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Cheng Han (成漢)
Cheng Han (Cheng) in southwestern China
|Common languages||Ba-Shu Chinese|
• Li Xiong's claim of princely title
• Li Xiong's claim of imperial title
• Name change to Han
• Li Shi's death
|Currency||Chinese cash coins|
(Ancient Chinese coinage)
The Cheng Han (simplified Chinese: 成汉; traditional Chinese: 成漢; pinyin: Chénghàn; 303 or 304-347) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420) in China. It represented two states, the Cheng state (成, pinyin Chéng) proclaimed in 304 by Li Xiong and the Han state (汉, pinyin Hàn) in 338 by Li Shou. Since they were both ruled by the Li family of the Ba ethnicity, scholars with Chinese backgrounds often combined them into a single Cheng Han state. (The Li family has also been described as being of Ba-Di ethnicity, they were originally Ba from modern Sichuan who had settled among the Di in modern Gansu.) Western texts frequently referred to the two states separately. Whether the treatment is correct is debatable—when Li Shou claimed the throne in 338, he did not acknowledge his throne as having been inherited from Li Xiong's line, and indeed, while continuing the worship of Li Xiong, maintained it in a separate temple. Li Shou's son Li Shi, however, acknowledged the prior emperors as his predecessors. Cheng Han's was the earliest establishment of the Sixteen Kingdoms.
All rulers of the Cheng Han declared themselves "emperors".
The commonly accepted founding year of Cheng has been 304. Nevertheless, Li Te declared a new era name in 303 and self-declaration of era name has been considered by some Chinese scholars to be a symbol of a new government. At that time, however, Li Te claimed no imperial or other special titles for himself.
|Temple names||Posthumous names||Family names and given name||Durations of reigns||Era names and their according durations|
|Chinese convention: use family and given names|
|Cheng 303 or 304-338|
|Shizu (始祖 pinyin Shǐzǔ) or Shizu (世祖 Shìzǔ)||Jing (景 Jǐng)||Li Te (李特 Lǐ Tè)||303||Jianchu (建初 Jiànchū) or Jingchu (景初 Jǐngchū) 303|
|Did not exist||Did not exist||Li Liu (李流 Lǐ Liú)||several months in 303||Did not exist|
|Taizong (太宗 Tàizōng)||Wu (武 Wǔ)||Li Xiong (李雄 Lǐ Xióng)||303-334||Jianxing (建興 Jiànxīng) 304-306|
Yanping (晏平 Yànpíng) 306-311
Yuheng (玉衡 Yùhéng) 311-334
|Did not exist||Ai (哀 āi)||Li Ban (李班 Lǐ Bān)||7 months in 334||Yuheng (玉衡 Yùhéng) 7 months in 334|
|Did not exist||Yougong (幽公 Yōugōng)||Li Qi (李期 Lǐ Qī)||334-338||Yuheng (玉恆 Yùhéng) 335-338|
|Zhongzong (中宗 zhōngzōng)||Zhaowen (昭文 Zhāowén)||Li Shou (李壽 Lǐ Shòu)||338-343||Hanxing (漢興 Hànxīng) 338-343|
|Did not exist||Guiyihou (歸義侯 Guīyìhóu)||Li Shi (李勢 Lǐ Shì)||343-347||Taihe (太和 Tàihé) 343-346|
Jianing (嘉寧 Jiàníng) 346-347