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Chinese emperors family tree (middle)

The following is a family tree of Chinese emperors (420-1279), from the Northern and Southern dynasties period, of first half of the fifth century AD, until the conquest of China by the Mongols under Kublai Khan, and the end of the Southern Song dynasty in 1279.

Chinese emperors family tree (ancient)Chinese emperors family tree (early)Chinese emperors family tree (middle)Chinese emperors family tree (late)

Southern and Northern Dynasties

Liu Song

Liu Song
Liu Yu 刘裕 (363–422)
Liu Yu,Song Wudi.png
Wudi
(r. 420–422)1
Liu Yifu 刘义符 (406–424)
Shao
(r. 423–424)2
Liu Yilong 刘义隆 (407–453)
Wen
(r. 424–453)3
Liu Yikang
劉義康 (409–451)
Liu Shao
刘劭
426–453; r. 4534
Liu Jun (430–464)
Xiaowu
(r. 453–464)5
Liu Jun
劉濬 (429–453)
Prince Shixing
Liu Yu 刘彧 (439–472)
Ming
(r. 465–472)7
Liu Xiufan 刘休范
(448–474)
Liu Ziye 刘子业 (449–466)
Qianfei
(r. 464–466)6
Liu Zixun
(劉子勛)
(456–466; r. 466)
Liu Yu (劉昱) (463–477)
Houfei
(r. 472–477)8
Liu Zhun (劉準) (469–479)
Shun
(r. 477–479)9

Southern Qi

Southern Qi
Xiao Chengzhi 萧承之
(384–447)
Xiao Daosheng 萧道生Xiao Daocheng 蕭道成 (427–482)
Gao
(r. 479–482)1
Xiao Luan 蕭鸞 (452–498)
Ming
(r. 494–498)5
Xiao Ni
蕭嶷 444–492
Wenxian of Yuzhang
Xiao Ze 蕭賾 (440–493)
Wu
(r. 482–493)2
Xiao Baojuan
蕭寶卷
(483–501; r. 498–501)6
Xiao Baoyin
蕭寶寅
(487–530; r. 527)
Xiao Baorong 蕭寶融 (488–502)
He
(r. 501–502)7
Xiao Zhangmao
蕭長懋 (458–493)
Wen 文皇帝
Xiao Zhaoye
蕭昭業
473–494; r. 493–4943
Xiao Zhaowen
蕭昭文
480–494; r. 4944

Liang dynasty and Western Liang

Liang dynasty and Western Liang

– Liang emperors

– Western Liang emperors

– Liang throne pretenders

Xiao Shunzhi
萧顺之
Xiao Yi 萧懿 (d. 500)Xiao Yan 蕭衍
Wu
(464–502–549)
Xiao Xiu 蕭秀
475–518
Xiao Hong
蕭宏
473–526
Xiao Yuanming
蕭淵明 d. 556; r. 555
Xiao Tong
萧统 (501–531)
Xiao Gang 蕭綱
Jianwen
503–549–551
Xiao Yi 蕭繹
Yuan
508–552–554–555
Xiao Ji 蕭紀
508–552–553
Xiao Zhengde
蕭正德
d. 549; r. 548–549
Xiao Huan 萧欢Xiao Cha 蕭詧
Xuan
519–555–562
Xiao Daqi
蕭大器
524–551
Xiao Fangdeng
蕭方等 (528–549)
Xiao Fangzhi 蕭方智
Jing
543–555–557
Xiao Dong
萧栋 d. 552; r. 551
Xiao Kui 蕭巋
Ming
542–562–585
Xiao Yan 蕭巖Xiao Zhuang
蕭莊
548–557–560–577?
Empress Xiao
蕭皇后 566?–648
Xiao Yu 蕭瑀
574–647
Xiao Cong 蕭琮
Jing
r. 585–587
Xiao Xuan 萧璿
Xiao Xian 萧铣
583–621;
r. 617–621

Chen dynasty

Chen dynasty emperors family tree
Chen Wenzan
陈文赞
Chen Daotan 陈道谭Chen Baxian 陳霸先 (503–559)
Wu
(r. 557–559)
Chen Qian 陳蒨 (522–566)
Wen
(r. 559–566)
Chen Xu 陈顼 (530–582)
Xuan
(r. 569–582)
Chen Chang
陳昌 (537–560)
Chen Bozong 陳伯宗 (554?–570)
Fei
(r. 566–568)
Chen Shubao
陈叔宝
553–604; r. 582–589
Chen Shuda
陳叔達 d. 635
Ningyuan
寧遠公主 577–605
Emperor Wen
of Sui
Chen Yin 陳胤 b.573Chen Shen 陳深 b.575

Northern Wei, Eastern Wei, Western Wei

Tuoba / Yuan clan, Wei emperors family tree

Legend:

