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Chicham languages

Chicham
Jibaroan
Geographic
distribution
Peru
Linguistic classificationMacro-Jibaro ?
  • Chicham
Subdivisions
Glottologjiva1245[1]
Jivaroan-Cawapanan.png
Jivaroan (violet) and Cahuapanan (pink) languages. Spots are documented locations, shadowed areas probable extension in 16th century.

The Chicham languages, also known as Jivaroan (Hívaro, Jívaro, Jibaro) is a small language family of northern Peru and eastern Ecuador.

Family division

Jivaroan consists of 4 languages:

1. Shuar
2. Achuar-Siwiar
3. Awajun
4. Huambisa

This language family is spoken in Amazonas, Cajamarca, Loreto, and San Martin, Peru and the Oriente region of Ecuador.

Genetic relations

The extinct Palta language was classified as Jivaroan by Jacinto Jijón y Caamaño about 1940 and was followed by Čestmír Loukotka. However, only a few words are known, and Kaufman (1994) states that there is "little resemblance".

The most promising external connections are with the Cahuapanan languages and perhaps a few other language isolates in proposals variously called Jívaro-Cahuapana (Hívaro-Kawapánan) (Jorge Suárez and others) or Macro-Jibaro or Macro-Andean (Morris Swadesh and others, with Cahuapanan, Urarina, Puelche, and maybe Huarpe).

The unclassified language Candoshi has also been linked to Jivaroan, as David Payne (1981) provides reconstructions for Proto-Shuar as well as Proto-Shuar-Candoshi. However, more recently, linguists have searched elsewhere for Candoshi's relatives.

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Chicham". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.

Bibliography

  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Dean, Bartholomew (1990). The State and the Aguaruna: Frontier Expansion in the Upper Amazon, 1541-1990. M.A. thesis in the Anthropology of Social Change and Development, Harvard University.
  • Greenberg, Joseph H. (1987). Language in the Americas. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Greene, Landon Shane. (2004) Paths to a Visionary Politics. PhD dissertation. University of Chicago.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1990). Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages (pp. 13–67). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70414-3.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1994). The native languages of South America. In C. Mosley & R. E. Asher (Eds.), Atlas of the world's languages (pp. 46–76). London: Routledge.
  • Payne, David L (1981). "Bosquejo fonológico del Proto-Shuar-Candoshi: evidencias para una relación genética." Revista del Museo Nacional 45. 323-377.
  • Solís Fonseca, Gustavo. (2003). Lenguas en la amazonía peruana. Lima: edición por demanda.

External links