after the gunman left the mosque, his vehicle passed by one or more police vehicles heading towards the mosque, but remained undetected as he continued on his way to the Linwood Islamic Centre.
Linwood Islamic Centre
A second attack began at about 1:55 p.m. at the Linwood Islamic Centre, a mosque 5 kilometres (3 mi) east of the Al Noor Mosque. According to a witness, the gunman was initially unable to find the mosque's main door, instead shooting people outside and through a window, alerting those inside.
The mosque's acting imam credited a worshipper named Abdul Aziz Wahabzada with stopping the attack. Wahabzada told reporters he had taken a credit card reader and ran out of the mosque, by which time the attacker outside had already shot several people. The attacker was about to retrieve another gun from his car, so Wahabzada threw the reader at him. The gunman took a rifle from his car and fired at Wahabzada, who took cover among nearby cars and retrieved an empty shotgun the gunman had dropped. Despite Wahabzada's attempt to draw the attention of the gunman away from the mosque by shouting "I'm here!", the gunman entered the mosque and continued firing. When the gunman returned to his car again, Wahabzada threw the shotgun at the car, shattering one of its windows or its windscreen. The gunman then drove away.
Early reports indicated "multiple, simultaneous attack[s]", but later only a single suspect was implicated. The gunman was arrested on Brougham Street in Sydenham, 21 minutes after the first emergency call. Video footage showed his car had been rammed against the kerb by a police car before his arrest at gunpoint.Prime MinisterJacinda Ardern said the suspect had been planning to continue the attacks at a third location, possibly the mosque in Ashburton or the An-Nur Child Care Centre in Hornby. According to Ardern, "There were two other firearms in the vehicle that the offender was in and it absolutely was his intention to continue with his attack".Police CommissionerMike Bush corroborated this, saying police had stopped the suspect on his way to a third location.
Fifty-one people, 47 male and 4 female, were killed in the attacks: 42 at the Al Noor Mosque, 7 at the Linwood Islamic Centre, one who died shortly after in Christchurch Hospital, and another who died in the hospital on 2 May, seven weeks after the attacks. Those killed were between 3 and 77 years old. The hospital's Chief of Surgery said on 16 March that four had died in ambulances en route to the hospital. On 17 March, Commissioner Bush said 50 other people had been injured in the attacks, 36 of whom were being treated for gunshot wounds in hospital. Two were in a serious condition, and a 4-year-old girl was transferred to Starship Hospital in Auckland in a critical condition.
Police charged Brenton Harrison Tarrant, a 28-year-old Australian man, with murder in relation to the attacks. At the time of his arrest, he had been living for a few years in Andersons Bay in Dunedin. He was a member of a South Otago gun club and practised shooting at its range. He grew up in Grafton, New South Wales, attended Grafton High School, and worked as a personal trainer in his hometown from 2009 to 2011. Around 2012, he started visiting a number of countries in Asia and Europe. Police in Bulgaria and Turkey are investigating his visits to their countries. He became obsessed with terrorist attacks committed by Islamic extremists in 2016 and 2017, started planning an attack about two years prior to the shootings, and chose his targets three months in advance. Shortly before the attacks, Tarrant's mother received a message from him telling her that she was "about to see and read 'the most terrible things' about him".
Three years prior to the attacks, he praised Blair Cottrell as a leader of the far-right movements in Australia and made more than 30 comments on the now-deleted "United Patriots Front" and "True Blue Crew" pages. An Australian Broadcasting Corporation team who studied the comments called them "fragments and digital impressions of a well-travelled young man who frequented hate-filled anonymous messaging boards and was deeply engaged in a global alt-right culture." A Melbourne man said that in 2016 he filed a police complaint after Tarrant allegedly told him in an online conversation, "I hope one day you meet the rope". He said that the police told him to block Tarrant and did not take a statement from him. The police said that they were unable to locate a complaint.
