Students identifying as LBGTQIA+ have a long, documented history at Brigham Young University,:59,60 and have experienced a range of treatment by other students and school administrators over the decades. Brigham Young University (BYU) is the largest religious university in North America and is the flagship institution of the educational system of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). Historically, experiences for BYU students identifying as LGBTQIA+ have included being banned from enrolling due to their romantic attractions in the 60s,:379 being required by school administration to undergo electroshock and vomit aversion therapies in the 70s,:155 having nearly 80% of BYU students refusing to live with an openly homosexual person in a poll in the 90s, and a ban on coming out into the 2000s. In the contemporary environment there is a continued lack of LGBTQIA+ - specific resources on campus as of 2018[update], BYU students are at risk of discipline and expulsion by the Honor Code Office for expressions of same-sex romantic feelings that go against the school's code of conduct such as same-sex dating, hugging, and kissing, for gender non-conforming dress, and students and faculty are banned from meeting together in a queer-straight alliance group on campus.
Several LGBT rights organizations have criticized BYU's policies around queer students and The Princeton Review has regularly ranked BYU as one of the most LGBT-unfriendly schools in the United States. Although BYU policies specific to same-sex romantic expressions have existed since the 50s, the first explicit mention of homosexuality in the language of the school's code of conduct was not publicly published until the Fall of 2009, and the first LGBT-specific campus-wide event was held in April 2017. Despite this historical and current environment, LGBT individuals have continued to enroll in and attend BYU with many participating in unofficial LGBT BYU communities.
BYU policies, including the complete ban on students attracted to the same sex in the 60s, are decided by the Board of Trustees, composed of general authorities.
Before 1959 there was little explicit mention of homosexuality by BYU administration,:375,377,394 but by 1962 a ban on homosexual students was enacted, though not mentioned in the media or in literature provided to students. On 12 September 1962, apostles Spencer Kimball and Mark Peterson and BYU President Ernest Wilkinson agreed on a university policy that "no one will be admitted as a student ... whom we have convincing evidence is a homosexual.":379 They agreed to share information about individuals cases of homosexual members between general church administration and BYU administration. This policy was reiterated in Wilkinson's address to BYU in September 1965 when he stated "we [do not] intend to admit to this campus any homosexuals. ... [I]f any of you have this tendency, ... may I suggest you leave the University immediately .... We do not want others on this campus to be contaminated by your presence." The next month general authorities again stated that the "University does not permit any known homosexual to enter or remain at BYU", though they decided "for the purposes of admission or retention at BYU" that masturbation (or "self abuse") was "not considered homosexuality." This decision forbidding the enrollment of homosexuals at BYU was again repeated in meetings on 27 January 1966 and 25 January 1968 and was codified in the 1967 version of the Honor code. The approved version read "homosexuality will not be tolerated", while the proposed sentence banning "masturbation" was removed in committee.
The complete ban on any students with a homosexual orientation was softened a decade later by Wilkinson's successor, Dallin H. Oaks, in a 19 April 1973 Board of Trustees meeting. There it was decided BYU would allow students who had repented of homosexual acts and forsaken them for a lengthy period of time. Additionally, students guilty of infrequent sexual behavior (not including fornication or adultery equivalents) who were repentant and showed evidence that the act(s) would not be repeated would be admitted while overt and active homosexuals would still be barred from remaining and enrollment.
BYU bans extramarital sexual activity for straight students and further forbids any same-sex dating or physical expression of attraction including hugs for students identifying as LGBTQIA+.
Under Oaks, a system of surveillance and searches of dorms of problem students, including suspected homosexuals, was implemented. This included electronic recording devices which BYU Security Chief Robert Kelshaw confirmed in 1975 had been planted on students to gather information. In reference to the widespread campaign to find homosexuals among BYU students, Oaks stated, "Two influences we wish to exclude from the BYU community are active homosexuals and drug users, and these subjects are therefore among those with which our security force is concerned."
Four years later BYU's newspaper reported Oaks asking BYU security to be "especially watchful" for any student homosexual infractions.:126 Stake outs by BYU security looking for license plates of BYU students at gay bars in Salt Lake City and fake contact advertisements were placed in a gay Salt Lake City newspaper to ensnare gay students resulting in the arrest of former BYU student David Chipman.:126 However, the director of public relations for the university stated that by 1979 Oaks ordered BYU security to stop surveilling gay bars and to cease posting entrapment advertisements.
