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Cable ferry

Coin-operated cable ferry at Espevær in Bømlo, Norway
Chain-pulling engine of a small ferry on Berounka river near Prague, Czech Republic
Cable ferry between Ekerö and Adelsö, Sweden.
Cable ferry in Vaxholm, Sweden.

A cable ferry (including the terms chain ferry, swing ferry, floating bridge, or punt) is a ferry that is guided (and in many cases propelled) across a river or large body of water by cables connected to both shores. Early cable ferries often used either rope or steel chains, with the latter resulting in the alternate name of chain ferry. Both of these were largely replaced by wire cable by the late 19th century.

Types

Winding mechanism on the Sackville Ferry in New South Wales, Australia

There are three types of cable ferry: the reaction ferry, which uses the power of the river to tack across the current; the powered cable ferry, which uses an engine or electric motors (e.g., the Canby Ferry) to wind itself across; and the fast-disappearing hand-operated type, such as the Stratford-upon-Avon chain ferry in the UK and the Saugatuck Chain Ferry in Michigan, United States.

Powered cable ferries use powered cogs or drums on board the vessel to pull itself along by the cables. The cables or chains have a considerable amount of slack built into them, in order to sink below the surface as the ferry moves away, allowing other vessels to pass without becoming grounded, snared or trapped. Where a ferry carries both passengers and vehicles the car deck occupies the centre (helping to balance the vessel) and two passenger areas are at the sides, over the tunnels for the chains and the engines. As the ferry cannot steer, a ramp is built at both ends and there is usually a set of controls facing in either direction.

Cable ferries are common where there is little other water-borne traffic that could get snagged in the cable or chains, where the water may be too shallow for other options, or where the river current is too strong to permit the safe crossing of a ferry not attached to the shore. Alignment of the platform at each end of the journey is automatic and, especially for vehicle ferries, safer than a free-moving ferry might be in bad conditions.

A special type are electrically powered overhead-wire ferries like Straussee Ferry, which have an onboard propulsion unit and can float free, but are connected to the overhead wire for power supply, using an electrical cable that slides along the wire as the ferry moves.

History

Simple cable ferry, Gee's Bend, Alabama, 1939

Cable ferries have probably been used to cross rivers and similar bodies of water since before recorded history. Examples of ferry routes using this technology date back to the 13th century (Hampton Ferry in England).

In the early 1900s a cable ferry designed by Canadian engineer William Pitt was installed on the Kennebecasis River near Saint John, New Brunswick in Canada.[1] There are now eight cable ferries along the Saint John River system in southern New Brunswick. In Canada a cable ferry is proposed to transport automobiles across the Ottawa River in Ontario. There are several in British Columbia: two on the Fraser, one at Lytton, one at Big Bar, three on Arrow Lakes. A suspended cable ferry worked until the 1980s in Boston Bar. A small seasonal reaction ferry carries cars across the Rivière des Prairies from Laval, Quebec (Sainte-Dorothée neighbourhood) to Île Bizard (part of Montreal).

Cable ferries were particularly prominent in early transportation in the Sacramento Delta of California. Dozens of cable ferries operated on the Columbia River in the US northwest, and most have been rendered obsolete by bridges. A suspended cable ferry for railway cars crossed the American River in Northern California.

Most of the road crossings of the Murray River in South Australia are cable ferries operated by the state government using diesel engines. The platforms at the ends can be moved up or down according to the water level. At one time, cable ferries were a primary means of automobile transportation in New South Wales in Australia. In Tasmania, for a century before 1934, the Risdon Punt at Hobart was the only fixed method of crossing the Derwent River within Hobart city limits.

In the fishing village of Tai O on Lantau Island, Hong Kong, the Tai O Ferry (橫水渡) crossed the Tai O River before a bascule bridge was built.

The largest and busiest cable ferry is the Torpoint Ferry in Plymouth, England. It was first converted to cable operation in 1831 and currently operates 3 ferries, carrying 8000 vehicles per day. [2][3]

Ownership

The earliest punts were privately owned by local landowners, and charged a toll. As governments started to build roads, they started to build and operate punts as required. Private punts might be bought out, or made to impose more standard tolls.[4]

Hazards and incidents

  • Mannam punt torn by broken cable, and cast adrift.[5]
  • Blanchetown punt out of use due to low water level in river.[6]

Duplicated punts can be provided if capacity of one is not enough. Twin ferries allow one to operate while the other is being maintained.[7]

List of cable ferry routes

Current cable ferry routes include:

Albania

Australia

The Mannum Ferry.