Police recovered five guns at the scene: two semi-automatic weapons, two shotguns and a lever-action firearm. According to Police Minister Stuart Nash, one of the firearms used by the gunman was an AR-15 style rifle. Police Commissioner Mike Bush said the gunman held a firearms licence with an "A" endorsement, and he started buying his arsenal in December 2017, a month after acquiring his licence. According to a city gun store, the gunman bought four firearms and ammunition online. The shop stated that none of the four were military style weapons, and it is not known yet if these guns were the ones used in the attacks. The shop did not detect anything unusual or extraordinary about the customer. Additionally, he illegally replaced the semi-automatic rifles' small, legal magazines with 30-round magazines purchased online.
Tarrant is allegedly the author of a 74-page manifesto titled "The Great Replacement", a reference to the "Great Replacement" and "white genocide" conspiracy theories. It said that the attacks were planned two years prior, and the location was selected three months prior. Minutes before the attacks began, the manifesto was emailed to more than 30 recipients, including the prime minister's office and several media outlets, and links were shared on Twitter and 8chan.
In the manifesto several anti-immigrant sentiments are expressed, including hate speech against migrants, white supremacist rhetoric, and calls for all non-European immigrants in Europe who are claimed to be "invading his land" to be removed. The manifesto displays neo-Nazi symbols such as the Black Sun and the Odin's cross. However, the author denies being a Nazi, describing himself instead as an "ethno-nationalist", an "eco-fascist", and a "kebab removalist", in reference to a meme exalting the genocide of Bosnian Muslims that occurred during the Bosnian War. The author cites Norwegian terrorist Anders Behring Breivik and others as an inspiration. He says he supports U.S. president Donald Trump as "a symbol of renewed white identity and common purpose", but not as "a policy maker and leader". The author says he originally targeted the Al Huda Mosque in Dunedin, but changed his mind after visiting Christchurch, because the Christchurch mosques contained "more adults and a prior history of extremism".
The manifesto was described by some media outlets as "shitposting"—trolling designed to engender conflict between certain groups and people. On 23 March 2019, the manifesto was deemed "objectionable" by the Chief Censor of New Zealand, making it unlawful to possess or distribute it in New Zealand. In August 2019, The New Zealand Herald reported that printed copies of the manifesto were being sold online outside New Zealand, something New Zealand law could not prevent.
Tarrant appeared in the Christchurch District Court on 16 March, where he was charged with one representative count of murder. The judge ordered the courtroom closed to the public except for accredited media, and allowed the accused to be filmed and photographed on the condition that his face be pixellated. In court, Tarrant smiled at reporters and made an inverted OK gesture below his waist, said to be a "white power" sign.
The case was transferred to the High Court and he was remanded in custody, as his lawyer did not seek bail. He was subsequently transferred to the country's only maximum-security unit at Auckland Prison. He has lodged a formal complaint regarding his prison conditions, on the grounds that he has no access to newspapers, television, Internet, visitors or phone calls. On 4 April, police announced they had increased the total number of charges to 89, 50 for murder and 39 for attempted murder, with other charges still under consideration. At the next hearing on 5 April, he was ordered by the judge to undergo a psychiatric assessment of his mental fitness to stand trial.
On 21 May 2019, Commissioner Bush announced that a new charge of engaging in a terrorist act had been laid against Tarrant under section 6A of the Terrorism Suppression Act 2002. One murder charge and one attempted murder charge were also added, bringing the total to 51 and 40 respectively.
On 14 June 2019, Tarrant appeared at the Christchurch High Court via audio-visual link from Auckland Prison. Through his lawyer, he pleaded not guilty to engaging in a terrorist act, 51 counts of murder, and 40 counts of attempted murder. Mental health assessments had indicated no issues regarding his fitness to plead or stand trial. The trial start date was set for 4 May 2020; the Crown prosecutor estimated the trial would last around six weeks. On 12 September 2019, the trial date was pushed back to 2 June 2020, to avoid coinciding with the Islamic holy month of Ramadan.
