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Chinese Communist Revolution

Chinese Communist Revolution
新民主主义革命
(New Democratic Revolution)
中国人民解放战争
(Chinese People's War of Liberation)
反共衛國戡亂戰爭
(National Protection War against the Communist Rebellion)
第二次國共內戰 / 第二次国共内战
(Second Kuomintang-Communist Civil War)
Part of the Chinese Civil War (since 1927)
Part of the Cold War (1947–1950)
People's Liberation Army occupied the presidential palace 1949.jpg
People's Liberation Army occupies the Presidential Palace in Nanjing. April, 1949
Date1945–1950[note 1]
     (4 years, 4 months and 1 week) (Kuomintang Islamic insurgency against the People's Republic of China's rule continued in the provinces of Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Xinjiang, Yunnan until 1958)
Location
China
Result
Belligerents
Commanders and leaders
Strength
  • 1,270,000 regulars (1945-09)
  • 2,800,000 regulars (1948-06)
  • 4,000,000 regulars (1949-06)
  • 4,300,000 (1946-07)
  • 3,650,000 (1948-06)
  • 1,490,000 (1949-06)
Casualties and losses
250,000 in three campaigns 1.5 million in three campaigns[2]

The Chinese Communist Revolution, led by the Communist Party of China and Chairman Mao Zedong, resulted in the proclamation of the People's Republic of China, on 1 October 1949. The revolution began in 1946 after the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and was the second part of the Chinese Civil War (1945–49).[3] In China, the revolutionary period is known as the War of Liberation (simplified Chinese: 解放战争; traditional Chinese: 解放戰爭; pinyin: Jiěfàng Zhànzhēng).

Historical background

Growing Inequality and Foreign Colonialism

The historical development of China resulted in sharp contradictions in society. Under the Qing dynasty, high rates of rent, usury and taxes concentrated wealth into the hands of a tiny minority of village chiefs and landlords. According to one statistic, "Ten percent of the agricultural population of China possessed as much as two-thirds of the land."[4]

Simultaneously, China was under heavy colonialist pressure by the Western powers and the Japanese (the Century of Humiliation), as exemplified by the Opium Wars, the unequal treaties or the Boxer Rebellion. This extreme internal inequality and external aggression led to a national and class consciousness among vast swaths of the population.

Owing to these reasons and decline of the Qing state, a peasant revolt led to the Xinhai Revolution which ended 2,000 years of imperial rule and marked the beginning of China's early republican era.[5] However, the resulting nationalist revolutionary regime was unable to form a stable national government and unwilling to carry out land reforms. Its main leader, Sun Yat-sen, bowed down and was forced to seek asylum in Japan.[4]

Following the end of World War I and October Revolution in Russia, labor struggles intensified in China. Workers were fighting for better wages. In Shanghai alone, there were over 450 strikes between 1919 and 1923.[6]

May Fourth Movement

Mao Zedong claimed that the May Fourth Movement started the birth of communism in China:[7]

The May Fourth Movement twenty years ago marked a new stage in China's bourgeois-democratic revolution against imperialism and feudalism. The cultural reform movement which grew out of the May Fourth Movement was only one of the manifestations of this revolution. With the growth and development of new social forces in that period, a powerful camp made its appearance in the bourgeois-democratic revolution, a camp consisting of the working class, the student masses and the new national bourgeoisie. Around the time of the May Fourth Movement, hundreds of thousands of students courageously took their place in the van. In these respects the May Fourth Movement went a step beyond the Revolution of 1911.[8]

Founding of the Communist Party of China

The Communist Party of China was founded in 1921. After a period of slow growth and alliance with the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party), the alliance broke down and the Communists fell victim in 1927 to a purge carried out by the Kuomintang under the leadership of Chiang Kai-shek.[9] After 1927, the Communists retreated to the countryside and built up local bases throughout the country and continued to hold them until the Long March. During the Japanese invasion and occupation, the Communists built more secret bases in the Japanese occupied zones and relied on them as headquarters.[10]

