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Chinasat

ChinaSat (Chinese: 中星; pinyin: Zhōngxīng) is the brand name of communications satellites operated by China Satellite Communications.

History

In 2007 a joint venture China Direct Broadcast Satellite was formed to runs the brand ChinaSat.[1][2][3] It was a joint venture of state-owned companies China Satellite Communications, China Orient Telecommunications Satellite and Sino Satellite Communications. The latter was controlled by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC). However, China Satellite Communications was changed from a direct subsidiary of the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council (SASAC) to a direct subsidiary of CASC in 2009, making the joint venture was dissolved and Sino Satellite Communications became a subsidiary of China Satellite Communications.

The brand ChinaSat was previously operated by China Telecommunications Broadcast Satellite Corporation, which was owned by China's Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications.[4] China Telecommunications Broadcast Satellite Corporation was merged with other state-owned companies to form China Satellite Communications Corporation circa 2000.[5]

Satellites formerly operated by Sino Satellite Communications and China Orient Telecommunications Satellite were renamed with ChinaSat designations following the acquisition of China Satellite Communications by CASC. ChinaStar 1 became ChinaSat 5A,[6] SinoSat 1 became ChinaSat 5B,[7] and SinoSat 3 became ChinaSat 5C.[8]

Satellites

ChinaSat 2A

ChinaSat 2A was launched in 2012.[9]

ChinaSat 5A

ChinaSat 5A was launched in 1998, formerly known as ChinaStar 1.[10] It was leased to China Satellite Communications's subsidiary APT Satellite Holdings and renamed to Apstar 9A on 9 January 2014.[11]

ChinaSat 5B

ChinaSat 5B was launched in 1998, formerly known as Sinosat 1. It was sold to Pasifik Satelit Nusantara in 2012.[12]

ChinaSat 5C

ChinaSat 5C was launched in 2007, formerly known as SinoSat 3. It was leased to Eutelsat in 2011 (as Eutelsat 3A and then Eutelsat 8 West D).[13]

ChinaSat 5D

ChinaSat 5D was launched in 1996, formerly known as Apstar 1A.[14] It was placed in geosynchronous orbit at a longitude of 51.5° East circa 2009.[15] It was acquired by China Satellite Communications from subsidiary APT Satellite Holdings.

ChinaSat 5E

ChinaSat 5E was launched in 1994, formerly known as Apstar 1.[14] It was placed in geosynchronous orbit at a longitude of 142° East[16] and moved to 163° East circa 2012.[17] It was acquired by China Satellite Communications from subsidiary APT Satellite Holdings.

ChinaSat 6

ChinaSat 6 were two satellites launched in 1994 and 1997. The first satellite was lost and the second suffered from reduced life.[18]

ChinaSat 6A

ChinaSat 6A was launched in 2010. Formerly known as SinoSat 6.[19]

ChinaSat 6B

The ChinaSat 6B satellite was manufactured by Thales Alenia Space, based on the Spacebus 4000C2 platform. It has 38 transponders, and is being used for TV transmissions and shortwave jamming across China, Southeast Asia, the Pacific and Oceania. It has a planned useful life of 15 years.[20] The launch, on a Long March 3B rocket, was successfully conducted on 5 July 2007. The broadcast used for some shortwave radio jamming purposes in China is carried on one of the Chinasat 6B transponders.[21]

United States ITAR restrictions prohibited the export of satellite components for satellites launched on Chinese rockets. In response, Thales Alenia built ChinaSat 6B as an ITAR-free satellite, containing no restricted U.S. satellite components.[22] However, the US Department of State did not accept the ITAR-free status of these satellites and fined the US company Aeroflex $8 million for exporting satellite components. In 2013, Thales Alenia discontinued its ITAR-free satellite line.[23]

ChinaSat 8

ChinaSat 8 was built by Space Systems/Loral and scheduled for launch in April 1999 on a Long March 3B rocket.[24] However, the U.S Department of State blocked its export to China under ITAR regulations.[25] The satellite was sold to ProtoStar in 2006.[26]

ChinaSat 9

On 9 June 2008 the China Great Wall Industrial Corporation used a Long March 3B lifting off from Xichang pad LA-2 to launch Chinasat 9.[27][28]

ChinaSat 9A

ChinaSat 9A was based on the DFH-4 bus. It was launched in June 2017.[29]

ChinaSat 10

ChinaSat 10 was based on the DFH-4 bus. It was launched in 2011. Formerly known as SinoSat 5.[30]

ChinaSat 11

ChinaSat 11 was based on the DFH-4 bus. It was launched in May 2013.[31]

ChinaSat 12

ChinaSat 12 was launched in 2012. Formerly known as Apstar 7B. A backup of Apstar 7, Apstar 7B was acquired by China Satellite Communications from its subsidiary APT Satellite Holdings in 2010.[32] It was based on Thales Alenia Space Spacebus-4000C2.[33]