If convicted for murder involving multiple deaths, he faces a mandatory sentence of life imprisonment with the possibility of parole being granted after 17 years. The sentencing judge may, taking into account the aggravating and mitigating factors of the offence, extend the non-parole period or impose life imprisonment with no possibility of parole.:102–4
On 14 August 2019, it was reported that Tarrant had been able to send seven letters from prison, two to his mother and five to unnamed recipients. One of these letters was subsequently posted on the Internet message boards 4chan and 8chan by far-right supporters. Minister of CorrectionsKelvin Davis and the Department of Corrections were criticised for allowing the distribution of these letters. On 19 August, Prime Minister Ardern announced that the Government would explore amending the Corrections Act 2004 to further restrict what mail can be received and sent by prisoners.
Emergency services response
Commissioner Bush said police were at the first scene within minutes of the incident being reported at 1:42 p.m. It was initially understood that the arrest had taken 36 minutes, but it was later clarified that it had taken 21 minutes. In response to criticism that police were too slow to react, District Commander John Price said: "That is an incredibly fast response time. You had a mobile offender across a large metropolitan city."
St. John Ambulance sent 20 ambulances and other vehicles to the mosques. Most of the wounded were taken to Christchurch Hospital. Forty-eight people with gunshot wounds, including young children, were treated at the hospital, with some taken to other hospitals within Christchurch and nationally.Canterbury District Health Board activated its mass-casualty plan. Paramedics describe a 'river of blood' coming out of the mosque and having to step over bodies to collect the wounded.
Police advised all mosques in the country to close until further notice, and sent officers to secure various sites in Christchurch. All Air New Zealand Link services departing from Christchurch Airport were cancelled as a precaution, due to the absence of security screening at the regional terminal. Security was increased at Parliament, and public tours of the buildings were cancelled. In Dunedin, the Armed Offenders Squad searched a house, later reported to have been rented by the alleged gunman, and cordoned off part of the surrounding street in Andersons Bay because the attacker had indicated on social media that he had originally planned to target the Al Huda Mosque in that city.
For the first time in New Zealand history, the terrorism threat level was raised to high. Prime Minister Ardern called the incident an "act of extreme and unprecedented violence" on "one of New Zealand's darkest days". She described it as a "well-planned" terrorist attack. She said she would render the person accused of the attacks "nameless" and urged the public to speak the victims' names instead. A meeting of the Officials Committee for Domestic and External Security Co-ordination was convened to coordinate the government's response. Ardern, who had just left a school climate-strike rally in New Plymouth, returned to her hotel along with the Minister for Security and Intelligence, Andrew Little, to give a press statement. Ardern cancelled her remaining public engagements scheduled for that day, including opening the WOMAD international arts festival. She then boarded an RNZAF plane to fly to Wellington to join official meetings taking place at the Beehive. Ardern issued a directive that flags on "all Government and public buildings" should be flown at half-mast until further notice.
Cabinet agreed to hold an inquiry into the attacks, and announced on 25 March that it would take the form of a royal commission of inquiry. Little told Radio New Zealand, "I have given authority to the agencies to do intrusive activities under warrant, the number of those (warrants) I’m not at liberty to disclose." He said that the intelligence services usually put 30 to 40 people under monitoring at a time. Although more people than usual were being monitored, he was not willing to reveal how many. He also stated that the operations could be anything from physical surveillance to watching telecommunications activity.
On 8 April 2019, Prime Minister Ardern confirmed the terms of reference for the Royal Commission of Inquiry, and announced that Supreme Court justice Sir William Young would chair the inquiry.
In May 2019 the NZ Tranport Authority offered to replace any vehicle number plates with the prefix "GUN" (issued in 2013) on request, although they were not withdrawn.
In mid-October 2019, Prime Minister Ardern awarded bravery awards to the two police officers who had apprehended the alleged shooter Tarrant at the annual Police Association Conference in Wellington. Due to the legal proceedings against Tarrant, the two officers have interim name suppression.