Chinese Civil War, 1945–1949

The Nationalists had an advantage in both troops and weapons, controlled a much larger territory and population, and enjoyed broad international support. The Communists were well established in the north and northwest. The best-trained Nationalist troops had been killed in early battles against the better equipped Japanese Army and in Burma, while the Communists had suffered less severe losses. The Soviet Union, though distrustful, provided aid to the Communists, and the United States assisted the Nationalists with hundreds of millions of dollars' worth of military supplies, as well as airlifting Nationalist troops from central China to Manchuria, an area Chiang Kai-shek saw as strategically vital to retake. Chiang determined to confront the PLA in Manchuria and committed his troops in one decisive battle, the Battle of Liaohsi, in the autumn of 1948. The strength of Nationalist troops in July 1946 was 4.3 million, of which 2.3 million were well-trained and ready for country-wide mobile combat.[11][12][13] However, the battle resulted in a decisive Communist victory and the Nationalists were never able to recover from it.

Result

On October 1, 1949, Chairman Mao Zedong officially proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China at Tiananmen Square. Chiang Kai-shek, 600,000 Nationalist troops, and about two million Nationalist-sympathizer refugees retreated to the island of Taiwan. After that, resistance to the Communists on the mainland was substantial but scattered, such as in the far south. An attempt to take the Nationalist-controlled island of Kinmen was thwarted in the Battle of Kuningtou. In December 1949 Chiang proclaimed Taipei, Taiwan the temporary capital of the Republic, and continued to assert his government as the sole legitimate authority of all China, while the PRC government continued to call for the unification of all China. The last direct fighting between Nationalist and Communist forces ended with the Communist capture of Hainan Island in May 1950, though shelling and guerrilla raids continued for a number of years. In June 1950, the outbreak of the Korean War led the American government to place the United States Seventh Fleet in the Taiwan Strait to prevent either side from attacking the other.[14]

Declaration

Below is the speech Chairman Mao Zedong had proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China on 1 October 1949 at 3:00pm on top of the Tiananmen:

The people throughout China have been plunged into bitter suffering and tribulations since the Chiang Kai-shek Kuomintang reactionary government betrayed the fatherland, colluded with imperialists, and launched the counter-revolutionary war. Fortunately our People's Liberation Army, backed by the whole nation, has been fighting heroically and selflessly to defend the territorial sovereignty of our homeland, to protect the people's lives and property, to relieve the people of their sufferings, and to struggle for their rights, and it eventually wiped out the reactionary troops and overthrew the reactionary rule of the Nationalist government. Now, the People's War of Liberation has been basically won, and the majority of the people in the country have been liberated. On this foundation, the first session of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference , composed of delegates of all the democratic parties and people's organization of China, the People's Liberation Army, the various regions and nationalities of the country, and the overseas Chinese and other patriotic elements, has been convened.

Representing the will of the whole nation, [this session of the conference] has enacted the organic law of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China, elected Mao Zedong as chairman of the Central People's Government; and Zhu De, Lui Shaoqi, Song Qingling, Li Jishen, Zhang Lan, and Gao Gang as vice chairmen [of the Central People's Government]; and Chen Yi, He Long, Li Lisan, Lin Boqu, Ye Jianying, He Xiangning, Lin Biao, Peng Dehuai, Liu Bocheng, Wu Yuzhang, Xu Xiangqian, Peng Zhen, Bo Yibo, Nie Rongzhen, Zhou Enlai, Dong Biwu, Seypidin, Rao Shushi, Tan Kah-kee [Chen Jiageng], Luo Ronghuan, Deng Zihui, Ulanhu, Xu Deli, Cai Chang, Liu Geping, Ma Yinchu, Chen Yun, Kang Sheng, Lin Feng, Ma Xulun, Guo Moruo, Zhang Yunyi, Deng Xiaoping, Gao Chongmin, Shen Junru, Shen Yanbing, Chen Shutong, Szeto Mei-tong [Situ Meitang], Li Xijiu, Huang Yanpei, Cai Tingkai, Xi Zhongxun, Peng Zemin, Zhang Zhizhong, Fu Zuoyi, Li Zhuchen, Li Zhangda, Zhang Nanxian, Liu Yazi, Zhang Dongsun, and Long Yun as council members to form the Central People's Government Council, proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China and decided on Beijing as the capital of the People's Republic of China.