  • Eastern Wei emperors
  • – Northern Wei throne pretenders
See Tuoba clan
Dai state
family tree
Tuoba Gui
Daowu
371–386–409
Tuoba Xi
399–421
Tuoba Si
Mingyuan
392–409–423
Tuoba Ta
416–488
Tuoba Tao
Taiwu
408–423–452
Yuan ZhongkuiTuoba Huang
428–451
Tuoba Yu
452
Yuan Faseng
453–536
Tuoba Jun
Wencheng
440–452–465
Tuoba Zhen
447–496
Tuoba Hong
Xianwen
454–465–
471
–476
Yuan YiYuan Bin
464–499
Tuoba Hong
Xiaowen
467–471–499
Yuan Yu
470–501
Yuan Yong
d. 528
Yuan Xiang
476–504
Yuan Xie
d. 508
Yuan Ye
530–531;
d. 532
Yuan Rong
481–526
Yuan Ke
Xuanwu
483–499–515
Yuan Xun
483–497
Yuan Yu
488–508
Yuan Yi
487–520
Yuan Huai
488–517
Yuan Yue
494–532
Yuan XinYuan Gong
Jiemin
498–531–532
Yuan Yu
d. 555
Yuan Hao
d. 529
Yuan Shao
d. 528
Yuan Ziyou
Xiaozhuang
507–528–531
Yuan Lang
513–531–532
Yuan Xu
Xiaoming
510–515–528
Yuan BaohuiYuan Baoju
Wen
507–535–551
Yuan Dan
d. 537
Yuan Ti
506–528
Yuan Xiu
Xiaowu
510–532–535
Yuan
Huangtou
daughter
b./r. 528
Yuan Zhao
526–528
Yuan Qin
Fei
551–554
Yuan Kuo
Gong
537–554–
556
–557
Yuan Shanjian
Xiaojing
524–534–
550
–552
Yuan Zan

Northern Qi

Northern Qi emperors
Gao Huan
高欢 (496–547)
Gao Cheng
高澄 (521–549)
Gao Yang 高洋 (526–559)
Wenxuan
(r. 550–559)
Empress Gao
高皇后
Gao Yan 高演 (535–561)
Xiaozhao
(r. 560–561)
Gao Zhan 高湛 (537–569)
Wucheng
(r. 561–565)
Gao Jie
高湝(?–577)
Gao Changgong
高长恭 d. 573
Prince of
Lanling 蘭陵王
Gao Yanzong
高延宗 (?–578; r. 576)
Gao Yin 高殷 (545–561)
Fei
(r. 559–560)
Gao Shaoyi
高紹義
(b. 546; r. 578–580)
Gao Bainian
高百年 556–564
Gao Wei 高緯 (557–577)
Houzhu
(r. 565–577)
Gao Yan
高儼

(558–571)
Gao Heng 高恆 (570–577)
Youzhu
(r. 577)

Northern Zhou

Northern Zhou emperors family tree
Yuwen Gong
宇文肱 (d.526)
Yuan Huai 元怀
(488–517)
Yuwen Hao
宇文顥
(d. 524)
Princess
Fengyi
(d. 541)
Yuwen Tai
宇文泰
(507–556)
Emp. Xiaowu
of Northern Wei
r. 532–535
Dugu Xin
獨孤信
504–557
Yuwen Hu
宇文護
(513–572)
Yuwen Jue 宇文覺
(542–557)

Xiaomin
(r. 557)
1
Yuwen Xian
宇文憲 545–578
Yuwen Yong
宇文邕 (543–578)

Wu
(r. 560–578)
3
Yuwen Yu 宇文毓
(534–560)

Ming
(r. 557–560)
2
Empress
Dugu

獨孤王后
d.558
Dugu Qieluo
獨孤伽羅
544–602
Emperor
Wen of Sui

r. 581–604
Duchess
Dugu
Yuwen Yun 宇文贇
(559–580)

Xuan
(r. 578–579)
4
Yang Lihua
楊麗華
561–609
Sui dynastyEmperor
Gaozu of Tang

r. 618–626
Yuwen Yan 宇文衍
(573–581)

Jing
(r. 579–581)
5
Tang dynasty

Sui dynasty

The following is a simplified family tree for the Sui dynasty (隋朝), which ruled China between AD 581 and 618. The dynasty was named for the family title: the Yang (楊) family were the Dukes of Sui.

Those who became emperor are listed in bold, with their years of reign large. The names given for emperors are posthumous names, the form by which Sui emperors were most commonly known.

Sui dynasty
Dugu Xin 獨孤信
SUI DYNASTY
Yang Jian 楊坚 541–604
Wendi 文帝
581–604
Dugu Qieluo
獨孤伽羅 544–602
Empress Xian 獻皇后
Duchess DuguLi Bing 李昺 d. 572
Duke of Tang 唐國公
12345TANG DYNASTY
Yang Yong 楊勇
d. 604
Prince of Fangling 房陵王
Yang Guang 楊廣 569–618
Yangdi 煬帝
604–617
Yang Jun 楊俊
571–600
Prince of Qin 秦孝王
Yang Xiu 楊秀
573–618
Yang Liang
楊諒
575–605
Li Yuan 李淵 566–635
Gaozu 高祖
618–626
123
Yang Zhao 楊昭
584–606
Cr.Prince Yuande
元德太子
Yang Jian 楊暕
585–618
Prince of Qi 齊王
Yang Gao
楊杲 607–618
Prince of Zhao 趙王
Yang Hao
楊浩 d. 618
Prince of Qin 秦王