Within an hour of the attacks, all schools in the city were placed in "lockdown". Some schoolchildren in lockdown still had their mobile phones, and some were able to view the footage of the first attack online. School strikers at the Global School Strike rally in Cathedral Square, near the sites of the attacks, were advised by police either to seek refuge in public buildings or go home. In response to security concerns, the University of Otago postponed its sesquicentennial street parade which had been scheduled for 16 March.
Vigil in Wellington for the victims of the Christchurch mosques attacks
Two concerts scheduled to be held in Christchurch on 17 March—by singer-songwriter Bryan Adams and the thrash-metal band Slayer—were also cancelled. The Polynesian cultural festival Polyfest was cancelled after the shootings, with security concerns cited as the reason. The music and cultural festival WOMAD went ahead in New Plymouth despite the attacks, with armed police stationed around the festival perimeter, inside the event, and outside artists' hotels.
The mosques involved in the attacks, and others around the country and the world, have become the focus of vigils, messages, and floral tributes. The mayor of Christchurch, Lianne Dalziel, encouraged people to lay flowers outside the city's Botanic Gardens. As a mark of sympathy and solidarity, school pupils and other groups performed haka and waiata to honour those killed in the attacks. Street gangs including the Mongrel Mob, Black Power, and the King Cobras sent members to mosques around the country to help protect them during prayer time. One week after the attacks, an open-air Friday prayer service was held in Hagley Park. Broadcast nationally on radio and television, it was attended by 20,000 people, including Ardern, who said "New Zealand mourns with you. We are one." The imam of the Al Noor Mosque thanked New Zealanders for their support and added, "We are broken-hearted but we are not broken." A national remembrance service was held on 29 March, a fortnight after the attacks.
Fundraisers and philanthropy
An online fundraiser on the fundraising website "Givealittle" started to support victims and their families has, as of 20 March 2019,[ref] raised over NZ$6.7 million. Counting other fundraisers, a combined total of $8.4 million has been raised for the victims and their families (as of 20 March 2019).[update] Prime Minister Ardern reiterated that those injured or killed in the shootings and their immediate families are covered by the country's accident-compensation scheme, ACC, which offers compensation for lost income and a $10,000 funeral grant, among other benefits.
In late June, it was reported that the Jewish Federation of Greater Pittsburgh had raised more than NZ$967,500 (US$650,000) through its New Zealand Islamophobia Attack Fund for the victims of the Christchurch mosque shootings. This amount included $60,000 raised by Tree of Life – Or L'Simcha Congregation. These funds will be donated to the Christchurch Foundation, a registered charity which has been receiving money to support victims of the Christchurch shootings. This philanthropy was inspired by local Muslim support for the Pittsburgh Jewish community following the Pittsburgh synagogue shooting in late October 2018.
Police arrested four people on 15 March in relation to the attacks, including a woman and a man, after finding a firearm in a vehicle in which they were travelling together. The woman was released uncharged, but the man was held in custody and was charged with a firearms offence. Additionally, a 30-year-old man said he was arrested when he arrived, unarmed, at Papanui High School to pick up his 13-year-old brother-in-law. He was in camouflage clothing, which he said he habitually wore. He said police gave him a verbal warning for disorderly behaviour. He is seeking compensation for a wrongful arrest. The actions were defended by police, who mentioned the threat level after the massacre and that they had to deal with reports possibly related to the attacks.
Outside New Zealand
On 18 March 2019, the Australian Federal Police's NSW Joint Counter Terrorism Team conducted raids on the homes of suspected gunman Brenton Tarrant's sister and mother near Coffs Harbour and Maclean in New South Wales. These raids were carried out by Australian Police to assist New Zealand Police with their investigation into the Christchurch mosque shootings. Tarrant's sister and mother reportedly cooperated with Australian police.
