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Cauliflower

Cauliflower
Cauliflower.JPG
Cauliflower, cultivar unknown
SpeciesBrassica oleracea
Cultivar groupBotrytis Group
OriginNortheast Mediterranean
Cultivar group membersMany; see text.
Cauliflower plants growing in a nursery

Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea in the genus Brassica, which is in the family Brassicaceae. It is an annual plant that reproduces by seed. Typically, only the head is eaten – the edible white flesh sometimes called "curd" (with a similar appearance to cheese curd).[1] The cauliflower head is composed of a white inflorescence meristem. Cauliflower heads resemble those in broccoli, which differs in having flower buds as the edible portion. Brassica oleracea also includes broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, collard greens, and kale, collectively called "cole" crops,[2] though they are of different cultivar groups.

History

In the 1st century AD, Pliny included what he called cyma among his descriptions of cultivated plants in Natural History: "Ex omnibus brassicae generibus suavissima est cyma,"[3] ("Of all the varieties of cabbage the most pleasant-tasted is cyma").[4] Pliny's descriptions likely refer to the flowering heads of an earlier cultivated variety of Brassica oleracea, but comes close to describing modern cauliflower.[5] In the Middle Ages early forms of cauliflower were associated with the island of Cyprus, with the 12th- and 13th-century Arab botanists Ibn al-'Awwam and Ibn al-Baitar claiming its origin to be Cyprus.[6][7] This association continued into Western Europe, where cauliflowers were sometimes known as Cyprus colewart, and there was extensive trade in western Europe in cauliflower seeds from Cyprus, under the French Lusignan rulers of the island, until well into the sixteenth century.[8]

François Pierre La Varenne employed chouxfleurs in Le cuisinier françois.[9] They were introduced to France from Genoa in the 16th century, and are featured in Olivier de Serres' Théâtre de l'agriculture (1600), as cauli-fiori "as the Italians call it, which are still rather rare in France; they hold an honorable place in the garden because of their delicacy",[10] but they did not commonly appear on grand tables until the time of Louis XIV.[11] It was introduced to India in 1822 from England by the British.[12]

Etymology

The word "cauliflower" derives from the Italian cavolfiore, meaning "cabbage flower".[13] The ultimate origin of the name is from the Latin words caulis (cabbage) and flōs (flower).[14]

Horticulture

Cauliflower is relatively difficult to grow compared to cabbage, with common problems such as an underdeveloped head and poor curd quality.[2]

Climate

As weather is a limiting factor for producing cauliflower, the plant grows best in cool daytime temperatures 70–85 °F (21–29 °C), with plentiful sun, and moist soil conditions high in organic matter and sandy soils.[1] The earliest maturity possible for cauliflower is 7 to 12 weeks from transplanting.[2] In the northern hemisphere, fall season plantings in July may enable harvesting before autumn frost.[1]

Long periods of sun exposure in hot summer weather may cause cauliflower heads to discolor with a red-purple hue.[1]

Seeding and transplanting

Transplantable cauliflowers can be produced in containers as flats, hotbeds, or in the field. In soil that is loose, well-drained and fertile, field seedlings are shallow-planted 0.5 inches (1.3 cm) and thinned by ample space (about 12 plants per 1 foot (30 cm).[1] Ideal growing temperatures are about 65 °F (18 °C) when seedlings are 25 to 35 days old.[1] Applications of fertilizer to developing seedlings begin when leaves appear, usually with a starter solution weekly.

Transplanting to the field normally begins late spring and may continue until mid-summer. Row spacing is about 15–18 inches (38–46 cm). Rapid vegetative growth after transplanting may benefit from such procedures as avoiding spring frosts, using starter solutions high in phosphorus, irrigating weekly, and applying fertilizer.[1]

Disorders, pests and diseases

The most important disorders affecting cauliflower quality are a hollow stem, stunted head growth or buttoning, ricing, browning and leaf-tip burn.[1] Among major pests affecting cauliflower are aphids, root maggots, cutworms, moths, and flea beetles.[2] The plant is susceptible to black rot, black leg, club root, black leaf spot, and downy mildew.[1]

Harvesting

When cauliflower is mature, heads appear as clear white, compact, and 6–8 inches (15–20 cm) in diameter, and should be cooled shortly after harvest.[1] Forced air cooling to remove heat from the field during hot weather may be needed for optimal preservation. Short-term storage is possible using cool, high-humidity storage conditions.[1]

Classification and identification

There are four major groups of cauliflower.[15]

Italian
This specimen is diverse in appearance, biennial and annual in type. This group also includes white, Romanesco, various brown, green, purple, and yellow cultivars. This type is the ancestral form from which the others were derived.
Northern European annuals
Used in Europe and North America for summer and fall harvest, it was developed in Germany in the 18th century and includes the old cultivars Erfurt and Snowball.
Northwest European biennial
Used in Europe for winter and early spring harvest, this was developed in France in the 19th century and includes the old cultivars Angers and Roscoff.
Asian
A tropical cauliflower used in China and India, it was developed in India during the 19th century from the now-abandoned Cornish type[16] and includes old varieties Early Benaras and Early Patna.

