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Chemical pneumonitis is inflammation of the lung caused by aspirating or inhaling irritants. It is sometimes called a "chemical pneumonia", though it is not infectious. There are two general types of chemical pneumonitis: acute and chronic.
Irritants capable of causing chemical pneumonitis include vomitus, barium used in gastro-intestinal imaging, chlorine gas (among other pulmonary agents), ingested gasoline or other petroleum distillates, ingested or skin absorbed pesticides, gases from electroplating, smoke and others. It may also be caused by the use of inhalants. Mendelson's syndrome is a type of chemical pneumonitis.
Mineral oil should not be given internally to young children, pets, or anyone with a cough, hiatus hernia, or nocturnal reflux, because it can cause complications such as lipoid pneumonia. Due to its low density, it is easily aspirated into the lungs, where it cannot be removed by the body. In children, if aspirated, the oil can work to prevent normal breathing, resulting in death of brain cells and permanent paralysis and/or brain damage.
Symptoms of chronic chemical pneumonitis may or may not be present, and can take months or years to develop to the point of noticeability.