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Cahuapanan languages

Cahuapanan
Kawapanan
Geographic
distribution
Peru
Linguistic classificationMacro-Jibaro ?
  • Cahuapanan
Subdivisions
Glottologcahu1265[1]

The Cahuapanan languages are a language family spoken in the Amazon basin of northern Peru. They include two languages, Chayahuita and Jebero, which are spoken by more than 11,300 people. Chayahuita is spoken by most of that number, but Jebero is almost extinct.

Language contact

Jolkesky (2016) notes that there are lexical similarities with the Kechua, Arawak, Kandoshi, Pukina, and Karib language families due to contact.[2]

Varieties

  • Chayahuita or Chawi (also known or rendered as Balsapuertino, Cahuapa, Chayabita, Chayawita, Chayhuita, Tshaahui, Paranapura, Shayabit)
    • Chayahuita dialect
    • Cahuapana dialect
  • Jebero (also known or rendered as Chebero, Xebero, Xihuila)

Glottolog classifies the extinct language Maynas as close to Chawi.

Other Cahuapanan varieties that are listed by Loukotka (1968):[3]

  • Yamorai - spoken on the Sillai River in Loreto Department
  • Ataguate - extinct language of the same region, once spoken on the Aipena River and around Lake Atagua (unattested)
  • Pamdabegue - once spoken on the Aipena River and Paranapura River in Loreto Department (unattested)
  • Miguira (Shuensampi, Miquira, Mikirá[4]) - extinct language once spoken in the single village of Maucallacta on the Paranapura River

Proto-language

Proto-Cahuapanan
Proto-Kawapanan
Reconstruction ofCahuapanan languages

Rojas-Berscia (2019)

Rojas-Berscia (2019) gives the following forms for Proto-Kawapanan, along with their respective Shawi, and Shiwilu reflexes.[5]