Varieties

There are hundreds of historic and current commercial varieties used around the world. A comprehensive list of about 80 North American varieties is maintained at North Carolina State University.[17]

Colours

White
White cauliflower is the most common color of cauliflower having a contrasting white head (also called "curd") surrounded by green leaves.[1]
Orange
Orange cauliflower contains beta-carotene as the orange pigment, a provitamin A compound. This orange trait originated from a natural mutant found in a cauliflower field in Canada.[18] Cultivars include 'Cheddar' and 'Orange Bouquet'.
Green
Green cauliflower in the B. oleracea Botrytis Group is sometimes called broccoflower. It is available in the normal curd (head) shape and with a fractal spiral curd called Romanesco broccoli. Both have been commercially available in the U.S. and Europe since the early 1990s. Green-headed varieties include 'Alverda', 'Green Goddess' and 'Vorda'. Romanesco varieties include 'Minaret' and 'Veronica'.
Purple
The purple color in this cauliflower is caused by the presence anthocyanins, water-soluble pigments that are found in many other plants and plant-based products, such as red cabbage and red wine.[19] Varieties include 'Graffiti' and 'Purple Cape'.
In Great Britain and southern Italy, a broccoli with tiny flower buds is sold as a vegetable under the name "purple cauliflower"; it is not the same as standard cauliflower with a purple head.

Production

Cauliflower production – 2016
Country Production
(millions of tonnes)
 People's Republic of China
10.2
 India
8.2
 United States
1.3
 Spain
0.6
 Mexico
0.6
 Italy
0.4
World
25.2
Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations[20]

In 2016, global production of cauliflowers (combined for production reports with broccoli) was 25.2 million tonnes, led by China and India which, combined, had 73% of the world total.[20] Secondary producers, having 0.4–1.3 million tonnes annually, were the United States, Spain, Mexico and Italy.[20]

Nutrition

Cauliflower, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy104 kJ (25 kcal)
5 g
Sugars1.9 g
Dietary fiber2 g
0.3 g
1.9 g
VitaminsQuantity %DV
Thiamine (B1)
4%
0.05 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
5%
0.06 mg
Niacin (B3)
3%
0.507 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
13%
0.667 mg
Vitamin B6
14%
0.184 mg
Folate (B9)
14%
57 μg
Vitamin C
58%
48.2 mg
Vitamin E
1%
0.08 mg
Vitamin K
15%
15.5 μg
MineralsQuantity %DV
Calcium
2%
22 mg
Iron
3%
0.42 mg
Magnesium
4%
15 mg
Manganese
7%
0.155 mg
Phosphorus
6%
44 mg
Potassium
6%
299 mg
Sodium
2%
30 mg
Zinc
3%
0.27 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water92 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Raw cauliflower is 92% water, 5% carbohydrates, 2% protein, and contains negligible fat (table). A 100 gram reference amount of raw cauliflower provides 25 calories, and has a high content (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of vitamin C (58% DV) and moderate levels of several B vitamins and vitamin K (13-15% DV; table). Contents of dietary minerals are low (7% DV or less).

Phytochemicals

Cauliflower contains several non-nutrient phytochemicals common in the cabbage family that are under preliminary research for their potential properties, including isothiocyanates and glucosinolates.[21] Boiling reduces the levels of cauliflower glucosinolates, while other cooking methods, such as steaming, microwaving, and stir frying, have no significant effect on glucosinolate levels.[22]

Cuisine

Aloo gobi, an Indian dish prepared with cauliflower and potato
Potato and cauliflower curry (alu-fulcopi rosa)
Cauliflower as a velouté sauce

Cauliflower heads can be roasted, grilled, boiled, fried, steamed, pickled, or eaten raw. When cooking, the outer leaves and thick stalks are typically removed, leaving only the florets (the edible "curd" or "head").[1] The leaves are also edible, but are often discarded.[23]

The 21st century trend of serving roasted whole cauliflower in restaurants around the world began in the kitchen of an Israeli chef, Eyal Shani.[24]