618?
123
Yang Tan 楊倓
603–618
Prince of Yan 燕王
Yang Tong 楊侗 605–619
Gongdi 恭帝
618–619
Yang You 楊侑 605–619
Gongdi 恭帝
617–618

Tang and Second Zhou dynasties

The following is a simplified family tree for the Tang dynasty (唐朝), which ruled China between AD 618 and 907. The Tang dynasty was interrupted by the reign of Empress Wu Zetian (AD 690–705), who after deposing her sons, declared herself the founder of a second Zhou (周) dynasty; the Tang dynasty was resumed by her sons following her abdication. The dynasty was named for the family title: the Li (李) family were the Dukes of Tang.

The names given in bold for emperors are temple names, the form by which Tang emperors were most commonly known (with the exception of Shangdi/Shaodi (殤帝 / 少帝), whose posthumous titles mean simply "died young" and "the young emperor", and Aidi (哀帝), also known as Zhaoxuan (昭宣), neither of whom were awarded temple names). It should be noted that the names of Xuanzong I (玄宗) and Xuanzong II (宣宗) are originally different in Mandarin Chinese, but are rendered the same in Pinyin English transliteration (once the tones have been removed).

Tang and Second Zhou dynasties

The Tang emperors claimed descent from people such as Li Guang and Laozi

Li Yuan 李淵 566–635
TangGaozu.jpg
Gaozu 高祖
618–6261
124
Li Jiancheng
李建成 589–626
Cr. Prince Yin 隱太子
Li Shimin 李世民 598–649
Tang Emperor Taizong 2.jpg
Taizong 太宗
626–6492
Li Yuanji 李元吉
603–626
Prince of Qi 齊王
Wu Shihuo 武士彠
559–635
King Zhongxiao 忠孝王
13489ZHOU DYNASTY
Li Chengqian
李承乾 619–645
Prince Min of
Hengshan 恆山愍王
Li Ke 李恪
d. 653
Prince of Yulin 鬱林王
Li Tai 李泰
618–652
Prince Gong
of Pu 濮恭王
Li Zhen 李貞
d. 688
Prince Jing
of Yue 越敬王
Li Zhi 李治 628–683
Gaozong of Tang.jpg
Gaozong 高宗

649–6833
Wu Zhao 武曌 624–705
Wu Zetian 武則天
690–7051(6)
145 (1)6 (2)7 (3)8 (4)(6)
Li Zhong 李忠
643–665
Prince of Yan 燕王
Li Sujie 李素節
646–690
Prince of Xu 許王
Li Hong 李弘
652–675

Xiaojing 孝敬
Li Xian
李賢 653–684
Cr. Prince Zhanghuai
章懷太子
Li Xian 李顯 656–710
Tang Zhongzong.png
Zhongzong 中宗
684, 705–7104
Li Dan 李旦 662–716
Tang Ruizong.png
Ruizong 睿宗
684–690,
710–7125
Princess Taiping
太平公主
665(?)–713
2123413
Li Shouli 李守礼
672–741
Cr. Prince Xima
Li Chongrun
李重潤 682–701
Cr. Prince Yide
懿德太子
Li Chongfu 李重福
680–710
Prince Qiao 譙王
Li Chongjun 李重俊
d. 707
Cr. Prince Jiemin
節愍太子
Li Chongmao 李重茂
695/698–714

Shangdi 殤帝
7107
Li Guo'er 李裹兒
684(?)–710

Princess Anle
安樂公主
Li Chengqi 李成器
679–742

Rangdi 讓帝
Li Longji 李隆基 685–762
Tang XianZong.jpg
Xuanzong 玄宗
712–7568
112316
Li Chenghong
李承宏
Pr. of Guangwu 廣武王

Emperor in Chang'an
763
Li Cong 李琮
d. 752

Fengtian 奉天
Li Ying 李瑛
d. 737
Crown Prince
Li Heng 李亨 711–762
TangSuzong.jpg
Suzong 肅宗
756–7629
Li Lin 李璘
d. 757
Prince of Yong 永王
139
Li Yu 李豫 727–779
Tang Daizong.jpg
Daizong 代宗
762–77910
Li Tan 李倓
d. 757

