Management of chest pain is based on the underlying cause. Initial treatment often includes aspirin and nitroglycerin. How someone responded to treatment does not necessarily reflect the underlying cause. When the cause is unclear people may be referred for further evaluation.
Chest pain represents about 5% of presenting problems to the emergency room. In the United States, about 8 million people go to the emergency department with chest pain a year. Of these about 60% are either admitted to the hospital or an observation unit. This care results in costs of more than 8 billion dollars a year. Chest pain account for about 0.5% of visits by children to the emergency department.
Chest pain may present in different ways depending upon the underlying diagnosis. Chest pain may also vary from person to person based upon age, sex, weight, and other differences. Chest pain may present as a stabbing, burning, aching, sharp, or pressure-like sensation in the chest. Chest pain may also radiate, or move, to several other areas of the body. This may include the neck, left or right arms, cervical spine, back, and upper abdomen. Other associated symptoms with chest pain can include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, shortness of breath, anxiety, and sweating. The type, severity, duration, and associated symptoms of chest pain can help guide diagnosis and further treatment.
Causes of chest pain range from non-serious to serious to life-threatening.
Myocardial infarction ("heart attack") - People usually complained of a pressure or squeezing sensation over the chest. Other associated symptoms are: excessive sweating, nausea, vomiting, and weakness. Chest pain is more commonly associated with anterior infarction because of left ventricular impairment; inferior infarction is more commonly associated with nausea, vomiting, and excessive sweating due to irritation of vagus nerve; lateral infarction is associated with left arm pain.
Prinzmetal's angina - Chest pain is caused by coronary vasospasm. More common in women younger than 50 years. Person usually complain of chest pain at rest. It may occur early in the morning which awaken person from sleep.
Cocaine use - This condition is suspected when a person with few or no risk of arteriosclerosis presented with non-traumatic chest pain. Ingestion of cocaine can cause vasoconstriction of coronary arteries, thus producing chest pain similar to heart attack. Symptoms can appear within one hour of cocaine use.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - It is the hypertrophy of interventricular septum that causes outflow obstruction of left ventricle. Dyspnea and chest pain commonly occurs during daily activities. Sometimes, syncope may happen. On physical examination, significant findings include: loud systolic murmur and palpable triple apical impulse due to palpable presystolic fourth heart sound.
Pericarditis - This condition can be the result of viral infection such as coxsackie virus and echovirus, tuberculosis, autoimmune disease, uremia, and after myocardial infarction (Dressler syndrome). The chest pain is often pleuritic in nature (associated with respiration) which is aggravated when lying down and relieved on sitting forward, sometimes, accompanied by fever. On auscultation, pericardial friction rub can be heard.
Mitral valve prolapse syndrome - Those affected are usually thin females presented with chest pain which is sharp in quality, localized at the apex, and relieved when lying down. Other symptoms include: shortness of breath, fatigue, and palpitations. On auscultation, midsystolic click followed by late systolic murmur can be heard, louder when person is in standing position.
Asthma - is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs. It is characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm. Symptoms include episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Chest pain usually happens during a strenuous activity or heavy exercise.
Pneumothorax - Those who are at a higher risk of developing pneumothorax are tall, thin, male smoker who had underlying lung diseases such as emphysema. Those affected can have a sharp chest pain which radiates to the shoulder of the same side. Physical examination revealed absent breath sounds and hyperresonance on the affected side of the chest.
Diffuse esophageal spasm - Unlike cardiac chest pain, esophageal pain is not related to activity. The pain is usually associated with swallowing of hot or cold water.
Esophageal rupture - Those affected usually complained of sudden, severe, and constant pain that starts from the neck to the upper abdomen. The pain is aggravated by swallowing. On examination, neck swelling and crepitations can be felt due to subcutaneous emphysema as free air is entering from esophagus into the subcutaneous tissue.
Herpes zoster commonly known as shingles - It is usually described as a burning sensation over the chest in a unilateral dermatome distribution. However, diagnosis can be difficult because the pain usually appears before the characteristic rash is visible.