gloss Proto-Kawapanan Shawi Shiwilu
agouti *îtɘʔ ihtɘʔ ɘttʃɘk
Aipena River *aîpina ~ *îpina aipina ɘrpina
anona *aɘ ~ *ɘ ɘ-(ʃa), aɘ ɘk-pi
apangora crab *sîwa ʃiwa sɘrwa
armadillo *tiʔlɘ(ʔ) tɘʔnɘ-ʃa(ʔ)wɘ tʃiʔlɘk
bat *isɘʔ isɘʔ iʃɘk
belly *yuʔ yoʔ ð̞u ʔ
bird *iLansîʔ, *ilansîʔ inansi-raʔ, ina(i)nʃi-ra ~ inai-ra ilansɘrʔ
bite *ki-tɘ(ʔ)- kɘ-tɘ- ki-tɘk-
blood *wɘLa-yɘʔ wɘna-iʔ wɘkla-ð̞ek
boa *kupi-wan kopi-wan kupiwan
boquichico *wankî wanki wankɘr-tʃɘk
breadfruit *pîtu pito pɘttʃu
brother (of a woman) *yuʔyuʔ yoʔyoʔ yuyuʔ
burn (vt.) *yiʔsîʔ- iʔʃi- 'dip into salt’ ð̞iʔsɘrʔ-
carry *piʔpɘ(ʔ)- pɘʔpɘ- piʔpɘk-
chest *tiʔ-tɘʔ tɘʔ-tɘʔ ‘breast (of birds)’ tʃiʔ-tɘk
choro monkey *suluʔ soroʔ suluʔ
cicada *kaʼyula kaʔyora kað̞ula
condor *tamɘ tamɘ tamɘk
coto monkey *luʔluʔ noʔnoʔ luʔluʔ
cover:CL *-tɘʔ -tɘʔ -tɘk
cunchi *tuʔwan toʔwan tuʔwan
cunchi (fish sp.) *ikîa-La ~ *ikîla-La ikia-na < *îkîa-{l/n}a ikɘλa-la
cunchi, tullu uma *tuʔwan toʔwan tuʔwan
curassow *iʼsa iʔsa iʃa
ear *wɘ wɘ-ra-tɘʔ wɘk
earth *luʔpaʔ noʔpaʔ luʔpaʔ
earth:CL *-luʔ -nuʔ - luʔ
egg *kayuʔ kayoʔ kað̞uʔ
evening star *îʔwa-yu iʔwa-yo ɘrʔwa-ð̞u
feather, bodily hair *anpuluʔ anporoʔ anpuluʔ
fire *pɘn pɘn pɘn
firewood *yiwɘ iwɘ ð̞iwɘk
fish *samî sami samɘr
floodplain *titɘ(ʔ)-pi tɘtɘ-pi ~ tɘti-wi tʃitɘk-pi-luʔ
flower *yanku yanko ð̞anku
foot *lan-tɘʔ nan-tɘʔ lan-tɘk
genipa *ɘsa isa ɘksa
giant armadillo *ipɘ ɘpɘ ~ ipɘ ipɘk
hair *aîn ~ *în ain ɘrn
head *mutuʔ motoʔ mutuʔ
horn *pɘnmun pomon pɘnmun
house *piyɘʔ pɘiʔ pið̞ɘk
huaman samana tree *anpînian anpinian anpɘnɲan
huangana *laman naman laman
huasaco *aʔlanan aʔnanan aʔlanan
huito tree *ɘsa isa ɘksa
husband *suʔya suʔya, suʔ-in suð̞a, suð̞-in
irapai palm *panpɘ panpɘ panpɘk-lu
jaguar *niʼniʔ niʔniʔ ɲiɲiʔ(-wa)
knee *tuʔtuʔpi toʔtopi tuʔtuʔpi
leaf for the roof *paLi pani-ra paʎi
leg *tuLa tona tula
liquid:CL *-yɘʔ -iʔ -ð̞ɘk
lisa fish *nîka-la nika-ra nɘrka-la
louse *timɘn tɘmɘn tʃimɘn
macana fish *sîʼwi(n) ʃiʔwi-roʔ sɘrwin
maize *tiʔtîʔ ʃiʔʃiʔ < *tîʔtîʔ tʃitɘr ~ tʃitɘrʔ
mammal sp. *puʔsî poʔʃi ‘squirrel sp.’ puʔsɘr ‘pygmy-marmoset’
manioc *kîʔ kiʔ kɘrʔ
maquisapa *tuʼya toʔya tuð̞a
moriche palm *tipî ʃipi < *tîpî tʃipɘr ~ tʃipɘrʔ
mosquito net *tipî-tɘʔ ʃipi-tɘʔ < *tîpî-tɘʔ tʃipɘr-tʃɘk ~ tʃipɘt-tʃɘk
mouth, language *lanlan/*lanlam-V-, *laʔlaʔ nanan / nanam-ɘn
musmuque monkey *kuyɘ kuwi kuð̞ɘk
nail *tuʔ-tɘ(ʔ)-la toʔ-tɘ-ra-tɘʔ tuʔtɘk-la
name *linlin ninin ʎinʎin
nose *nî-tɘʔ ni-tɘʔ nɘrtʃɘk ~ nɘttʃɘk