Chengtian 承天
Li Guang
李僙 d. 791
Prince of Xiang
11
Li Gua 李适 742–805
Tang Dezong.jpg
Dezong 德宗
779–80511
Li Xuan 李宣
Prince of Yiwu
伊吾郡王
1
Li Song 李誦 761–806
Shunzong 順宗
80512
1
Li Chun 李純 778–820
Tang Xianzong.jpg
Xianzong 憲宗
805–82013
Li Yun 李熅 d. 887
Prince of Xiang 襄王
Emperor in Chang'an
886–887
13613
Li Ning 李寧
793–812
Cr. Prince Huizhao
Li Heng 李恆 795–824
Muzong 穆宗
820–82414
Li Wu 李悟
d. 826
Prince of Jiàng 絳王
Li Chen 李忱 810–859
Xuānzong 宣宗
846–85918
1234515
Li Zhan 李湛 809–827
Jingzong 敬宗
824–82715
Li Ang 李昂 809–840
Wenzong 文宗
827–84016
Li Cou
李湊 d. 835
Cr. Prince Huaiyi
Li Rong 李溶
812–840
Prince of An 安王
Li Yan 李炎 814–846
Tang Wuzong.jpg
Wuzong 武宗
840–84617
Li Cui 李漼 833–873
Yizong 懿宗
859–87319
Li Zi
李滋 d. 897
Prince of Tong 通王
1157
Li Pu 李普 824–828
Cr. Prince Daohuai
悼懷太子
Li Chengmei
李成美 d. 840
Prince of Chen 陳王
Li Yong 李永 d. 838
Cr. Prince Zhuangke
莊恪太子
Li Xuan 李儇 862–888
Xizong 僖宗
873–88820
Li Yue 李曄 867–904
Zhaozong 昭宗
888–90421
19
Li Yu 李裕 d. 905
Prince of De 德王
Li Zhu 李柷 892–908
Aidi 哀帝 or
Zhaoxuan 昭宣
904–90722

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period

The fifty years between the fall of the Tang dynasty and the establishment of the Song dynasty were a time of upheaval known as the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. During this period, five short-lived imperial dynasties ruled the heart of China, while a series of small independent kingdoms were established in the south.

Later Liang

The Later Liang ruled between 907 and 923.

Later Liang
Zhu Wen 朱溫 852–912
Emperor Taizu of Later Liang Zhu Wen.jpg
Taizu 太祖
907–912
38
Zhu Yougui
朱友圭 d. 913
912–913
Zhu Zhen 朱瑱 888–923
Modi 末帝
913–923

Later Tang

The Later Tang ruled between 923 and 937.

Later Tang rulers
Adopted
Marriage
Li Keyong
李克用 856–908
Li Ni 李霓
Li Cunxu
李存勖 885–926

Zhuangzong 莊宗
923–926
Li Siyuan
李嗣源 867–933

Mingzong 明宗
926–933
Li Congke
李從珂 885–937

Modi 末帝
934–937
Li Congyi
李從益 931–947
Prince of Xu 許王
Li Congrong
李從榮d. 933
Prince of Qin 秦王
Li Conghou
李從厚 914–934

Mindi 愍帝
933–934
Empress Li
d. 950
Shi Jingtang 石敬瑭
Gaozu of
Later Jin
高祖

892–936–942
Li Chongmei
李重美 d. 937
Prince of Yong 雍王

Later Jin

The Later Jin ruled between 936 and 947.

Later Jin rulers family tree
adopted
Marriage
Li Siyuan 李嗣源
Mingzong 明宗
of (Later) Tang
867–926–933
Shi Shaoyong
石紹雍
Empress Li
d. 950
Shi Jingtang
石敬瑭 892–942

Gaozu
高祖
936–942
Shi Jingru
石敬儒
Shi Chonggui
石重貴 914–974

Chudi
出帝
942–947

Later Han and Northern Han

The Later Han ruled between 947 and 951. Liu Min, brother of Emperor Gaozu the founder of the Later Han, established the Northern Han kingdom, which ruled the area north of the Chinese heartland until it was overrun by Emperor Taizong of Song in 979.

The family tree of the Later Han and Northern Han rulers

– Later Han emperors; – Northern Han emperors

adopted
Marriage
Liu Tian 劉琠
Xianzu 显祖
Liu Zhiyuan 劉知遠 895–948
Gaozu 高祖
947–948
Liu Min 劉旻 895–954
Shizu 世祖
951–954
Liu Chengyou 劉承祐 931–951
Yindi 隱帝
948–951
Liu Yun 劉贇
d.951; r.950
Liu Jun 劉钧 926–968
Ruizong 睿宗
954–968
Xue Zhao
薛钊
Lady Liu
劉氏
Mr. He
何某
Liu Jien 劉继恩 d. 968
Shaozhu 少主
968
Liu Jiyuan 劉继元 d. 992
Yingwudi 英武帝
968–979

Later Zhou

The Later Zhou ruled between 951 and 960.

Later Zhou
Mr. Chai 柴翁
Chai Shouli
柴守礼 896–967
Empress Shengmu
圣穆皇后
Guo Wei 郭威 904–954
Taizu 太祖
951–954
Chai Rong 柴榮 921–959
Shizong 世宗
954–959
Chai Zongxun 柴宗训 953–973
Gongdi 恭帝
959–960

Former Shu

Former Shu
Wang Jian 王建 847–918
Gaozu 高祖
907–918
Wang Yan 王衍 899–925
Houzhu 后主
918–925

Later Shu

The Later Shu kingdom gained independence from the Later Tang in 934, remaining an independent state until conquered by the Song dynasty in 965.