Panic attack - Chest pain is a common symptom of panic attacks, with as high as 78% of persons describing chest pain with their worst panic attacks. Overall chest pain is a symptom of up to 48% of sudden-onset panic attacks, and 10% of gradual-onset panic attacks.
Knowing a person's risk factors can be extremely useful in ruling in or ruling out serious causes of chest pain. For example, heart attack and thoracic aortic dissection are very rare in healthy individuals under 30 years of age, but significantly more common in individuals with significant risk factors, such as older age, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, history of coronary artery disease or stroke, positive family history (premature atherosclerosis, cholesterol disorders, heart attack at early age), and other risk factors. Chest pain that radiates to one or both shoulders or arms, chest pain that occurs with physical activity, chest pain associated with nausea or vomiting, chest pain accompanied by diaphoresis or sweating, or chest pain described as "pressure," has a higher likelihood of being related to acute coronary syndrome, or inadequate supply of blood to the heart muscle, but even without these symptoms chest pain may be a sign of acute coronary syndrome. Other clues in the history can help lower the suspicion for myocardial infarction. These include chest pain described as "sharp" or "stabbing", chest pain that is positional or pleuritic in nature, and chest pain that can be reproduced with palpation. However, both atypical and typical symptoms of acute coronary syndrome can occur, and in general a history cannot be enough to rule out the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. In some cases, chest pain may not even be a symptom of an acute cardiac event. An estimated 33% of persons with myocardial infarction in the United States do not present with chest pain, and carry a significantly higher mortality as a result of delayed treatment.
Careful medical history and physical examination is essential in separating dangerous from trivial causes of disease, and the management of chest pain may be done on specialized units (termed medical assessment units) to concentrate the investigations. Occasionally, invisible medical signs will direct the diagnosis towards particular causes, such as Levine's sign in cardiac ischemia. However, in the case of acute coronary syndrome, a third heart sound, diaphoresis, and hypotension are the most strongly associated physical exam findings. However these signs are limited in their prognostic and diagnostic value. Other physical exam findings suggestive of cardiac chest pain may include hypertension, tachycardia, bradycardia, and new heart murmurs. Chest pain that is reproducible during the physical exam with contact of the chest wall is more indicative of non-cardiac chest pain, but still cannot completely rule out acute coronary syndrome. For this reason, in general, additional tests are required to establish the diagnosis.
The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events score and the Thrombosis in Myocardial Infarction performed at time of admission may help stratify persons into low, intermediate and high risk groups for acute coronary syndrome. However these scores do not provide management guidelines for risk-stratified persons.
The HEART score, stratifies persons into low-risk and high-risk groups, and recommends either discharge or admission based upon the score.
0-3: 2.5% risk of adverse cardiac event. Patient's can be discharged with follow-up.
4-6: 20.3% risk of adverse cardiac event. Patients should be admitted to the hospital for trending of troponin and provocative testing.
≥7: 72.7% risk of adverse cardiac event, suggesting early invasive measures with these patients and close coordination with inpatient cardiology.
If acute coronary syndrome ("heart attack") is suspected, many people are admitted briefly for observation, sequential ECGs, and measurement of cardiac enzymes in the blood over time. On occasion, further tests on follow up may determine the cause.
On the basis of the above, a number of tests may be ordered:
Chest pain is a common presenting problem. Overall chest pain is responsible for an estimated 6% of all emergency department in the United States and is the most common reason for hospital admission. Chest pain is also very common in primary care clinics, representing 1-3% of all visits. The rate of emergency department visits in the US for chest pain decreased 10% from 1999 to 2008. but a subsequent increase of 13% was seen from 2006-2011. Less than 20% of all cases of chest pain admissions are found to be due to coronary artery disease. The rate of chest pain as a symptom of acute coronary syndrome varies among populations based upon age, sex, and previous medical conditions. In general, women are more likely than men to present without chest pain (49% vs. 38%) in cases of myocardial infarction.
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