Time in Europe
Light colours indicate where standard time is observed all year; dark colours indicate where a summer time is observed.
Time zones of Africa
Light colours indicate where standard time is observed all year; dark colours indicate where daylight saving is observed. The islands of Cape Verde are to the west of the African mainland. Central European Time ( CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The time offset from UTC can be written as +01:00. The same standard time, UTC+01:00, is also known as Middle European Time (MET, German: MEZ) and under other names like Berlin Time, Warsaw Time and Romance Standard Time (RST), Paris Time or Rome Time.
15th meridian east is the central axis for UTC+01:00 in the world system of time zones.
As of 2011, all
member states of the European Union observe summer time; those that during the winter use CET use Central European Summer Time (CEST) (or: UTC+02:00, daylight saving time) in summer (from last Sunday of March to last Sunday of October).
A number of African countries use
UTC+01:00 all year long, where it is called West Africa Time (WAT), although  Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia also use the term Central European Time.
Usage in Europe
The monument 'The 15th Meridian' in
Central European Time is currently (updated 2017)
used in  Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Kosovo, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland.
1 April 1893
Luxembourg introduces CET, but leaves 1918.   1914
During World War I CET was implemented in all German-occupied territories.  1920
Lithuania adopts CET (but subsequently rescinded in 1940).  1922
Under German occupation:
 The Netherlands was switched from
UTC+00:20 to CET. Belgium was switched from UTC+00:00.
Luxembourg was switched from UTC+00:00.
France, which had adopted Paris time on 14 March 1891 and Greenwich Mean Time on 9 March 1911, was switched to CET.  Spain switched to CET. 
After World War II
Monaco, Andorra and Gibraltar implemented CET.
Portugal used CET in the years 1966–1976 and 1992–1996.
The time around the world is based on
Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) which is roughly synonymous with Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). From late March to late October, clocks in the United Kingdom are put forward by one hour for British Summer Time (BST). Since 1997, most of the European Union aligned with the British standards for BST.
there was a three-year experiment called  British Standard Time, when the UK and Ireland experimentally employed British Summer Time (GMT+1) all year round; clocks were put forward in March 1968 and not put back until October 1971.
Central European Time is sometimes referred to as
continental time in the UK.
Several African countries use
UTC+01:00 all year long, where it called West Africa Time (WAT), although Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia also use the term Central European Time, despite being located in North Africa.
Between 2005 and 2008,
Tunisia observed daylight saving time.  Libya also used CET during the years 1951–1959, 1982–1989, 1996–1997 and 2012–2013.
For other countries see
UTC+01:00 and West Africa Time.
Discrepancies between official CET and geographical CET
Legal time vs local mean time
1 h ± 30 m behind
0 h ± 30 m
1 h ± 30 m ahead
2 h ± 30 m ahead
3 h ± 30 m ahead
Legal, political and economic, as well as physical or geographical criteria are used in the drawing of time zones so official time zones rarely adhere to meridian lines. The CET time zone, were it drawn by purely geographical terms, would consist of exactly the area between meridians 7°30′ E and 22°30′ E. As a result, there are European locales that despite lying in an area with a "physical" UTC+1 time, actually use another time zone (UTC+2 in particular – there are no "physical" UTC+1 areas that employ UTC). Conversely, there are European areas that have gone for UTC+1, even though their "physical" time zone is UTC (typically), UTC−1 (westernmost
Spain), or UTC+2 (e.g. the very easternmost parts of Norway, Sweden, Poland and Serbia). On the other hand, the people in Spain still have all work and meal hours one hour later than France and Germany even if they have the same time zone. Following is a list of such "incongruences":
Gibraltar maintained UTC+1 all year until the opening of the land frontier with Spain in 1982 when it followed its neighbour and introduced CEST.