Later Shu
Li Keyong
李克用
856–908
Lady Li
d. 932
Meng Zhixiang
孟知祥 874–934

Gaozu 高祖
934
Empress
Dowager Li

李太后d. 965
Meng Chang 孟昶 919–965
Houzhu 后主
934–965
Consort Xu 徐惠妃 c. 940–976
Madame Huarui
花蕊夫人
Meng Xuanzhe
孟玄喆 937–991
Duke of Teng 滕國公

Wu and Southern Tang

The Wu kingdom existed as an independent state 907–937. In 937 Li Bian (also known as Xu Zhigao), at one point an adopted son of Yang Xingmi and later the adopted son of the paramount general Xu Wen, usurped power and established the Southern Tang kingdom, which remained an independent state until conquered by the Song dynasty in 975.

Southern Tang and Wu

Wu emperors; Southern Tang emperors

Yang Xingmi
杨行密 874–905
Taizu 太祖 902–905
Xu Wen
徐溫 862–927

Yizu 義祖
Yang Wo
杨渥 886–908

Liezu 烈祖
(905–)907–908
Yang Longyan
897–920

Gaozu 高祖
908–920
Yang Pu
杨溥 900–938

Ruidi 睿帝
920–937
Li Bian
李昪 888–943

Liezu 烈祖
937–943
Xú Zhīxùn
(elder)

徐知訓 d. 918
Xú Zhīxùn
徐知詢 d. 934
Kang of Donghai
東海康王
Yang Lian
杨琏 d. 940
Jing of Hongnong
弘農靖王
Princess
Yongxing
永兴公主
917–940
Princess
Shangrao
上饶公主 d. 937
Xu Jingqian
徐景遷 919–937
Ding of Chu 楚定王
Li Jing
李璟 916–961

Yuanzong 元宗
943–961
Li Jingsui
李景遂 920–958
Cr. Prince Wencheng

文成太弟
Li Jingda
李景達 924–971
Cr. Prince Zhaoxiao

昭孝太弟
Li Yu 李煜 937–978
Houzhu 后主
961–975

Wuyue

Rulers family tree
Qian Liu
錢鏐 850–932
Taìzǔ (太祖)
r. 907–9321
Qian Yuanguan
錢元瓘 887–941
Shìzōng (世宗)
r. 932–9412
Qian Hongzun
錢弘僔
925–940
Qian Hongzuo
錢弘佐 928–947
Chéngzōng (成宗)
r. 941–9473
Qián Zōng 錢倧
928–971
r. 9474
Qian Chu
錢俶 929–988
Zhongyi (忠懿王)
r. 947–9785

Min

Min
Wang Nin 王恁
Wang Chao 王潮
b. 846–d. 898
Wang Shenzhi 王審知 b. 862–d. 925
Tàizǔ 太祖
r. 909–925
Wang Shengui
王審邽
b. 858–d. 904
Wang Yanhan 王延翰
r. 925–926; d. 927
Wang Yanjun 王延鈞 d. 935
Huìzōng 惠宗
r. 927–935
Wang Yanxi 王延羲 d. 944
Jǐngzōng (景宗)
r. 939–944
Wang Yanzheng 王延政 d. 951
Tiande (天德帝)
r. 943–945
Wang Jipeng 王繼鵬 d. 939
Kāngzōng (康宗)
r. 935–939

Chu

Chu
Ma Yin 馬殷 (b. 853–d. 930)
Wumu 楚武穆王
r. 907–930
Ma Xizhen 馬希振Ma Xisheng
馬希聲 899–932
r. 930–932
Ma Xifan 馬希範 (899–947)
Wénzhāo 文昭
r. 932–947
Ma Xiwang
馬希旺 d. ~933
Ma Xigao
馬希杲 d. 945
Mǎ Xī'è
馬希萼
r. 950–951
Mǎ Xīchóng
馬希崇 b.912
r. 950–951
Mǎ Xīguǎng
馬希廣 d.950
r. 947–950
Mǎ Guānghuì
马光惠

Southern Han

Southern Han
Liu Zhiqian
劉知謙 (d. 894)
Liu Yin 劉隱
b. 874–d. 911
Liu Yan 劉龑 889–942
Gaozu 高祖
r. 917–942
Liu Tai 劉台
Emperor
Huizong of Min
Liu Hua 劉華
b. 896–d. 930
Liu Hongchang
劉弘昌 d. 944
Prince of Yue 越王
Liu Bin 劉玢 920–943
Shāng 殤皇
r. 942–943
Liu Sheng 劉晟 920–958
Zhongzong
r. 943–958
Liu Honggao
劉弘杲 d. 943
Prince of Xun 循王
Liu Chang 劉鋹
942–980
r. 958–971

Jingnan

Rulers family tree
Gao Jixing 高季興 b. 858–d. 929
Wǔxìng 武信
r. 924–928
Gao Conghui 高從誨 891–948
Wénxiàn 文獻
r. 928–948
Gao Baoxu 高保勗 924–962
Zhenan 貞安王
r. 960–962
Gao Baorong 高保融 920–960
Zhenyi 貞懿王
r. 948–960
Gao Jichong 高繼沖 943–973
Deren 德仁王
r. 962–963

Song dynasty

The following is a simplified family tree for the Song dynasty, which ruled China between 960 and 1279. The names given are temple names, the form by which Song Emperors are most commonly known (with the exception of the last emperor, Bing, who is simply known by his given name). The Song dynasty is often divided into the Northern Song (960–1127), which ended when the Song lost control of Northern China to the Jin dynasty, and the Southern Song (1127–1279).