A 24-year-old man from Oldham, Greater Manchester, United Kingdom was arrested on 16 March for sending Facebook posts in support of the shooting. On 20 March, an employee for Transguard, a company based in the United Arab Emirates, was fired by his company and deported for making comments supporting the shooting as well.
In Canada, neo-Nazis Paul Fromm and Kevin Goudreau were put under investigation after the former shared the manifesto of the shooter on the website of his organization Canadian Association for Free Expression.
A 22-year old self-described "Folk Odinist" and founder of a Facebook group known as Odin's Warriors, Thomas Alan Bolin and his cousin Austin Witkowski attempted to commit a copycat attack in Baltimore, Maryland. Under the aliases "Peter Vincent" and "Ragnar Odinson", the duo sent threatening messages on Facebook Messenger and planned to buy food, ammunition and firearms in preparation for a similar attack. Bolin also praised the Christchurch shooter's live-stream and manifesto, saying "Brugh dude killed 40 Muslims". Bolin was later convicted of lying to the FBI for claiming he did not possess any firearms.
Nine days after the attack, an arson attack against a mosque in California was committed at Escondido. Police found graffiti on the mosque's driveway that referenced the Christchurch shootings, leading the police to consider the fire as a terrorist attack. The Poway synagogue shooting took place on 27 April 2019, killing one person and injuring three others. The perpetrator, John T. Earnest, claimed responsibility for the previous mosque fire and praised the Christchurch shootings in a manifesto. Both the perpetrator and Tarrant were radicalized on 8chan's /pol/ discussion board.
On 3 August 2019, Patrick Crusius killed 22 people and injured 24 others in a mass shooting at a Walmart in El Paso, Texas. In a manifesto posted to 8chan's /pol/ board, Crusius expressed support for and inspiration by the Christchurch mosque shootings.
On 10 August 2019, Philip Manshaus attacked a mosque in Bærum, Norway, injuring one person. He also attempted to livestream the attack on Facebook. Manshaus had made posts online referring to Tarrant as a saint and posted a meme depicting Tarrant, Crusius, and Earnest as "heroes".
Several world leaders spoke and offered condolences after the attacks.
Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern visited members of the Muslim community at the Phillipstown Community Hub in Christchurch the day after the attacks.
Queen Elizabeth II, New Zealand's head of state, said she was "deeply saddened" by the attacks. Other politicians and world leaders also condemned the attacks,[note 1] with some attributing them to rising Islamophobia. The prime minister of Pakistan, Imran Khan, announced that Pakistani emigrant Naeem Rashid, who charged at the gunman and died as a result of the attack on the Al Noor Mosque, would be posthumously honoured with a national award for his courage. The prime minister of Bangladesh, Sheikh Hasina, announced that "In the future, whenever we send our cricket team abroad, we will do that after examining and reviewing the security matters of the host countries" and added that Bangladesh had always provided highest security to visiting foreign teams.Serbia's Foreign Minister Ivica Dačić condemned the Christchurch attack and said that the shooter "has nothing to do with Serbia." Serbian President Aleksandar Vučić criticized media for implying that Serbs should be blamed for the shootings.
The president of Turkey, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, showed footage taken by the attacker to his supporters at campaign rallies for upcoming[update]local elections. The New Zealand and Australian governments, as well as Turkey's main opposition party, have criticised his actions. U.S. President Donald Trump condemned the "horrible massacre". When asked after the attacks if he thought white nationalists were a growing threat around the world, Trump replied "I don't really. I think it's a small group of people that have very, very serious problems. It's certainly a terrible thing."
Two New Zealand-based anti-immigration groups, the Dominion Movement and the New Zealand National Front, quickly condemned the attacks, distanced themselves from the perpetrator, and shut down their websites. A number of 8chan users praised the attacks and made photo and video edits of the shooting. The United Kingdom's domestic intelligence service, MI5, launched an inquiry into the gunman's possible links to the British far right. Some extremists were inspired by Tarrant and praised him as a "saint" online and caused massacres of their own in Poway, El Paso and Norway.