In September 1976 top church leaders on the BYU Board of Trustees approved then BYU president Dallin Oaks' Institute for Studies in Values and Human Behavior dedicated most heavily to search for evidence supporting church views on homosexuality.:83–84:73–74 The primary assignment was writing a church-funded book on homosexuality to be published by a non-church source (in order to boost the book's scientific credibility).:156 BYU psychologist Allen Bergin acted as the director, and book author. Institute member and church Social Services director Victor Brown Jr. wrote, "Our basic theme is that truth lies with the scriptures and prophets, not with secular data or debate." Several dissertations were produced by the Values Institute before it closed in 1985.
In 1977, gay BYU student Cloy Jenkins and gay BYU instructor Lee Williams coauthored an open letter to refute the anti-gay teachings of BYU professor Reed Payne. The anonymous letter was later published with the help of Lee's gay brother Jeff and Ricks College faculty member Howard Salisbury as the "Payne Papers" pamphlet (later titled "Prologue"). This was anonymously mailed to all high-ranking LDS leaders and most BYU and Ricks College faculty causing a controversy. This elicited a response from apostle Boyd Packer in the form of his "To the One" 1978 BYU address on homosexuality:157–159 and an article from the recently formed BYU Values Institute.
Policies and punishments in the 1990s and early 2000s
A gay pride parody of the "Y" logo
In the late 1990s a reference to "homosexual conduct" was added to the BYU Honor Code. In 1997 Honor Code Office director Rush Sumpter stated that BYU forbids actions of verifiable, overt displays of homosexual affection, but does not punish attractions. One student stated she tried to pray her feelings away, and another said her parents sent her to BYU to straighten out her homosexual feelings.
In 2000 a reported 13 students were kicked off campus when caught watching the TV series Queer As Folk. The next year two gay students (Matthew Grierson and Ricky Escoto) were expelled under accusations deemed "more probable than not" of hand-holding or kissing. The Associate Dean of Students Lane Fischer over the BYU Honor Code Office stated in a letter to those two students that it was "inappropriate" for a BYU student to "advocate for the [homosexual] lifestyle" by publishing material or participating in public demonstrations as well as advertising ones "same-sex preference in any public way" reinforcing the existing honor code ban on coming out for lesbian, gay, or bisexual students. He also required homosexual students facing discipline to refrain from same-sex "dating, holding hands, kissing, romantic touching, showering, clubbing, ets., as well as regular association with homosexual men."
A gay superhero parody of BYU's Brigham Young statue
In 2007, BYU changed the honor code to read that stating one's sexual orientation was not an honor code issue while removing the phrase that "any behaviors that indicate homosexual conduct, including those not sexual in nature, are inappropriate and violate the Honor Code." The change also clarified the policy on advocacy of LGBTQ rights or romantic relationships. Several students, including those identifying as LGBTQIA+, thought that the previous wording was confusing and unclear. While both homosexuals and heterosexuals must abide by the church's law of chastity (i.e. no sexual relations outside of marriage, no crude language, and no pornography), the Honor Code additionally prohibits all forms of physical intimacy that give expression to homosexual feelings (e.g. dating, hugging, kissing). There is no similar restriction against expressing heterosexual feelings. The policy on homosexuality was not noted in an online version of the honor code available to students until the Fall of 2009. Both this version and the 2010 versions contained a clause banning homosexual advocacy defined as "seeking to influence others to engage in homosexual behavior or promoting homosexual relations as being morally acceptable." In early 2011, BYU quietly removed the clause prohibiting advocacy.
Policies around gender expression
As for gender diverse students, policies remain unclear, and as of 2017[update] a BYU spokesperson has only stated that "transgender students are handled on a case-by-case basis." One openly transgender student has tried discussing policies with the Honor Code office, but they've ignored his emails. No publicly available BYU policy seems to be in place for students transitioning with hormone therapy, or for an observed-male-at-birth student expressing their gender identity as a woman through clothing, makeup, or long hair. However, faculty are instructed as of December 2017[update] that a female with a shaved head, or a male with long nails, brightly dyed hair, or makeup would be violating the Honor Code and should be reported to the Honor Code Office.
In 2010, a group called USGA (Understanding Sexuality, Gender, and Allyship), consisting of BYU students and other members of the Provo community, began meeting on campus to discuss issues relating to homosexuality and the LDS Church. However, by December 2012, USGA was told it could no longer hold meetings on BYU's campus and BYU continues to ban USGA from meeting on campus as of 2018[update]. BYU campus currently offers no official LGBT-specific resources.
Research at BYU around LGBT topics
Research has shown a consistent presence of LGBT students attending BYU.