Song dynasty

– Northern Song emperors
– Southern Song emperors

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
adoption
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zhao Hongyin
趙弘殷 899–956
Xuanzu 宣祖
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2
 
3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zhao Kuangyin 趙匡胤 927–976
Taizu-Song (edited).jpg
Taizu 太祖
960–976
 
Zhao Guangyi 趙光義 939–997
Song Taizong.jpg
Taizong 太宗
976–997
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2
 
4
 
3
 
4
 
 
 
 
Zhao Dezhao
趙德昭 951–979
Prince Yi of Yan 燕懿王
 
Zhao Defang
趙德芳 959–981
Prince Kanghui
of Qin 秦康惠王
 
Zhao Heng 趙恆 968–1022
Song Zhenzong.jpg
Zhenzong 真宗
997–1022
 
Zhao Yuanfen
趙元份 969–1005
Prince Gongjing
of Shang 商恭靖王
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2
 
2
 
6
 
3
 
 
 
 
Zhao Weiji 趙惟吉
Prince Ji 冀王
 
Zhao Weixian
趙惟憲 979–1016
Duke of Ying 英國公
 
Zhao Zhen 趙禎 1010–1063
Renzong.jpg
Renzong 仁宗
1022–1063
 
Zhao Yunrang
趙允讓 995–1059
Prince Anyi of Pu 濮安懿王
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4
 
3
 
 
 
 
 
13
 
 
 
 
Zhao Shoudu 趙守度
Marquess of Lujiang 庐江侯
 
Zhao Congyu 趙從郁
Marquess of Xinxing 新興侯
 
 
 
 
 
Zhao Shu 趙曙 1032–1067
Yingzong.jpg
Yingzong 英宗
1063–1067
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
 
 
 
Zhao Shikuo 趙世括
Duke of Jia 嘉国公
 
Zhao Shijiang 趙世將
Marquess of Huayin 華陰侯
 
 
 
 
 
Zhao Xu 趙頊 1048–1085
Shenzong of Song.jpg
Shenzong 神宗
1067–1085
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6
 
11
 
 
 
 
Zhao Lingjia 趙令稼
Duke of Fang 房国公
 
Zhao Linghua 趙令譮
Duke of Qing 慶國公
 
Zhao Xu 趙煦 1076–1100
宋哲宗.jpg
Zhezong 哲宗
1085–1100
 
Zhao Ji 趙佶 1082–1135
宋徽宗皇帝.jpg
Huizong 徽宗
1100–1126
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
9
 
 
 
 
Zhao Zishi 趙子奭
Duke of Wu 吳國公
 
Zhao Zicheng
趙子偁 d.1143
Prince Anxi of Xiu 秀安僖王
 
Zhao Huan 趙桓 1100–1161
宋欽宗.jpg
Qinzong 欽宗
1126–1127
 
Zhao Gou 趙構 1107–1187
Gaozong Of Song.jpg
Gaozong 高宗
1127–1162
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zhao Bowu 趙伯旿
Duke of Yi 益國公
 
Zhao Shen 趙昚 1127–1194
宋孝宗皇帝.jpg
Xiaozong 孝宗
1162–1189
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zhao Shiyi 趙師意
Duke of Zhao 趙國公
 
Zhao Dun 趙惇 1147–1200
宋光宗.jpg
Guangzong 光宗
1189–1194
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zhao Xilu 趙希瓐
Prince Rong 榮王
 
Zhao Kuo 趙擴 1168–1224
Songlinzong.jpg
Ningzong 寧宗
1194–1224
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
2
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zhao Yun 趙昀 1205–1264
宋理宗.jpg
Lizong 理宗
1224–1264
 
Zhao Yurui
趙與芮 1207–1287
Prince Rong 榮王
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zhao Mengqi 趙孟启 1240–1274
宋度宗皇帝.jpg
Duzong 度宗
1264–1274
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
2
 
3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zhao Shi 趙昰 1268–1278
ZhaoShiDuanzong.png
Duanzong 端宗
1276–1278
 
Zhao Xian 趙顯 1271–1323
Song Gongdi2.jpg
Gongdi 恭帝
1274–1276
 
Zhao Bing 趙昺 1271–1279
Song Modi.jpg
Bing
1278–1279
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Northern Border Empires

Liao dynasty

The following is a simplified family tree for the Liao dynasty, which ruled much of northern China between 907 and 1125. The names given are temple names, the form by which Liao Emperors are most commonly known (with the exception of the last emperor, Tianzuodi, who was not awarded a temple name).