Areas located within UTC+1 longitudes using other time zones
These areas are located between 7°30′ E and 22°30′ E ("physical" UTC+1)
Areas using UTC+2
The westernmost part of
Greece, including the cities of Patras, Ioannina and the island of Corfu The westernmost parts of the
Bulgarian provinces of Vidin and Kyustendil The westernmost part of
Romania, including most of the area of the counties of Caraș-Severin, Timiș (capital Timișoara), Arad, and Bihor, as well as the westernmost tips of the counties of Mehedinți and Satu Mare The westernmost tip of
Ukraine, near the border with Hungary and Slovakia, at the Ukrainian Transcarpathian Oblast ( Zakarpattia Oblast), essentially comprising the city of Uzhhorod and its environs. (Although CET is used as local, non-official time in Transcarpathia). Western
Lithuania, including the cities of Klaipėda, Tauragė, and Telšiai Western
Latvia, including the cities of Liepāja and Ventspils The westernmost parts of the
Estonian islands of Saaremaa and Hiiumaa, including the capital of the Saare County, Kuressaare The southwestern coast of
Finland, including the city of Turku; also the Åland islands (of Finnish jurisdiction) – the Åland islands are the westernmost locale applying EET in the whole of Europe The northwesternmost part of
Finland, including Kilpisjärvi and Kaaresuvanto. The Russian exclave of Kaliningrad Oblast, excluding however its easternmost slice (the city of Nesterov is east of 22°30′ E, but that of Krasnoznamensk is not)
Areas located outside UTC+1 longitudes using UTC+1 time
These areas are located west of 7°30′ E or east of 22°30′ E (outside "physical" UTC+1)
Areas between 22°30′ W and 7°30′ W ("physical" UTC−1)
The westernmost part of mainland
Spain ( Galicia, e.g. the city of A Coruña); Cape Finisterre and nearby points in Galicia, at 9°18′ W, are the westernmost places where CET is applied. The Norwegian island of Jan Mayen lies entirely within this area and extends nearly as far west as Cape Finisterre, with its western tip at 9°5′ W and its eastern tip at 7°56′ W.
Areas between 7°30′ W and 7°30′ E ("physical" UTC)
France, with the small exception of two separate easternmost parts of the mainland, one along eastern Alsace, incl. Strasbourg and the other in parts of the Alpes-Maritimes department, as well as the island of Corsica The very westernmost part of
Germany, incl. the cities of Saarbrücken, Düsseldorf, Cologne, Aachen, and Trier The absolutely westernmost part of
Italy, incl. the cities of Aosta in Aosta Valley and Cuneo in Piedmont
Netherlands The westernmost part of
Norway, incl. the cities of Bergen and Stavanger
Spain, except for the westernmost part of the mainland (see above) and the Canary Islands (which are further than 7°30′ W and use UTC).
Gibraltar The part of Switzerland west of Bern (inclusive), also incl. cities such as Geneva, Lausanne, and Fribourg
Areas between 22°30′ E and 37°30′ E ("physical" UTC+2)
The easternmost part of the
Republic of Macedonia, including the city of Strumica The easternmost part of
Serbia, in the Pirot District, including the city of Pirot, and small easternmost parts of Bor District. The easternmost tips of
Hungary and Slovakia, bordering to the north and south respectively the Ukrainian Transcarpathian Oblast ( Zakarpattia Oblast), a bit to the east of Vásárosnamény, Hungary – Uzhhorod, Ukraine (both at 22°18′ E) line The easternmost part of
Poland, including the cities of Lublin and Białystok The northeast of
Sweden, in the Norrbotten province, including the cities of Kalix and Haparanda The northeast of
Norway, lying north of Finland, roughly coinciding with the county of Finnmark. The easternmost town in Norway, Vardø, lies at 30°51′ E, which is so far east, so as to be east even of the central meridian of EET (UTC+2), i.e. east of Istanbul and Alexandria. The sun reaches its highest point at 10:56 (when not DST), although the sun does not vary so much in height at the latitude 70°E. The Norwegian– Russian and the Polish- Belarussian border are the only places where CET (UTC+1/+2) borders Moscow time (UTC+3), resulting in a two hours time change (or one hour in summer) for the travellers crossing that border. There is a "tri-zone" point (where UTC+1, UTC+2, and UTC+3 meet, winter times) at the Norway– Finland– Russia tripoint near Muotkavaara. During the summer Finland and Russia both have UTC+3.