opossum *ana-sî anaʃi anasɘr
otter *yɘnni ini ð̞ɘnɲi
over *ayi- ai- að̞i-
pain in the eye *yaʼpi- yaʔpi-ra ‘eye’ ð̞api-
pineapple *sînpa ʃinpa sɘrnpa
platanillo *tanku tanko ‘platanillo’ tanku ‘banana’
porcupine *sisɘ(ʔ) sɘsɘʔ ~ sɘsɘ sisɘk ~ siʔsɘk
pressing with fingernails *yɘʔ- iʔ- ð̞ɘk-
pucacuru ant *lipî nipi lipɘr-λa
pus *yuLîʔ yoniʔ ð̞ulɘrʔ-yuʔ
rain *uʔlan oʔnan uʔlan
recently/late, afternoon *îʔwa iʔwa ɘrʔwa
reed *siwî(n) ʃiwi siwɘn-ɲan
river mouth *tinpîn-nan / *tinpîn-nam- tʃinpinam-ɘn tʃinpɘnɲan
root *i-tɘʔ i-tɘʔ i-tɘk
rope *iLa-lin ina-rin ila-ʎin
sachavaca, tapir *panwala pawara panwala
sand *yî-luʔ-tɘʔ i-nu-tɘʔ ð̞ɘ-λuʔ-tɘk
scare *ayi(ʔ)wan aiwan að̞iwan-
shrimp *wan wan-ʃa wan-ʃɘn
sister (of a man) *utî oʃi, uʃi utɘr
sister (of a woman) *kayɘ kai, 3 kai-n kað̞ɘk, kað̞ɘ-n
sour *aî- ~ *î- ai- ɘr-
sweet *kasî- kaʃi kasɘr
termite *îʔtɘ(ʔ)l... ~ *îʔtɘ(ʔ)l... iʔtɘrɘʔ ɘttʃɘkla
thief (> to steal) *apî(ʔ) apiʔ apɘr-
thin *simɘn ʃimɘn- simɘn
thorn *lawan nawan lawan
tick *tɘpa tɘpa tɘkpa
to believe *latɘ(ʔ)- natɘ- latɘk-
to bite *ki-tɘ(ʔ)- kɘtɘ- kitɘk
to burn *aʼpɘ(ʔ)- aʔpɘ- apɘk-
to burn (vt.) *yiʔsîʔ- iʔʃi- ‘to dip into salt’ < *yîʔsî- ð̞iʔsɘrʔ
to bury *paʼpîʔ- paʔpi- papɘrʔ-
to carry *piʔpɘ(ʔ)- pɘʔpɘ- piʔpɘk-
to climb *nanpɘ(ʔ)- nanpɘ- nanpɘk-
to come *wɘʔ- wɘʔ- wɘk-
to crawl *patɘ(ʔ)- patɘ- patɘk-
to cut *pɘʔtɘ(ʔ)- ~ *pɘʼtɘ(ʔ)- pɘʔtɘ- pɘktɘk-
to die *timin- tʃimin- tʃimin-
to die out *takîʔ- taki- takɘrʔ
to eat, to have sex *kaʔ- kaʔ- kaʔ-
to end *nanîʔ- nani- ‘to end’ nanɘrʔ- ‘to forget, to flee’
to fly *pɘn- pɘn- pɘn-
to fry, to singe *kɘ-, *kɘ-t- kɘ-t- kɘk-
to gnaw *wɘLu- wɘno- wɘklu-
to jump *inyɘ(ʔ)- nii- inð̞ɘk
to kneel *iyɘnsun- ison- yɘnsun-
to know *luwî- nowi- luwɘr-
to meet (to find?) *kapîʔ- na-kapi- kapɘrʔ-
to plant *tîaʔ- ʃaʔ- tɘra-
to pour *pasîʔ- paʃi- ‘to perfume’ pasɘrʔ-
to see *liʔ- niʔ- ʎiʔ-
to sting *wî- wi- wɘr-
to suck, to lick *iluʔ- iro- iluʔ-
to sweep *witɘ(ʔ)- wɘtɘ- ‘to extend’ witɘk-
to tie *tɘnpuʔ- tonpoʔ ‘bundle’, tonpo- ~ tɘnpo- tɘnpuʔ-
to untie *ɘʔkî- ~ *ɘʼkî- iʔki-ri- ɘkkɘr
tocon monkey *tukun tokon tukun
tongue *ninɘ(ʔ)-la nɘnɘ-ra ɲinɘk-la
toucan *yuʼwin yoʔwin ð̞uwin
trace *îʔla iʔna- ɘrʔʎa
vein, sinew, tendon *îpa-tɘʔ ipa-tɘʔ ɘrpa-tɘk
vine:CL *-lin -rin -lin
vulture *supuʔ sopoʔ supuʔ
water *yɘʔ ð̞ɘk
who *yɘn in ð̞ɘn
wound (> to get spoilt, ugly) *apîʔ apiʔ apɘrʔ
yanguaturi *ipɘ ɘpɘ/ipɘ ipɘk
you *kɘnma kɘma kɘnma

