This page uses content from Wikipedia and is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Cao Hui (Prince of Dongping)

Cao Hui
Prince of Dongping (東平王)
Tenure232 – February or March 242
SuccessorCao Xi
Prince of Shouzhang (壽張王)
Tenure223 – 232
Prince of Lujiang (廬江王)
Tenure222 – 223
DiedFebruary or March 242[a]
IssueCao Xi
Full name
Family name: Cao (曹)
Given name: Hui (徽)
Posthumous name
Prince Ling (靈王)
HouseHouse of Cao
FatherCao Cao
MotherConsort Song

Cao Hui (died February or March 242)[a] was an imperial prince of the state of Cao Wei in the Three Kingdoms period of China.


Cao Hui was a son of Cao Cao, a warlord who rose to prominence towards the end of the Han dynasty and laid the foundation for the Cao Wei state. His mother was Consort Song (宋姬), a concubine of Cao Cao.[2] He was designated as the heir of his uncle, Cao Yu (曹玉), because the latter had no son to succeed him when he died.[b][3] In 217, Cao Hui was enfeoffed as the "Marquis of Licheng" (歷城侯) by Emperor Xian, the figurehead emperor of the Han dynasty.[4]

In 220, following Cao Cao's death, Cao Hui's half-brother Cao Pi usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, ended the Han dynasty, and established the Cao Wei state with himself as the new emperor. The following year, Cao Pi enfeoffed Cao Hui as a duke. In 222, Cao Pi elevated Cao Hui from the status of a duke to a prince under the title "Prince of Lujiang" (廬江王). He changed Cao Hui's title to "Prince of Shouzhang" (壽張王) in 223 and designated Shouzhang County (壽張縣; south of present-day Dongping County, Shandong) as Cao Hui's princedom in the following year.[5]

In 232, Cao Pi's successor, Cao Rui, changed Cao Hui's title to "Prince of Dongping" (東平王) after upgrading his princedom from Shouzhang County to the entire Dongping Commandery (with Shouzhang County as its administrative centre). In 234, someone reported Cao Hui to the imperial court after he ordered his subordinate(s) to beat up an official in Shouzhang County. As punishment for his misconduct, Cao Hui had one county with 500 taxable households removed from his princedom. However, the county and its 500 households were returned to him within the same year.[6]

Cao Hui died sometime between 17 February and 18 March 242[a] during the reign of Cao Rui's successor Cao Fang, and was given the posthumous title "Prince Ling" (靈王).


Cao Hui's son, Cao Xi (曹翕), succeeded him as the Prince of Dongping. The number of taxable households in the Dongping princedom increased throughout the reigns of the subsequent Wei emperors until it reached 3,400.[7] After the Jin dynasty (265–420) replaced the Cao Wei state in 265, Cao Xi pledged allegiance to the new emperor Sima Yan (Emperor Wu), who enfeoffed him as the "Duke of Linqiu" (廩丘). Among all the former Wei nobles, Cao Xi was the most famous after Cao Zhi (曹志), the Duke of Zhencheng (鄄城公).[8]

In 266, Cao Xi sent his son and heir apparent, Cao Kun (曹琨), to pay tribute to Emperor Wu Di. The emperor issued an imperial decree to praise Cao Xi for his loyalty towards the Jin dynasty and awarded Cao Kun the appointment of a Cavalry Commandant (騎都尉), a set of official robes, and 100,000 coins. Cao Xi was known for studying medicine and writing books with Huangfu Mi, a physician who lived around the same time as him.[9]

See also


  1. ^ a b c Cao Fang's biography in the Sanguozhi recorded that Cao Hui died in the 1st month of the 3rd year of the Zhengshi era of Cao Fang's reign.[1] This month corresponds to 17 February to 18 March 242 in the Gregorian calendar.
  2. ^ The Sanguozhi recorded that Cao Yu (曹玉), whose posthumous title was "Marquis Ai of Langling" (朗陵哀侯), was a granduncle of Cao Hui.[3] However, this is likely to be an error since there is no record of Cao Hui's grandfather, Cao Song, having any brothers; therefore, Cao Yu was most probably an uncle of Cao Hui.


  1. ^ ([正始]三年春正月,東平王徽薨。) Sanguozhi vol. 4.
  2. ^ (武皇帝二十五男: ... 宋姬生東平靈王徽, ...) Sanguozhi vol. 20.
  3. ^ a b (東平靈王徽,奉叔公朗陵哀侯玉後。) Sanguozhi vol. 20.
  4. ^ (建安二十二年,封歷城侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 20.
  5. ^ (黃初二年,進爵為公。三年,為廬江王。四年,徙封壽張王。五年,改封壽張縣。) Sanguozhi vol. 20.
  6. ^ (太和六年,改封東平。青龍二年,徽使官屬檛壽張縣吏,為有司所奏。詔削縣一,戶五百。其年復所削縣。) Sanguozhi vol. 20.
  7. ^ (子翕嗣。景初、正元、景元中,累增邑,并前三千四百戶。) Sanguozhi vol. 20.
  8. ^ (臣松之案:翕入晉,封廩丘公。魏宗室之中,名次鄄城公。) Pei Songzhi's annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 20.
  9. ^ (至泰始二年,翕遣世子琨奉表來朝。詔曰:「翕秉德履道,魏宗之良。今琨遠至,其假世子印綬,加騎都尉,賜朝服一具,錢十萬,隨才叙用。」翕撰解寒食散方,與皇甫謐所撰並行於世。) Pei Songzhi's annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 20.