Yelü clan - Liao dynasty
  • – Tribal leaders
Yelü Nieli 耶律涅里
Yelü Pidie 耶律毗牒
Yelü Keling 耶律頦領
Yelü Noulisi 耶律耨里思
Suzu 肅祖
Yelü Salade 耶律薩剌德
Yizu 辽懿祖
Yelü Yundeshi
耶律勻德實
Xuanzu 辽玄祖
Yelü Saladi 耶律撤剌的
Dezu 辽德祖
Yelü Abaoji 耶律阿保機
Taizu 太祖
872–907–926
Yelü Anduan
耶律安端
?–947–952
Yelü Bei 耶律倍
Yizong 辽义宗
899–926-
930
–937
Queen Xiao
of Dongdan Kingdom
人皇王妃萧氏
?–930–940
Yelü Deguang 耶律德光
Taizong 太宗
902–926–947
Yelü Lihu 耶律李胡
911–960
Zhangsudi 辽章肃帝
Yelü Ruan 耶律阮
Shizong 世宗
918–947–951
Yelü Jing 耶律璟
Muzong 穆宗
931–951–969
Yelü Xian 耶律賢
Jingzong 景宗
948–969–982
Yelü Longxu 耶律隆緒
Shengzong 聖宗
971–982–1031
Yelü Zongzhen
耶律宗真

Xingzong 興宗
1015–1031–1055
Liáo sì
Yuándì 辽嗣元帝
Yelü Hongji 耶律洪基
Daozong 道宗
1032–1055–1101
Yelü Hélǔwò 耶律和魯斡
仁圣皇太叔
?–1110
Yelü Āliǎn 耶律阿璉
?–1087
Yelü Jun 耶律浚
1057–1077

Shunzong 顺宗
Yelü Chun 耶律淳
Xuanzong 宣宗
1062–1122
Empress Dowager
Xiao Puxiannü
蕭普賢女 ?–1122
Yelü Zhulie 耶律朮烈
Yingzong 英宗
?–1123
Yelü Dashi 耶律大石
Dezong 德宗
1087–1124–1143
Xiao Tabuyan 蕭塔不煙
Empress Gantian 感天皇后
?–1143–1150
Yelü Yangxi 耶律延禧
1075–1128

Tianzuodi 天祚帝
1101–1125
Empress Dowager
Xiao Feng
蕭德妃 ?–1122–1123
Yelü Yilie 耶律夷列
Renzong 仁宗
?–1150–1163
Yelü Pusuwan 耶律普速完
Empress Dowager
Chengtian 承天太后

?–1163–1178
Yelü Yali 耶律雅里
1094–1123
Yelü Ding
?–1122–1123
Yelü Zhilugu 耶律直魯古
Mozhu 末主 / Modi 末帝
?–1178–1211–1213
Taibuqa
Tayang Khan of Naimans
?–1211
Princess Húnhū
渾忽公主
Küçlüg 屈出律
Usurper of Qara Khitai
?–1211–1218

Jin dynasty

The following is a simplified family tree for the Jin dynasty. Arising from a family of Jurchen chieftains (whose years of rule are given in brackets), the dynasty was declared by Aguda in 1115; in 1125 his successor Wuqimai conquered the Liao dynasty. The Jin ruled much of northern China until their conquest by the Mongol Empire 1234. They were the ancestors of the Qing dynasty, which was initially named the Later Jin in recognition of this heritage. The names given are temple names, the form by which Jin emperors are most commonly known (with the exceptions of the Prince of Hailing, Prince Shao of Wei and Emperor Mo; these are posthumous names, as temple names were not awarded).

Emperors family tree
Hanpu 函普
Shizu 始祖
Wulu 烏魯
Emperor De 德皇帝
Bahai 跋海
Emperor An 安皇帝
Suike 綏可
Xianzu 獻祖
Shilu 石魯
Zhaozu 昭祖
Wugunai 烏骨迺
Jingzu 景祖
~1050–1021–1074
Helibo 劾里缽
Shizu 世祖
1039–1074–1092
Polashu 頗刺淑
Suzong 肅宗
1042–1092–1094
Yingge 盈歌
Muzong 穆宗
1053–1094–1103
Hezhe
劾者
d. 1121
Wuyashu 烏雅束
Kangzong 康宗
1061–1103–1113
Aguda 阿骨打
Taizu 太祖
1068–(1113)1115–1123
Wuqimai 吳乞買
Taizong 太宗
1075–1123–1135
Sagai
撒改
Wanyan Zongjun 完顏宗峻 d. 1124
Huizong 徽宗
Wanyan Zonggan 完顏宗幹 d. 1141
Dezong 德宗
Wanyan Zongfu 完顏宗輔
1096–1135

Ruizong 睿宗
Nianhan
粘罕
1080–1136
Hela 合剌
Xizong 熙宗
1119–1135–1149
Wanyan Liang 完顏亮
Pr. of Hailing 海陵王
1122–1149–1161
Wanyan Yong 完顏雍
Shizong 世宗
1123–1161–1189
Wanyan Yungong 完顏允恭
1146–1185

Xianzong 顯宗
Wanyan Yongji 完顏永濟
Pr. Shao
of Wei 衛紹王

1168–1209–1213
Wanyan Jing 完顏璟
Zhangzong 章宗
1168–1190–1208
Wanyan Xun 完顏珣
Xuanzong 宣宗
1163–1213–1223
Wanyan Shouxu 完顏守緒 1234
Aizong 哀宗
1198–1224–1234
Wanyan Chenglin 完顏承麟
Emperor Mo 末帝
r. 1234; d. 1234

Western Xia and Dingnan Jiedushi

The following is a family tree of the military governor (Jiedushi) of Dingnan Circuit, the region that eventually evolved into the independent state of Western Xia, that existed between 1038 and 1227, followed by the family tree of the Western Xia emperors.