Valenzuela (2011)

Valenzuela (2011) gives the following Swadesh list table for the Proto-Cahuapana, Jebero, and Chayahuita.[6]

no. Spanish gloss English gloss Proto-Cahuapana Jebero Chayahuita
1 yo, me, a mí I *kʷa kʷa, -ku ka, ku
2 you *kɨma kənma kɨma
3a nosotros (exclusivo) we (exclusive) *k[u/i]ja kuða kija
3b nosotros (inclusivo) we (inclusive) *k[ɨ/a]npu(ʔ)wa(ʔ) kənmuʔwa kanpuwa, kamuwa
4 este this *[a/i]suʔ asuʔ isuʔ
5 él, ella he, she *[na/i]na nana iná
6 ¿quién? who? ðən intaʔ
7 ¿qué? what? *ma(ʔ) maʔnən maʔtaʔ
8 no no *kuʔ kuʔlaʔ kuʔ
9a todos all (pl.) iɲəɾðapəɾ kaʔipinan
9b todo all (sg.) iɲə jaʔipiɾa
10 mucho many *na(ʔ)ku(n) nakusuʔ naʔkun 'muchos' ("many, pl.")
11 uno one *a(ʔ)ɾaʔ alaʔsaʔ aʔnaʔ
12 dos two *katuʔ katuʔtaʔ katuʔ
13 grande big aʔʎupi panka
14 largo long ʃin napuɾupi
15 pequeño small aʔməɾ waʔwiʃin
16 mujer woman kuʔapəɾ sanapi
17 hombre, varón man, male ənmupinən kɨmapi
18 persona person muðaʔ pijapi
19 pájaro bird ʃunpula inaiɾa
20a jaguar jaguar *ni[ʔ]niʔ ɲiɲiʔ niʔniʔ
20b perro dog ɲiɲiʔwa niʔniɾa
21 piojo louse *timɨn tʃimən tɨmɨn
22 árbol tree *naɾa nala naɾa
23 semilla, ojo seed, eye *ɾaja laða -ɾaja 'cara, ojo, semilla' ("face, eye, seed")
24 hoja sheet lalumək wɨɾun-
25 raíz root *itɨk iɾək itɨʔ
26 corteza bark tʃipiɾək ʃaʔwɨtɨʔ
27 piel skin tʃipitək ʃaʔwɨtɨʔ
28 carne meat tʃutʃu nuʃa
29 sangre blood uklaðək wɨnaiʔ
30 hueso bone *ɾans[i/ɨ]ʔ lansiʔ nansɨʔ
31 grasa fat, grease *ija ija- ija- 'freír'
32 fuego fire *pɨn pən pɨn
33 huevo egg *kajuʔ kaðuʔ kajuʔ
34 sangre blood wiʔwək pumun
35 hueso bone ʎintək winan
36 pluma feather *anpuɾuʔ anpuluʔ anpuɾuʔ
37 pez fish *sami saməɾ sami
38 pelo hair *ain(tɨk) əntʃək ain
39 cabeza head *mutuʔ mutuʔ mutuʔ
40 oreja ear *w[i(ʔ)/ɨ]ɾatɨk wiʔwək wɨɾatɨʔ
41 ojo eye *ja(ʔ)pi ðapi- 'doler el ojo' ("the eye hurts") jaʔpiɾa
41b ojo, cara eye, face laða -ɾaja 'clasificador' ("classifier")
42 uña nail *tuʔtɨ(k)ɾa tuʔtəkla tuʔtɨɾatɨʔ
43 respirar breathe *n[i/ɨ]tɨk nəʔttʃək (< nəɾ + -tək) nitɨʔ
44 boca mouth *ɾaʔɾa[ʔ/n] laʔlaʔ nanan
45 diente tooth *ɾatɨk latək natiʔ
46 lengua tongue *ninɨkɾa ɲinəkla nɨnɨɾa
47 pie foot *ɾantɨk lantək nantɨʔ
48 rodilla knee *tutuʔtu[ʔ]pi tuʔtuʔpi tuʔtupitɨʔ
49 mano hand itəkla imiɾa
50 barriga belly *juʔ məɾpi; ikəɾ-ðu(ʔ) 'doler la baɾɾiga' ("the belly hurts") juʔnau
51 cuello neck *kuɾupi kulupi 'manzana de Adán' ("Adam's apple") kunupi
52 seno breast muðin ʃuʔʃu
53 corazón heart *jinɾupi ðinlupi ninupi
54 hígado liver *kankan kankan kankan
55 beber drink *uʔu- u- uʔu
56 comer eat *kaʔ kaʔ- kaʔ
57 morder bite *kitɨ(k) kitək- kɨtɨ-
58 ver see *ɾiʔ ʎiʔ- niʔ-
59 oír hear lawək- natan-
60 saber know ɲintʃi- 'aprender' ("to catch") nitotɨ-
61 dormir sleep *w[i/ɨ]C(ʔ) witʃiʔ- wɨʔɨ-
62 morir die *timin tʃimin- tʃimin-
63 matar kill ðiʔ- tɨpa-
64 nadar swim *(i)jun iðun- jun-
65 volar fly *pɨn pənnuʔ- pɨn-
66 ir go *paʔ paʔ- paʔ-
67 venir come *wɨ(k) wək- wɨ-
68 estar echado, echarse lying down pəkkwaʔ- kɨwɨn- 'echarse' ("to lie down")
69 estar sentado, sentarse seated ðuʔ- wɨnsɨ-
70 estar parado standing up *wani wanəɾ- wani-
71 dar give ənkaʔ- kɨtɨ-
72 decir say *it(ɨ/u) (i)ɾ- itɨ- 'dice' ("say")
73 sol sun kəkki piʔi
74 luna moon *juki ðukəɾ juki
75 estrella star *ta(n)juɾa tanðula tajuɾa
76 agua water ðək iʔʃa, tɨʔkɨin 'río' ("river")
77 lluvia rain *uʔɾan uʔlan uʔnan
78 piedra stone *ɾaʔpi laʔpi naʔpi
79 arena sand ðəʎuʔtɨk, kaʎiluʔ inutɨʔ
80 tierra earth *ɾu(ʔ)paʔ lupaʔ nuʔpaʔ
81 nube cloud ðinpanluʔtək wiɾiɾuʔtɨ, jaɾaɾuʔtɨ, piʔiɾutɨ, ʃituɾuʔ
82 humo smoke kəʎu kunaiʔ
83 ceniza ashes *jaɾuʔ pənðaluʔ januʔ
84 quemar(se) burn *w[i/ɨ](ʔ)ki wəʔkəɾ- wiki-
85 camino road intʃilala iɾa
86a cerro mountain *mutupi mutupi mutupi
86b selva jungle *tanan tanan tanan
87 rojo red pipəɾ kɨwan
88 verde green wawa 'una fruta' ("a fruit"), aðawaʔ 'opaco' ("opaque") kanuɾa
89 amarillo yellow *ʃaʔpi(ʔ) ʃaʔpiʔ ʃaʔpitun
90 blanco white ðaða wiɾitun
91 negro black kəɾ jaɾatun
92 noche night kasisəɾ 'oscuro' ("dark") taʃiʔ
93 gusano worm *kuwi(ʔ) kuweɾ 'lombriz' ("earthworm") kuwiʔ
94 frío cold sanək sɨwɨn
95 lleno full muɾ mɨntaʃa, mɨnta- 'estar lleno' ("to be full")
96 nuevo new *na nalu naʃa
97 bueno good mukankan, uʔtʃimu 'bonito' ("beautiful") nuja
98 redondo round munkun putʃin jaʔnuɾinsuʔ, tawiʃi
99 seco dry ən- 'estar seco' ("to be dry") jakɨn
100 nombre name *ɾiɾin ʎi(n)ʎin ninin