In 1950, 1961, and 1972 BYU Sociology professor Wilford E. Smith conducted a survey of thousands of Mormon students at several universities including many from the BYU sociology department as part of a larger survey. His data spanning over 20 years found that 10% of BYU men and 2% of BYU women indicated having had a "homosexual experience." He also found that "the response of Mormons [at BYU] did not differ significantly from the response of Mormons in state universities."
An informal poll of students in 1991 by an independent BYU newspaper found that 5% of students identified their sexual orientation as gay (similar to the 4% estimate by a BYU counselor in 1979), and 22% of all students knew of a BYU student who was gay or lesbian.:59,60
In 1997 a poll of over 400 BYU students found that 42% of students believed that even if a same-sex attracted person keeps the honor code they should not be allowed to attend BYU and nearly 80% said they would not live with a roommate attracted to people of the same sex.
In 2003 BYU's newspaper cited two LDS therapists who stated that "somewhere around 4 to 5 percent" of BYU students are gay.
A BYU Spring 2017 survey taken by 42% of students found that .2% of the 12,602 who completed the survey (or 25 responders) reported their gender identity being transgender or something other than cisgender male or female. For comparison, a 2017 meta-analysis of 20 separate large surveys (with sample sizes ranging from over 30,000 US adults to over 165,000 each) found a conservative estimate of .39% for the portion of US adults who self-identify as transgender.
Aversion therapy at BYU
BYU's Honor Code office required some students reported for homosexual behavior to undergo electroshock and vomit aversion therapies in the 1970s:155
Shortly after the 21 May 1959 meeting of BYU president Ernest Wilkinson and apostles on the executive committee of the Church Board of Education discussing the "growing problem in our society of homosexuality" BYU began administering "aversion therapy" to "cure," "repair," or "reorient" homosexual feelings among Mormon males.:377,379 The on-campus program lasted through the 60s and 70s, and faded out around 1983.:64–65:155 BYU mental health counselors, LDS bishops, stake presidents, mission presidents, general authorities, and the BYU Standards Office (equivalent to today's Honor Code Office) all referred young men to the BYU program.:377,379 Because of religious considerations, on 22 September 1969 BYU administration decided to reduce the amount of the on-campus "electrical aversive therapy" used to treat (among other things) what was deemed "sexual deviancy", though, the program continued.:82
From 1971 to 1980 BYU's president Dallin Oaks:32 had Gerald J. Dye over the University Standards Office (renamed the Honor Code Office in 1991). Dye stated that during that decade part of the "set process" for homosexual BYU students referred to his office for "less serious" offenses was to require that they undergo some form of therapy to remain at BYU, and that in special cases this included "electroshock and vomiting aversion therapies.":155
In an independent BYU newspaper article two men describe their experience with the BYU Aversion therapy program during the early 1970s.:162 After confessing to homosexual feelings they were referred to the BYU Counseling Center where the electroshock aversion therapy took place using pornographic pictures of males and females. Jon, one of the individuals, implied that the treatment was completely ineffective. The experiences match most reports which state that shock therapy was ineffective in changing sexual orientation.
From 1975 to 1976 Max Ford McBride, a student at BYU, conducted electroshock aversion therapy on 17 men (with 14 completing the treatment) using a male arousal measuring device placed around the penis and electrodes on the bicep. He published a dissertation on the use of electrical aversive techniques to treat ego-dystonic homosexuality. The thesis documents the use of "Electrical Aversion Therapy" on 14 homosexual men using a "phallometric" apparatus, "barely tolerable" shocks, and "nude male visual-cue stimuli." Although it is not publicly published whether all top LDS Church leaders were aware of the electroshock aversion therapy program, it is known that apostles Spencer Kimball, Mark Peterson, and now apostle Dallin Oaks were,:379 and leaders involved in LDS Social Services thought the therapy was effective.:164–165 At the time, homosexuality was considered by the medical community as a psychiatric condition, and aversion therapy was one of the more common methods used to try to change it. In 1966, Martin Seligman had conducted a study at the University of Pennsylvania that demonstrated positive results, which led to "a great burst of enthusiasm about changing homosexuality [that] swept over the therapeutic community." After flaws were demonstrated in Seligman's experiments, aversion therapy fell out of popularity, and in 1994 the American Medical Association issued a report that stated "aversion therapy is no longer recommended for gay men and lesbians."
Participant in the 1975-76 BYU study Don Harryman wrote that he experienced "burns on [his] arms and ... emotional trauma." Another participant, John Clarence Cameron, who wrote a play called "14" about his experiences, said "it didn’t change anything except increase my self-loathing. I didn’t know the ramifications of the experiment until years later." Cameron stated that he "would like everyone to tell the truth, admit the mistakes that took place, and stop trying to act like it didn't happen" Another one of the test subjects described his experiences, stating "No one wanted to change more than I did. I did everything within my power to change, and it didn't alter my homosexuality one whit. All I had learned to do was suppress much of my personality ... I was shutting down, turning off.... I was making my life miserable by a pervasive denial of who I am."