Austria

Belize

Canada

Lytton Ferry (Fraser River)
Needles Cable Ferry (Arrow Lakes)
Riverhurst Ferry

Chile

Croatia

  • Medsave cable ferry
    Medsave Ferry, across the Sava River in Zagrebačka županija, overhead cable

Czech Republic

  • Dolní Žleb Ferry, reactive ferry across the Elbe at Dolní Žleb near Děčín, lower cable
  • Vrané nad Vltavou – Strnady, reactive ferry across the Vltava before Prague, with overhead cable
  • Klecánky – Roztoky ferry over the Vltava under Prague, secured by overhead cable
  • Máslovice, Dol - Libčice ferry over the Vltava under Prague, secured by lower cable
  • Lužec nad Vltavou ferry over the Vltava, secured by overhead cable
  • Zlenice - Senohraby swimpool, ferry over the Sázava river, overhead security cable installed but usually unused
  • Oseček ferry, Elbe river, formerly secured by overhead cable, now without it
  • Kazín ferry, Berounka river, 1992–2007 propelled through lower chain, since 2015 unsecured boat
  • Nadryby ferry, Berounka river, secured by the overhead cable
  • Darová ferry, Berounka river, propelled through the overhead cable

Denmark

  • Østre Ferry, across Isefjord between Hammer Bakke and Orø. Uses cables for steering, but propellers for propulsion.
  • Udbyhøj Ferry, across Randers Fjord.

Estonia

Finland

Alassalmi cable ferry
Karhun cable ferry
Koivukanta ferry in winter and parallel ice road for lighter vehicles
Pikkarala ferry wintering on the shore of Oulujoki.
  • Ahvionsaari Ferry, from Kiviapaja to Ahvionsaari in Savonlinna
  • Alassalmi Ferry, across Alassalmi strait on lake Oulujärvi between Manamansalo island and mainland
  • Arvinsalmi Ferry, across Arvinsalmi strait between the municipalities of Rääkkylä and Liperi
  • Barösund Ferry, across Barösund strait between Barölandet and Orslandet islands
  • Bergö Ferry, in Bergö
  • Eskilsö Ferry
  • Föri in Turku
  • Hanhivirta Ferry, in Enonkoski
  • Hirvisalmi Ferry, across Hirvisalmi strait between the mainland and Paalasmaa island in Juuka
  • Hämmärönsalmi Ferry, across Hämmärönsalmi strait (Rimito-Hanka) in Rimito, Nådendal (part of r. road 1890)
  • Högsar Ferry, between Högsar and Storlandet islands in Nagu, Väståboland (part of r. road 12019)
  • Karhun Cable Ferry, between the mainland and the island of Karhu, Ii
  • Keistiö Ferry, between Keistiö and Iniö islands in Iniö, Väståboland
  • Kietävälänvirta Ferry, between Partalansaari and Viljakansaari in Puumala (part of road 15176)
  • Koivukanta Ferry, to Kesamonsaari in Savonlinna
  • Kokonsaari Ferry, from Kesamonsaari to Kokonsaari in Savanlinna
  • Kivimo Ferry, between Roslax on mainland Houtskär and Kivimo islands in Houtskär, Väståboland
  • Kokkila Ferry, between Kokkila on the mainland and Angelniemi on Kemiö island (part of r. road 1835)
  • Kuparonvirta Ferry, between Hirvensalo and Anttola in Mikkeli (part of road 15147)
  • Kyläniemi Ferry, between Utula and Kyläniemi
  • Lövö Ferry, between Kasnäs and Lövö islands in Hitis, Kimitoön (part of r. road 1830)
  • Mossala Ferry, between Björkö and Mossala islands in Houtskär, Väståboland (part of regional road 12003)
  • Pellinki Ferry, between the mainland and the island of Pellinki
  • Pettu Ferry, between Pettu and Utö islands in Finby, Salo
  • Pikkarala Ferry, across Oulujoki river in Pikkarala, Oulu
  • Potkusalmi Ferry, to Ritosaari in Savonlinna
  • Puutossalmi Ferry, in Kuopio
  • Rongonsalmi Ferry, between Viljakansaari and Lieviskä in Puumala, (part of road 15170)
  • Saverkeit Ferry, between mainland Houtskär and Västra Saverkeit islands in Houtskär, Väståboland (part of r. road 12005)
  • Skagen Ferry, between Jumo and Iniö islands in Iniö, Väståboland (part of r. road 12230)
  • Skåldö Ferry, between Degerö and Skåldö islands in Ekenäs, Raseborg
  • Tappuvirta Ferry, Tappuvirrantie
  • Tuohisaari Ferry, from Liistonsaari to Tuohisaari in Savonlinna
  • Vartsala Ferry, between Vartsala and Kivimaa islands in Kustavi (part of r. road 192)
  • Vekaransalmi Ferry, between Säviönsaari and Vekaransaari in Sulkava (part of road 438)
  • Vånö Ferry, between Vånö and Attu islands in Pargas, Väståboland (part of r. road 12027)