ChinaSat 15

ChinaSat 15, aka Belintersat-1, was based on the DFH-4 bus. It was launched on 16 January 2016 00:57 (Beijing time).[34][35]

ChinaSat 16

References

  1. ^ "Overview". Corporate Profile. China DBSAT. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2010. 
  2. ^ "2007 Annual Report" (PDF). CASC (in Chinese). chinabond.com.cn. 2008. Retrieved 25 July 2017. 
  3. ^ "First Chinese Satellite Conglomerate Beams Into Operation". Xinhua News Agency. Space Daily. 2 January 2008. Retrieved 11 July 2010. 
  4. ^ "Zhongxing / Chinasat". Federation of American Scientists. Archived from the original on 2007-07-03. 
  5. ^ "关于组建中国卫星通信集团公司有关问题的批复" (in Chinese). State Council of the People's Republic of China. 16 June 2000. Retrieved 26 July 2017. 
  6. ^ "中星5A" (in Chinese). China Satellite Communications. 2 December 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2017. 
  7. ^ "中星5B". China Satellite Communications. Retrieved 11 July 2010. [dead link]
  8. ^ "中星5C". China Satellite Communications. Retrieved 11 July 2010. [dead link]
  9. ^ 2012 - Launches to Orbit and Beyond
  10. ^ "Zhongwei 1 (ChinaStar 1) → ZX 5A (ChinaSat 5A) → APStar 9A". skyrocket.de. 2 June 2017. Retrieved 26 July 2017. 
  11. ^ "VOLUNTARY ANNOUNCEMENT RENAMING CHINASAT 5A TO APSTAR 9A" (PDF) (Press release). APT Satellite Holdings. 9 January 2014. Retrieved 26 July 2017. 
  12. ^ "Sinosat 1 (Xinnuo 1, Intelsat APR 1) → ZX 5B (ChinaSat 5B) → PSN 5". skyrocket.de. 2 June 2017. Retrieved 26 July 2017. 
  13. ^ "Sinosat 3 (Xinnuo 3) → ZX 5C (ChinaSat 5C) → Eutelsat 3A → Eutelsat 8 West D". skyrocket.de. 2 June 2017. Retrieved 26 July 2017. 
  14. ^ a b "APStar 1, 1A / ZX 5D, 5E (ChinaSat 5D, 5E)". skyrocket.de. 2 June 2017. Retrieved 26 July 2017. 
  15. ^ "中星5D" (in Chinese). China Satellite Communications. Archived from the original on 7 April 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2017. 
  16. ^ "2007 Annual Report" (PDF). APT Satellite Holdings. 18 April 2008. Retrieved 26 July 2017. 
  17. ^ "中星5E" (in Chinese). China Satellite Communications. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2017. 
  18. ^ "DFH-3 1, 2 (ZX 6 / ChinaSat 6)". skyrocket.de. 2 June 2017. Retrieved 26 July 2017. 
  19. ^ "中星6A" (in Chinese). China Satellite Communications. 2 December 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2017. 
  20. ^ "China launches French-made communications satellite". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 5 July 2007. 
  21. ^ "Firedrake - The source of China's Radio Jammer found on Chinasat 6B". Satdirectory the free-to-air satellite directory. 
  22. ^ de Selding, Peter B. (2007-07-06). "China launches satellite despite restrictions". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2010-04-28. 
  23. ^ Ferster, Warren (5 September 2013). "U.S. Satellite Component Maker Fined $8 Million for ITAR Violations". SpaceNews. 
  24. ^ Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration. "Commercial Space Transportation Quarterly Launch Report" (PDF). 
  25. ^ Zelnio, Ryan (January 9, 2006). "A short history of export control policy". The Space Review. 
  26. ^ Loral (January 7, 2007). "Loral to convert unlaunched ChinaSat-8 for ProtoStar" (Press release). Spaceflight Now. 
  27. ^ "China launches French-built satellite". Xinhua News Agency. 2008-06-09. 
  28. ^ "Long March 3B rocket launches Chinasat-9 satellite". Mister-Info.com. 
  29. ^ "中星9A" (in Chinese). China Satellite Communications. 21 July 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2017. 
  30. ^ "中星10号" (in Chinese). China Satellite Communications. 2 December 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2017. 
  31. ^ "中星11号" (in Chinese). China Satellite Communications. 2 December 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2017. 
  32. ^ "關連交易" (PDF) (Press release) (in Chinese). APT Satellite Holdings. 25 September 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2017. 
  33. ^ "APSTAR-7B Characteristics". APT Satellite. Retrieved 26 July 2017. 
  34. ^ "中星15号" (in Chinese). China Satellite Communications. 17 February 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2017. 
  35. ^ "中国成功发射白俄罗斯通信卫星一号" (in Chinese). China Great Wall Industry Corporation. 20 January 2016. Retrieved 25 July 2017.