Romance Standard Time
"Europe Starts Daylight Saving on March 27, 2011". www.timeanddate.com . Retrieved . 2018-07-19
"WAT – West Africa Time (Time Zone Abbreviation)". www.timeanddate.com . Retrieved . 2018-07-19
^ a b c
"Central European Time Zone - CET". WorldTimeServer.com. 2015-11-19 . Retrieved . 2018-07-19
CET – Central European Time / European Central Time (Standard Time)
"Time Zone & Clock Changes in Belgrade, Serbia". www.timeanddate.com . Retrieved . 2018-07-19
"Time Zone & Clock Changes in Budapest, Hungary". www.timeanddate.com . Retrieved . 2018-07-19
"Daylight Saving Time Changes 1891 in Prague, Czech Republic". www.timeanddate.com . Retrieved . 2018-07-19
Bartky, Ian R. (2007). . Stanford University Press. pp. 126–7. One Time Fits All: The Campaigns for Global Uniformity ISBN 0804756422 . Retrieved . 18 August 2015
"Time Zone & Clock Changes in Rome, Italy". www.timeanddate.com . Retrieved . 2018-07-19
"Time Zone & Clock Changes in Valletta, Malta". www.timeanddate.com . Retrieved . 2018-07-19
"Time Zone & Clock Changes in Vienna, Vienna, Austria". www.timeanddate.com . Retrieved . 2018-07-19
Messerli, Jakob. "Zeitsysteme". HLS-DHS-DSS.CH (in German) . Retrieved . 2018-07-19
"dullophob". www.dullophob.com . Retrieved . 2018-07-19
"Time Zone & Clock Changes in Copenhagen, Denmark". www.timeanddate.com . Retrieved . 2018-07-19
"Daylight Saving Time Changes 1895 in Oslo, Norway". www.timeanddate.com . Retrieved . 2018-07-19
"Time Zone & Clock Changes in Stockholm, Sweden". www.timeanddate.com . Retrieved . 2018-07-19
"Daylight Saving Time Changes 1904 in Luxembourg, Luxembourg". www.timeanddate.com . Retrieved . 2018-07-20
"Daylight Saving Time Changes 1918 in Luxembourg, Luxembourg". www.timeanddate.com . Retrieved . 2018-07-20
"Time Zone & Clock Changes in Tirana, Albania". www.timeanddate.com . Retrieved . 2018-07-20
^ a b c d
"CET - Central European Time". www.thetimenow.com . Retrieved . 2018-07-20
"Time Zone & Clock Changes in Vilnius, Lithuania". www.timeanddate.com . Retrieved . 2018-07-20
"Time Changes in Poland 2017". www.vercalendario.info . Retrieved . 2018-07-20
Bartky, Ian R. (2007). . Stanford University Press. pp. 130, 134. One Time Fits All: The Campaigns for Global Uniformity ISBN 0804756422 . Retrieved . 18 August 2015
"Summer Time all the time". Birmingham Daily Post. England. 13 February 1968 . Retrieved – via British Newspaper Archive. 16 July 2018 (Subscription required (. help))
"Clocks to be turned back". Birmingham Daily Post. England. 2 October 1971 . Retrieved – via British Newspaper Archive. 16 July 2018 (Subscription required (. help))
"Daylight Saving Time Changes 2005 in Tunis, Tunisia". www.timeanddate.com . Retrieved . 2018-07-20
Purdy, Chase. "Spain spent the last 76 years in the wrong time zone—and it's not healthy for workers". Quartz . Retrieved . 2018-07-20
^ a b
"Greece Time Zone". www.timetemperature.com . Retrieved . 2018-07-20
^ a b
"Europe Time Zones Map With Zone - madriver.me". madriver.me . Retrieved . 2018-07-20