Åland

  • Björkölinjen, across Björkösund strait between the islands of Korsö (in Kumlinge municipality) and Bockholm (in Brändö m.)
  • Embarsundlinjen, across Embarsund strait in Föglö municipality, between the islands of Finholma and Jyddö
  • Töftölinjen, across Prästösund strait between the islands of Töftö (in Vårdö municipality) and Prästö (in Sund m.)
  • Seglingelinjen, across the strait between the islands of Seglinge and Snäckö (both in Seglinge village in Kumlinge municipality)
  • Simskälalinjen, across the strait between the islands of Alören and Östra Simskäla (both in Vårdö municipality)
  • Ängsösundlinjen, across Ängösund strait between the islands of Lumparland (in Lumparland municipality) and Ängö (in Vårdö m.)

France

Germany

The Pritzerbe Ferry
The Rathen Ferry

Hong Kong

Nam Sang Wai Ferry

Hungary

Cable ferry crossing the river Tisza between Tiszatardos and Tiszalök, Hungary.

Ireland

Italy

Mozambique

Chain ferry being handcranked in Mozambique
  • Ferry across Shire River, 37 km south of Malawi's southernmost border

Netherlands

There are more than 100 cable ferries in the Netherlands,[24] 11 of which use a floating cable with a single anchorage. The larger ones are usually powered by a diesel-powered screw propellor, the smaller ones often use the cable for propulsion. Most of the larger cable ferries angle themselves in the stream to gain part of their propulsion from the current, as a reaction ferry.

Some examples:

  • Cuijk ferry, across the Meuse at Cuijk
  • Genemuiden ferry, across the Zwarte Water at Genemuiden
  • Jonen ferry, across the Walengracht at Jonen, only taking foot passengers and cyclists, winched to the other bank by an electric motor on one of the banks.
  • Lexkesveer, across the Nederrijn near Wageningen, first mentioned in 1426
  • Oijen Ferry, across the Meuse at Oijen
  • Wijhe Ferry, across the IJssel at Wijhe
  • Wijk bij Duurstede ferry, across the Lek. This one uses a floating cable.

Norway

New Zealand

  • Tuapeka Mouth Ferry, in Tuapeka – South Island, on the Clutha River

Poland

Ferry in Kazimierz Dolny-Janowiec (Poland – Vistula river)
Ferry in Gniew (Poland, Vistula river)
prom górnolinowy w Borusowej na rzece Wiśle

Slovakia

  • Perec Ferry, across the Perec distributary of the river Hron, between Starý Tekov and Nový Tekov in Levice district - Foot ferry, came into use in the late 18th century and ceased operations in 2014, replaced by a bridge.

South Africa

Malgas Ferry on the Breede River, Western Cape, South Africa

South Korea

Spain

Sweden

The Swedish ferry Saga on the Hamburgsund route. The yellow colour is typical for car ferries in Sweden.
The Swedish ferry Vaxholmen with its destination, Vaxholm Castle, in the Stockholm Archipelago.

Switzerland

United Kingdom

The Cowes Floating Bridge loading at East Cowes, on the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom.

United States

Canby Ferry
White's Ferry on the Potomac River
Wheatland Ferry
Princeton Ferry (undergoing renovation)

Zambia

Zimbabwe

See also

References

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External links