Vocabulary

Loukotka (1968)

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items for the Cahuapanan languages.[3]

gloss Cahuapana Chayavita Jebero Miquirá
one ara haná aláʔatsa
two katu kató katáta
three kara kará kála
head mutu mostó móto hu-mato
ear buek wuiraté wuíoga
tooth nate naté látek
fire puín puíng pön punga
stone napí napí láʔapi napi
sun kéki pií köki kogua
moon matáshi yuxkí rúkör rúki
maize tötrla shiʔishí chíter chichi
dog nini niʔíni niní nini
boat nũng ñong ñung nunga

Further reading

  • Hart, H. L. (1988). Diccionario chayahuita-castellano (Serie Lingüística Peruana, 29). Yarinacocha: Ministerio de Educación and Summer Institute of Linguistics.

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Cahuapanan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2016). Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas (Ph.D. dissertation) (2 ed.). Brasília: University of Brasília.
  3. ^ a b Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  4. ^ Loukotka, Čestmír. 1949. Sur Quelques Langues Inconnues de l'Amerique du Sud. Lingua Posnaniensis I: 53-82.
  5. ^ Rojas-Berscia, Luis Miguel. 2019. From Kawapanan to Shawi: Topics in language variation and change. Doctoral dissertation, Radboud University Nijmegen.
  6. ^ Valenzuela Bismarck, Pilar. 2011. Contribuciones para la reconstrucción del proto-cahuapana: comparación léxica y gramatical de las lenguas jebero y chayahuita. In Willem F. H. Adelaar and Pilar Valenzuela Bismarck and Roberto Zariquiey Biondi (eds.), Aru, Simi, Taqu, Lengua: Estudios en homenaje a Rodolfo Cerrón-Palomino, 271-304. Lima: Fondo Editorial, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.
  • Alain Fabre, 2005, Diccionario etnolingüístico y guía bibliográfica de los pueblos indígenas sudamericanos: KAWAPANA[1]
  • Valenzuela Bismarck, Pilar, 2011, Contribuciones para la reconstrucción del proto-cahuapana: Comparación léxica y grammatical de las lenguas jebero y chayahuita. In W.F.H. Adelaar, P. Valenzuela Bismarck & R. Zariquiey Biondi (eds.), Estudios en lenguas andinas y amazónicas. Homenaje a Rodolfo Cerrón-Palomino, pp. 271–304. Lima: Fondo Editorial Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.
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