Fractal dimension

Cauliflower has been noticed by mathematicians for its distinct fractal dimension,[25][26] calculated to be roughly 2.8.[27][28] One of the fractal properties of cauliflower is that every branch, or "module", is similar to the entire cauliflower. Another quality, also present in other plant species, is that the angle between "modules," as they become more distant from the center, is 360 degrees divided by the golden ratio.[29]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Vincent A. Fritz; Carl J. Rosen; Michelle A. Grabowski; William D. Hutchison; Roger L. Becker; Cindy Tong; Jerry A. Wright & Terry T. Nennich (2017). "Growing broccoli, cabbage and cauliflower in Minnesota". University of Minnesota Extension, Garden - Growing Vegetables. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d "Cabbage, Broccoli, Cauliflower, and Other Brassica Crops". Center for Agriculture, Food and the Environment, College of Natural Sciences, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, USA. 14 January 2013. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  3. ^ Pliny (the Elder) (1841). Weise, C.H. (ed.). Historiae Naturalis Libri XX (in Latin). p. 249.
  4. ^ Rackham, H., ed. (1949). "XXXV". Pliny's Natural History. Archived from the original on 1 January 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
  5. ^ Crozier, Arthur Alger (1891). The Cauliflower. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Register Publishing Co. p. 12.
  6. ^ "Cabbage Flowers for Food". Aggie Horticulture. Texas AgriLife Extension Service, Texas A&M System. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
  7. ^ Fenwick, G. Roger; Heaney, Robert K.; Mullin, W. John; VanEtten, Cecil H. (1982). "Glucosinolates and their breakdown products in food and food plants". C R C Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 18 (2): 123–201. doi:10.1080/10408398209527361.
  8. ^ Jon Gregerson, Good Earth (Portland: Graphic Arts Center Publishing Company, 1990) p.41
  9. ^ Wheaton, Barbara Ketcham (1996) Savoring the Past: the French kitchen and table from 1300 to 1789, Touchstone, p. 118, ISBN 0-684-81857-4.
  10. ^ Wheaton, Barbara Ketcham (1996) Savoring the Past: the French kitchen and table from 1300 to 1789, Touchstone, p. 66, ISBN 0-684-81857-4.
  11. ^ Toussaint-Samat, Maguelonne (2009) A History of Food, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, pp. 625f, ISBN 1-4443-0514-X.
  12. ^ Vegetable Crops. New India Publishing. 1 January 2007. p. 209. ISBN 978-81-89422-41-7.
  13. ^ "cauliflower". WordReference.com Dictionary of English. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  14. ^ "Cauliflower: definition". Reference.com. 2006. Retrieved 22 November 2008.
  15. ^ Crisp, P. (1982). "The use of an evolutionary scheme for cauliflowers in screening of genetic resources". Euphytica. 31 (3): 725. doi:10.1007/BF00039211.
  16. ^ Swarup, V.; Chatterjee, S.S. (1972). "Origin and genetic improvement of Indian cauliflower". Economic Botany. 26 (4): 381–393. doi:10.1007/BF02860710.
  17. ^ Farnham, M. (2007). "Vegetable Cultivar Descriptions for North America:Cauliflower". Retrieved 2007-09-19.
  18. ^ Dickson, M.H.; Lee C.Y.; Blamble A.E. (1988). "Orange-curd high carotene cauliflower inbreds, NY 156, NY 163, and NY 165". HortScience. 23: 778–779.
  19. ^ Chiu, L.; Prior, R.L.; Wu, X.; Li, L. (July 16, 2005). "Toward Identification of the Candidate Gene Controlling Anthocyanin Accumulation in Purple Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis)". American Society of Plant Biologists Annual Meeting. p. 628.
  20. ^ a b c "Production/Crops, Quantities by Country for Cauliflowers and Broccoli for 2016". Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  21. ^ Ishida M, Hara M, Fukino N, Kakizaki T, Morimitsu Y (2014). "Glucosinolate metabolism, functionality and breeding for the improvement of Brassicaceae vegetables". Breed Sci. 64 (1): 48–59. doi:10.1270/jsbbs.64.48. PMC 4031110. PMID 24987290.
  22. ^ Nugrahedi, Probo Y.; Verkerk, Ruud; Widianarko, Budi; Dekker, Matthijs (2015). "A Mechanistic Perspective on Process-Induced Changes in Glucosinolate Content in Brassica Vegetables: A Review". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 55 (6): 823–838. doi:10.1080/10408398.2012.688076. ISSN 1040-8398. PMID 24915330.
  23. ^ Stephens, MJ (1998). "Secondary Edible Parts of Vegetables". Vegetarian. 5.
  24. ^ How an Israeli Chef's Cauliflower Recipe Took Over the World, Haaretz
  25. ^ Walker, John. (2005-03-22) Fractal Food. Fourmilab.ch. Retrieved on 2013-09-03.
  26. ^ Description of the Julia sets of the cabbage fractal. Iwriteiam.nl. Retrieved on 2013-09-03.
  27. ^ Kim, Sang-Hoon (2004). "Fractal Structure of a White Cauliflower" (PDF). Journal of the Korean Physical Society. 46 (2): 474–477. arXiv:cond-mat/0409763. Bibcode:2004cond.mat..9763K.
  28. ^ Kim, Sang-Hoon (2004). "Fractal dimensions of a green broccoli and a white cauliflower". arXiv:cond-mat/0411597.
  29. ^ "Romanesco cauliflower is a striking example of fractals".

Further reading

  • Sharma, S.R.; Singh, P.K.; Chable, V. Tripathi, S.K. (2004). "A review of hybrid cauliflower development". Journal of New Seeds. 6 (2–3): 151. doi:10.1300/J153v06n02_08.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

External links