The Central People's Government Council of the People's Republic of China took office today in the capital and unanimously made the following decisions: to proclaim the establishment of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China; to adopt the Common Program of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference as the policy of the government; to elect Lin Boqu from among the council members as secretary general of the Central People's Government Council; to appoint Zhou Enlai as premier of the Government Adminstration Council of the Central People's Government and concurrently minister of Foreign Affairs, Mao Zedong as chairman of the People's Revolutionary Military Commission of the Central People's Government, Zhu De as commander-in-chief of the People's Liberation Army, Shen Junru as president of the Supreme People's Court of the Central People's Government, and Luo Ronghuan as procurator general of the Supreme People's Procuratorate of the Central People's Government, and to charge them with the task of the speedy formation of the various organs of the government to carry out the work of the government. At the same time, the Central People's Government Council decided to declare to the governments of all other countries that this government is the sole legal government representing all the people of the People's Republic of China. This government is willing to establish diplomatic relations with any foreign government that is willing to observe the principles of equality, mutual benefit, and mutual respect of territorial integrity and sovereignty.

Notes

  1. ^ The conflict did not have an official end date; however, historians generally agree that the war subsided after the People's Republic of China took the Mosquito Tail Islet, the last island held by the Republic of China in the Wanshan Archipelago.[1]

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Westad, Odd (2003). Decisive Encounters: The Chinese Civil War, 1946–1950. Stanford University Press. p. 305. ISBN 978-0-8047-4484-3.
  2. ^ Lynch, Michael (2010). The Chinese Civil War 1945–49. Osprey Publishing. p. 91. ISBN 978-1-84176-671-3.
  3. ^ “Chinese Civil War of 1945–49”, Dictionary of Wars (2007), Third Edition, George Childs Cohn, Ed., pp. 121–122.
  4. ^ a b Roberts, John Peter (2016-01-21). China: From Permanent Revolution to Counter-Revolution. Wellred. ISBN 9781900007634. Ten percent of the agricultural population of China possessed as much as two-thirds of the land. In the province of Shansi, 0.3% of the families possessed one-quarter of the land. In Chekiang, 3.3% of the families possessed half the land, while 77% of the poor peasants possessed no more than 20% of the land.
  5. ^ Li, Xiaobing. [2007] (2007). A History of the Modern Chinese Army. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-2438-7, ISBN 978-0-8131-2438-4. pp. 13, 26–27.
  6. ^ Dirlik, Arif (1989). The Origins of Chinese Communism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195054545.
  7. ^ "World Policy Journal - Summer 2005". World Policy. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
  8. ^ The May Fourth Movement (May 1939)
  9. ^ Hunt, Michael H. (2015). The World Transformed 1945 to the present. Oxford University Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-19-937102-0.
  10. ^ Patrick Fuliang Shan, “Local Revolution, Grassroots Mobilization and Wartime Power Shift to the Rise of Communism,” in Xiaobing Li (ed.), Evolution of Power: China’s Struggle, Survival, and Success, Lexington and Rowman & Littlefield, 2013, pp. 3–25.
  11. ^ 《中华民国国民政府军政职官人物志》 (in Chinese). p. 374.
  12. ^ 《国民革命与统一建设:20世纪初孙中山及国共人物的奋斗》 (in Chinese). p. 12.
  13. ^ 《国民革命与黃埔军校:纪念黃埔军校建校80周年学術论文集》 (in Chinese). p. 450.
  14. ^ "Army Department Teletype conference, ca. June 1950". Harry S. Truman Library and Museum. US Department of Defense. Retrieved 2015-04-14.
  15. ^ [1] – Proclamation of the Central People's Government the People Republic of China]] – The People's Daily, 2 October 1949

Sources

  • Franke, Wolfgang, A Century of Chinese Revolution, 1851–1949 (Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1970).

Further reading