|State of Pará|
Location of State of Pará in Brazil
|Capital and largest city||Belém|
|• Governor||Simão Jatene|
|• Vice Governor||Helenilson Pontes|
|• Total||1,247,689.5 km2 (481,735.6 sq mi)|
|• Density||6.2/km2 (16/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||21st|
This find has challenged previous thinking about patterns of human settlement in South America. Anna C. Roosevelt, an American archeologist and primary researcher here since 1990, believes that findings from the cave show there were Paleoindians this far south and with an independent culture that existed at the same time as other early Native Americans were active on the Great Plains of North America. Formerly researchers believed that Amazonian settlements arose later than those in the Andes, and were developed by migrants from the highlands.
Rediscovery and excavations
American archeologist Anna C. Roosevelt rediscovered the cave and excavated it extensively from 1990 to 1992. The excavations were supported by the Field Museum and the University of Illinois, Chicago, with which she is affiliated. The lowest levels of the cave were radiocarbon dated and Thermoluminescence dated to ca. 11,200 to 10,000 years ago. The early dates of these finds have affected interpretation of human settlement in the Amazon Basin. Roosevelt believes that the cave's evidence supports a theory that the Amazon Basin was settled much earlier than formerly believed.
"We found strong evidence that a culture quite distinct from the North American Paleoindian culture, but contemporary with it, existed more than 5,000 miles to the south", Anna Roosevelt has said. "Paleoindians traveled far and adapted to a diverse range of habitats. The existence of distinct cultures east of the Andes suggests that North American big-game hunters were not the sole source of migration into South America."
The lowest levels of the cave yield charred floral and faunal remains and stone tools, including spear points, suggesting that the earliest visitors were hunter-gatherers in the humid tropical environment. These Paleoindians used the cave frequently over a span of 1,200 years, leaving remains of fruits, and seeds, including Brazil nuts; as well as fish, birds, reptiles, shellfish, and amphibians.
Lumps of raw pigment and paint drops from the cave paintings have been dated. They are considered to be the earliest paintings in South America and the earliest known cave paintings in the Americas. Images of stick figures, include a woman giving birth; geometric designs; and hand prints are paintings in browns, reds, and yellows.
- Pedra Furada sites
- Toca da Tira Peia
- Timeline of Amazon history
- Timeline of Native American art history
- Saraceni, Jessica E. and Adriana Franco da Sá. "People of South America." Archaeology. Vol. 49, No. 4, July/August 1996. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
- Wilford, John Noble. "Scientist at Work: Anna C. Roosevelt: Sharp and To the Point In Amazonia", New York Times. 23 April 1996, Retrieved 9 April 2012.
- "SCIENTIST AT WORK: Anna C. Roosevelt; Sharp and To the Point In Amazonia", New York Times, 23 April 1996, accessed 24 April 2016
- Dispatches from Brasil, with photos of the cave and paintings