The Tuoba clan of the Xianbei of Tuyuhun founded the Western Xia. After the Tibetans destroyed the Tuyuhun in 670, its famous prince, Tuoba Chici, who controlled the Dangxiang Qiang submitted to the Tang, which "bestowed" upon him the royal name of Li (李). Towards the end of the Tang, the Tuoba brought troops to suppress the Huang Chao Rebellion (874–884) on behalf of the Tang court and took control of the Xia State, or Xia Zhou, in northern Shaanxi in 881. After the Tang fell in 907, the Tuoba descendants formally declared resistance against the expanding Northern Song in 982 and proclaimed independence to establish the Western Xia in 1038.

The foundation of Western Xia goes back to the year 982 under Li Jiqian. However, only in 1038 did the Tangut chieftain Li Yuanhao (son of Li Deming, named himself emperor of Da Xia and demanded the Song emperor recognise him as an equal. The Song court recognised Li Yuanhao as governor but not as "emperor", a title it regarded as exclusive to the Song emperor. After intense diplomatic contacts, in 1043 the Tangut state accepted the recognition of the Song emperor as emperor in exchange for annual gifts, which implied tacit recognition on the part of the Song of the military power of the Tanguts.

Family tree of the Western Xia emperors and the rulers of Dingnan
Possibly
Dai state
ancestor?
(family)
skipped
generations
Li/Tuoba Chici
李/拓跋赤辭
?–?–634–?
skipped
generations
DINGNAN
JIEDUSHI
Tuoba Chongjian
拓跋重建
Li Sijing
李思敬
Li/Tuoba Sigong
李/拓跋思恭
?v881–886
Li Siyao
李思瑶
Li Sixiao
李思孝
Li Sijian
李思諫
?–895–896–908
Li Sizhong
李思忠
Li Renyou
李仁祐
Li Chengqing
李成庆
896–?
Li Renfu
李仁福
?–909–931
Li Renyan
李仁颜
Li Yiyun
李彝氲
Li Yixing
李彝興
?–935–967
Li Yichao
李彝超
?–933–935
Li Yiwen
李彝温
Li Yimin
李彝敏
d. 943
Li Yijin
李彝谨
Li Yijun
李彝俊
Li Yichang
李彝昌
?–908–909/910
Li Yijing
李彝景
Li Kexian
李克宪
Li Guangmei
李光美
Li Guangsui
李光遂
Li Kerui
李克睿
935–967–978
Li Kexin
李克信
Li Guanglian
李光琏
Li Guangyi
李光义
Li Guangyan
李光俨
Li Guangpu
李光普
Li Guangxin
李光新
Li Kewen
李克文
Li Jiyun
李继筠
957–978–979
Li Jipeng 李继捧
957–980–982
988–994–1004
Li Guangxiu
李光琇
Li Guanglin
李光璘
Li Guangcong
李光琮
Li Jiqian
李繼遷
963–982–1004
Li JichongLi Jiyuan
李继瑗
Liyongge
李永哥
Li Pilu
李丕禄
Li Deming
李德明
981–1004–1032
WESTERN
XIA
Li Yuanhao 李元昊
1003–1048

Jingzong
r. 1038–10481
Li Chengyu
李成遇
Li Chengwei
嵬名锡狸嵬名阿哩嵬名寧明嵬名寧令哥Li Liangzuo 李諒祚
(1047–1068)

Yizong
r. 1048–10682
Li Bingchang 李秉常
1061–1086

Huizong
嵬名秉常
r. 1068–10863
Li Qianshun 李乾順
(1084–1139)

Chongzong
r. 1086–11394
嵬名察哥
Li Renxiao 李仁孝
(1124–1193)

Renzong 仁宗
r. 1139–11935
Li Renyou
李仁友
Li Yanzong
李彦宗
Li Chunyou 李純佑
(1177–1206)

Huanzong 桓宗
r. 1193–12066
Li Anquan 李安全
1170–1211

Xiangzong 襄宗
r. 1206–12117
Li Zunxu 李遵頊
(1163–1226)

Shenzong 神宗
r. 1211–12238
嵬名承祯
Li Deren
李德任
Li Dewang 李德旺
(1181–1226)

Xianzong 獻宗
r. 1223–12269
清平郡王
Li Xian 李睍
(d. 1227)

Modi/
Mozhu

r. 1226–122710
Notes:

Notes and references