Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism (CR) is an umbrella term for Polytheistic Reconstructionist traditions which are based in one of the specific cultures of the Celtic-speaking peoples (such as Gaelic Polytheists or Welsh or Gaulish Reconstructionists). Celtic Reconstructionists strive to practice a historically accurate and authentic tradition, based on the folklore and living traditions in the Celtic Nations and the diaspora as well as primary sources in the Celtic languages. They reject the eclecticism and cultural appropriation of the broader Neopagan community.
Celtic Neoshamanism is a modern spiritual tradition that combines elements from Celtic myth and legend with Michael Harner's core shamanism. Proponents of Celtic Shamanism believe that its practices allow a deeper spiritual connection to those with a northern European heritage. Authors such as Jenny Blain have argued that "Celtic Shamanism" is a "construction" and an "ahistoric concept".
Neo-Druidism is a form of modern spirituality or religion that generally promotes harmony and worship of nature. Many forms of modern Druidism are Neopagan religions, whereas others are instead seen as philosophies that are not necessarily religious in nature. Arising from the 18th century Romanticist movement in England, which glorified the ancient Celtic peoples of the Iron Age, the early Neo-druids aimed to imitate the Iron Age Celtic priests who were also known as druids. At the time, little accurate information was known about these ancient priests, and the modern druidic movement has no actual connection to them, despite some claims to the contrary made by modern druids.
^Bonewits, Isaac (2006) Bonewits's Essential Guide to Druidism. New York, Kensington Publishing Group ISBN0-8065-2710-2. p.132: [Among Celtic Reconstructionists] "...An Thríbhís Mhòr (the great triple spiral) came into common use to refer to the three realms." Also p. 134: [On CRs] "Using Celtic symbols such as triskeles and spirals"
^Matthews, John O. (1991). Taliesin: Shamanism and the Bardic Mysteries in Britain and Ireland. Aquarian Press. ISBN1-85538-109-5.
^NicDhàna, Kathryn Price; Erynn Rowan Laurie; C. Lee Vermeers; Kym Lambert ní Dhoireann; et al. (August 2007). The CR FAQ – An Introduction to Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism (first ed.). River House Publishing. pp. 24–25. ISBN978-0-615-15800-6.
^Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael (2006). Introduction to new and alternative religions in America. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. p. 178. ISBN0-275-98713-2.
^Kennedy, Michael (November 2002). Gaelic Nova Scotia: An Economic, Cultural, and Social Impact Study. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Nova Scotia Museum Publications. pp. 12, 13. ISBN0-88871-774-1.: "In developing their own concept of Druidry, no reference was made by the [romantic] revivalists to the native spiritual and intellectual traditions of living Celtic communities – particularly to bards and priests who would have been the closest modern inheritors of any modern druidic tradition, slight as it may have been." ... "Although the [romantic "druidic" revival] movement has continued to grow ... it is still almost entirely absent from areas in which Celtic languages are actually spoken and in which Celtic traditions have been most faithfully handed down to the present day. As Prof. Donald Meek has pointed out, this process of romanticism and cultural redefinition is actually greatly assisted by ignorance of the minority group's language." ... "The major reason that they tend to offer such a confused and contradictory picture of the "inherent" nature of Celts or Celtic culture is that they generally make no reference to existing Celtic communities, to living Celtic cultures, or to the best available Celtic scholarship. In fact, attempts to suggest that these should be the first sources of authority for the interpretation and representation of Celtic culture are often met with skepticism and even open hostility."
^Blain, Jenny (2001) "Shamans, Stones, Authenticity and Appropriation: Contestations of Invention and MeaningArchived 2016-01-31 at the Wayback Machine". In R.J. Wallis and K. Lymer (eds.) New Approaches to the Archaeology of Art, Religion and Folklore: A Permeability of Boundaries? Oxford: BAR. pp.50,52. "The charge of appropriation, in turn, deals in concepts such as ancestry, cultural knowledge, respect, and profit, i.e. commercial gain. Such charges have been documented by a variety of writers, with reference to ‘borrowings’ from Siberian shamanism – through anthropological accounts – and more directly from Indigenous peoples of North and South America. Let us look again at MacEowan’s ‘Celtic Shamanism’ and further investigate the construction of this ahistoric concept. ... Inventing a ‘Celtic Shamanism’"
^ abcMcColman, Carl (2003). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Celtic Wisdom. Alpha Press. pp. 50–51. ISBN0-02-864417-4.
^ abRaeburn, Jane, Celtic Wicca: Ancient Wisdom for the 21st Century (2001), ISBN0806522291
^ abHutton, Ronald (2001) The Triumph of the Moon: A History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft. ISBN0-19-285449-6
^"The DruidsArchived 2012-12-23 at Archive.today", The British Museum. "Modern Druids have no direct connection to the Druids of the Iron Age. Many of our popular ideas about the Druids are based on the misunderstandings and misconceptions of scholars 200 years ago. These ideas have been superseded by later study and discoveries."
McColman, Carl (2003) The Complete Idiot's Guide to Celtic Wisdom. Alpha Press ISBN0-02-864417-4.
NicDhàna, Kathryn Price; Erynn Rowan Laurie, C. Lee Vermeers, Kym Lambert ní Dhoireann, et al. (2007) The CR FAQ – An Introduction to Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism. River House Publishing. ISBN978-0-6151-5800-6.