Copies of the live-streamed video were reposted on many platforms and file-sharing websites, including Facebook,LiveLeak, and YouTube. Police, Muslim-advocacy groups and government agencies urged anyone who found the footage to take it down or report it. The New Zealand Office of Film and Literature Classification quickly classified the video as "objectionable", making it a criminal offence in the country to distribute, copy, or exhibit the video, with potential penalties of up to 14 years' imprisonment for an individual, or up to $100,000 in fines for a corporation.
Arrests and prosecutions
At least eight people have been arrested for possessing or sharing the video or manifesto, most subject to name suppression to prevent either threats against them or support of freedom of expression online. An 18-year-old man was arrested and charged with inciting racial disharmony under the Human Rights Act. Although authorities said he was not involved in the shootings, he was denied bail, and faces up to 14 years in prison if convicted on all charges. He appeared in Christchurch District Court on 18 March faced with a charge of distributing the video, and a second charge of making an objectionable publication by posting, between 8 and 15 March, a photo of the Al Noor Mosque bearing the message "target acquired", as well as other chat messages "inciting extreme violence".
On 19 March, an Australian man who had posted on social media praising the Christchurch shootings, was indicted on one count of aggravated possession of a firearm without a licence and four counts of using or possessing a prohibited weapon. He was released on bail on the condition that he stay offline.
On 20 March, Christchurch man Philip Arps was indicted on two charges of sharing a live-stream of the mosque shootings under the Films, Videos, and Publications Classification Act 1993. He was denied bail and was remanded in custody until his next court appearance, scheduled for 15 April. His company also attracted criticism for its use of Nazi symbols. Arps subsequently pleaded guilty to two charges of distributing video footage of the Al Noor attack, one count of sharing the accused live-stream footage to approximately 30 people on Facebook, and requesting that another person add a cross-hair and kill count to the footage. In June 2019, he was sentenced to 21 months' imprisonment. On 27 August, Arps had his appeal against his sentence dismissed. Arps had also expressed neo-Nazi views and sent letters advocating violence against New Zealand politicians.
On 2 July 2019, a 16-year-old boy pleaded guilty to possessing footage of the Christchurch shootings. Though he was released on bail to appear at a Family Group Conference on 30 July, he was subsequently returned to prison on 9 July for breaching his bail conditions. On 12 July, a Dunedin man appeared in the Dunedin District Court on the charge of possessing footage of the Christchurch mosque shootings among other charges. He was remanded in custody.
Several media organisations in Australia and tabloid-news websites in the UK broadcast parts of the video, up to the point the gunman entered the building, despite pleas from the New Zealand Police not to show it.Sky Television New Zealand temporarily stopped its syndication of Sky News Australia after that network showed the footage, and said it was working with Sky News Australia to prevent further displays of the video. At least three Internet service providers in New Zealand blocked access to 8chan and other sites related to the attacks, and have temporarily blocked other sites hosting the video such as 4chan, LiveLeak, and Mega until they comply with requests to take down copies of the video. The administrator of the online message board Kiwi Farms refused a New Zealand Police request for the data of users who made posts related to the suspect and the attacks.
Social media sites including Facebook, YouTube, Reddit, and Twitter said they were working diligently to remove the video from their platforms and would also remove anything posted in support of the attacks. According to Facebook, no complaints were made about the video until 12 minutes after the live-stream ended; the original video from the attacker himself had been viewed fewer than 200 times before Facebook was notified of its content, and it had been viewed only 4,000 times before it was removed, which happened within minutes of notification. Facebook created a digital hash fingerprint to detect further uploads, however by this point the video had been propagated on other sites. Facebook said it had blocked 1.5 million uploads of the video and images from it in the day after the attacks, including edited versions, with most blocking occurring through use of the fingerprint to prevent visibility. Reddit banned "subreddits" named "WatchPeopleDie" and "Gore", saying threads there had glorified the attacks, in violation of user agreements. Microsoft, in light of how social media sites handled the content related to the shooting, proposed the establishment of industry-wide standards that would flag such content quickly, and, in the wake of similar major events, operate a joint virtual command center to manage and control the spread of such information via social media.
