Censuses in Egypt first appears in the late Middle Kingdom and develops in the New Kingdom Pharaoh Amasis, according to Herodotus, require every Egyptian to declare annually to the nomarch, "whence he gained his living". Under the Ptolemies and the Romans several censuses were conducted in Egypt by governments officials 
Roman censuses in Egypt estimated the population at 4.5 millions inhabitants in the year 14 AD and 5 millions in 164 AD.
A census also took place in the era of Hesham Abdel Malek ben Marwan in the year 600 AD including the number of people, their ages and residences.
After preliminary enumerations in some urban areas and villages the first countrywide census was carried out in 1848. The 1848 census is said to be the first in a non-Western country to include demographic, social, and economic data on practically all individuals including females, children, and slaves. Digitization of the 1848 and 1868 census records is underway based on documents in the National Archives of Egypt.
|Province or governorate||Population|
|Girga (currently Sohag Governorate)||1,288,425|
A new census was done in 2017. Census day was 18 April 2017 and Egypt's population on that date was estimated to be 94,798,827.
|% Change in Population compared with Census 1996||% 22|
|% Change in Population Under 6 Years Old||% 168|
|% Change in Population Under 15 Years Old||% 256|
|% Change in Population Over 45 Years Old||% 289|
|Number of Households||17,265,567|
|Family average||4 to 5|
|Number of university graduates||5,476,704|
|Number of Illiterates 2006||16,806,657|
|Raw Birth Rate||26|
|Raw Death Rate||6|
At current pace, Egypt's population is expected to reach 160 million by 2050. However, if the current rate of reproduction diminishes, the population may be limited to 120 million by 2050. Egypt already has one of the highest real population densities in the world.