Despite the networks' attempts to self-police, New Zealand officials and other world leaders have asked them to take responsibility for extremist content posted on their services. Australia introduced legislation that would fine content providers and potentially imprison their executives if they do not remove violent imagery of these types of attacks. The French Council of the Muslim Faith filed a lawsuit against Facebook and YouTube, accusing the companies of "broadcasting a message with violent content abetting terrorism, or of a nature likely to seriously violate human dignity and liable to be seen by a minor". Facebook has contested the lawsuit, stating, "Acts of terror and hate speech have no place on Facebook, and our thoughts are with the families of the victims and the entire community affected by this tragedy. We have taken many steps to remove this video from our platform, we are cooperating with the authorities".
Stuart Bender of Curtin University in Perth noted that the use of live video as an integral part of the attacks "makes [them] a form of 'performance crime' where the act of video recording and/or streaming the violence by the perpetrator is a central component of the violence itself, rather than being incidental." Just before carrying out the attacks, the gunman said to-camera, "Remember lads, subscribe to PewDiePie", referring to the most subscribed YouTuber at the time, Felix Kjellberg, who goes by the alias PewDiePie. The apparent intent, as with the manifesto, was to spread news of the attacks—in this case to Kjellberg's followers, who number in the tens of millions. Kjellberg later called for the phrase to be discontinued. In response, Kjellberg tweeted, "Just heard news of the devastating reports from New Zealand Christchurch. I feel absolutely sickened having my name uttered by this person. My heart and thoughts go out to the victims, families and everyone affected by this tragedy."
Gun laws in New Zealand came under scrutiny in the aftermath, specifically the legality of military-style semi-automatic rifles compared to Australia, which banned them after the Port Arthur massacre, in 1996. In 2018, for example, it was reported that of the 1.5 million registered firearms in New Zealand, 15,000 were semi-automatic weapons. As Philip Alpers of GunPolicy.org noted, "New Zealand is almost alone with the United States in not registering 96 percent of its firearms ... one can assume that the ease of obtaining these firearms may have been a factor in his decision to commit the crime in Christchurch." Cabinet, however, remains undecided on the creation of a register.
Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern announced: "Our gun laws will change, now is the time ... People will be seeking change, and I am committed to that." She continued, "There have been attempts to change our laws in 2005, 2012 and after an inquiry in 2017. Now is the time for change." Attorney-General David Parker was later quoted as saying that the government would ban semi-automatic guns, but subsequently backtracked, saying that the government had not yet committed to anything and that regulations around semi-automatic weapons was "one of the issues" the government would consider.
The day after the attacks, some gun-store owners reported an increase in sales, particularly of semi-automatic weapons, in response to the prospect of stricter laws.
The New Zealand auction website Trade Me banned the sale of semi-automatic weapons on its platform, and some gun owners responded to the attacks by voluntarily handing in their weapons to police.
At a press conference on 18 March, Ardern said details of the proposed reforms would be given by 25 March. On 21 March, she announced a ban, adding that she was working to have legislation in place as early as 11 April. As a transitional measure, from 3:00 pm that day, some semi-automatic rifles and shotguns were classified as requiring the owner to hold a licence with an "E" endorsement. "After a reasonable period for returns, those who continue to possess these firearms will be in contravention of the law," Radio New Zealand reported. A "gun buy-back" scheme was also considered.
^Australian prime minister Scott Morrison expressed support for New Zealand and condemned the shootings as a "violent, extremist, right-wing terrorist attack." He confirmed that an Australian had been detained as a suspect in connection with the attack. British prime minister Theresa May described the incident as a "horrifying terrorist attack", and said "my thoughts are with all of those affected by this sickening act of violence". Canadian prime minister Justin Trudeau expressed "deepest condolences" and said "Canada remembers too well the sorrow we felt when a senseless attack on the Centre culturel islamique de Québec in Ste-Foy claimed the lives of many innocent people gathered in prayer", referencing the Quebec City mosque shooting in 2017. U.S. president Donald Trump extended his "warmest sympathy and best wishes...to the people of New Zealand", and he and the FBI offered them assistance while security at mosques around the United States was increased. Russian president Vladimir Putin sent Prime Minister Ardern a message of condolence, saying "This attack on civilians who gathered for prayer is shocking in its violence and cynicism". The lighting of the Ostankino Tower in Moscow, the tallest free-standing structure in Europe, was off for one hour as a sign of mourning. King Salman of Saudi Arabia said: "The heinous massacre of the worshipers at mosques in New Zealand is a terrorist act." He also called on the international community to confront hate speech and terrorism. Cardinal Pietro Parolin, the Secretary of State of Vatican City, sent a letter of condolences on behalf of Pope Francis, assuring the Muslim community in New Zealand of the Pope's, "heartfelt solidarity in the wake of these attacks," and stating that, "His Holiness prays for the healing of the injured, the consolation of those who grieve the loss of their loved ones, and for all affected by this tragedy."
Prime Minister Narendra Modi of India expressed "deep shock and sadness" over the deaths and expressed India's solidarity with the people of New Zealand. Condolences were also provided by Azerbaijani, Bangladeshi, Bruneian, Cambodian, Chinese, Fijian, Filipino, Hungarian, Indonesian, Japanese, South Korean, Kosovar, Malaysian, Pakistani, Singaporean, Taiwanese, Thai, Turkish, and Vietnamese leaders.
^Wall, Tony; Ensor, Blair; Vance, Andrea (27 July 2014). "A Kiwi Lad's Death by Drone". Sunday Star-Times. Auckland. Retrieved 2 August 2019. [Daryl] Jones was killed alongside Australian Christopher Havard, whose parents said he was introduced to radical Islam at the Al-Noor mosque in Christchurch. Mosque leaders confirmed Havard stayed there and studied in 2011, but denied radical teaching took place.
^"Christchurch Mosque Linked to al-Qaida Suspect". Newshub. Auckland. 4 June 2014. His parents … say their son told them he was first taught radical Islam at the Al Noor mosque…. ‘[He was] no different than other people,’ says mosque president Mohamed Jama. ‘He was a normal man.’
^Matthewson, Nicole (3 December 2015). "Fighting, Killing 'Not the Muslim Way'". The Press. Christchurch, NZ. Retrieved 20 March 2019. Jackson, of the National Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies … said … ‘Just because they were attending a mosque at the time, doesn't mean the mosque was connected.’ … Morris, a specialist in world religions, said … ‘It creates an opportunity for these issues to be raised and addressed.’
^"'Heroes every single day'". Ten One Magazine. New Zealand Police. 16 March 2019. Retrieved 24 March 2019. A 28-year-old man has been charged with one count of murder and has been remanded to the High Court to reappear on 5 April.
^ ab"Mossad behind Christchurch attacks, head of New Zealand's biggest mosque claims". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved 27 May 2019. “I stand here and I say I have a very very strong suspicion that there’s some group behind him and I am not afraid to say I feel Mossad is behind this,” he said as a person in the audience shouted “It’s the truth. Israel is behind this. That’s right!” Bhamji continued: “And not only them. There are some business houses, also, who are around … you know, Zionist business houses that are behind him.”
^"49 killed in terrorist attack at mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand". Washington Post. Retrieved 15 March 2019. Further afield, Felix Kjellberg, a YouTube celebrity from Sweden who goes by "PewDiePie" and flirts openly with Nazi symbolism, distanced himself from the violence after the man who live-streamed his rampage asked viewers to "subscribe to PewDiePie.