Additionally, Connell O'Donovan describes the attempts by the University to 'cure' his homosexuality through vomit-inducing aversion therapy as well as electroshock aversion therapy. Val Mansfield and Drew Staffanson also describe undergoing aversion therapy and Raymond King describes his involvement as an intern with the BYU psychology department's electroshock aversion therapy program in the 1996 short documentary Legacies. The documentary 8: The Mormon Proposition also contains an interview wherein Bruce Barton states that BYU coerced him into vomit aversion therapy, as well as electroshock therapy, which later precipitated his suicide attempt. Jayce Cox also reported his experience with BYU shock therapy and suicidal ideation in articles and an MTV documentary. Scott Burton discusses the burn marks on his wrists he developed when undergoing electroshock therapy from ages 13 to 15 at the hands of a Mormon therapist by request from his Mormon parents.
In 2011 BYU admitted to the past use of electroshock therapy but denies that it had ever used vomit-inducing therapy "in the BYU Counseling Center" (which has been in the Wilkinson Student Center since 1964). However, the students that underwent the treatment have stated that the vomit therapy took place in the basement of the Psychology department's Joseph F. Smith Family Living Center (built in 1957, demolished in 2002).
Conversion therapy at BYU
Church leaders taught for decades that members could and should try to "turn off" gay attractions through means including conversion therapy. A 2011 Broadway play satirized these teachings with an LDS missionary character stating that he could "turn it off like a light switch" in reference to his gay feelings.
For example, National Geographic journalist Andrew Evans has discussed the compulsory year of conversion therapy and "traumatic moments" BYU made him undergo in the late 90s as a student after he was caught kissing a man by his roommate. BYU told him he could be expelled or visit weekly with his bishop, turn in fellow gay students, cut off contact with any gay friends, and have frequent visits with a BYU therapist until he was heterosexual and "safe" for other students to be around. Included in the therapy was weekly dates with women as an additional attempt to change his attractions.
Similarly, LGBT activist Michael Ferguson also discussed the many years and different modalities of expensive conversion therapy he underwent (including with a BYU psychologist) starting with a 2004 recommendation from his BYU bishop. He was told by local church leaders that many had "overcome" and diminished their same-sex romantic feelings and their "addiction" to those of the same sex. Ferguson believed that through this he could follow church teachings and marry a woman and enter the highest degree of glory in the afterlife. Much of the therapy focused on repairing alleged emotional damage from things deemed to cause homosexuality like an overbearing mother, distant father, and rejection from same-sex peers.
Timeline of BYU LGBT History
A timeline of events, publications, people, and speeches at the intersection of LGBT topics and BYU. Before 1959 there was little explicit mention of homosexuality by BYU administration.:375,377,394
1948 – Gay BYU students Kent Goodridge Taylor and Richard Snow who were in love went to visit with church president George Smith who told them to "live their lives as best they could" in their companionship. Smith wrote the words "Homo Sexual" in his appointment book.:434 Earl Kofoed who went to BYU from 1946 to 1948 similarly reported a "live and let live" attitude of leaders towards LGBT Mormons, and described a thriving gay community of friends at BYU. He stated that there were no witch hunts, excommunications, or pressure to change ones sexual orientation at BYU like there would be in later decades.
1959 – BYU began their on-campus electroshock and vomit aversion therapy program for males experiencing same-sex sexual attractions.:379
Under BYU president Ernest Wilkinson, any non-straight students were banned from attending the university.
1962 – BYU president Ernest Wilkinson stated in a speech to the student body that people with homosexual feelings would not be allowed to enroll or remain as students since they contaminate the campus.
1963 – Elouise Bell began teaching in the BYU English Department. Bell lived with and was in a long-term relationship with Provo High School teacher Margo E. LeVitre for many of her years at BYU, which she apparently kept secret from the university administration. In 2015, after her retirement, Bell married Nancy R Jefferis. 
1964 – Then apostle Kimball addressed seminary and institute faculty in a July 10 speech on BYU campus titled "A Counselling Problem in the Church", in which he called homosexuality a "malady", "disease", and an "abominable and detestable crime against nature" that was "curable" by "self mastery." He cited one lay bishop (a businessman by trade) assigned by the church to administer a "program of rehabilitation" through which there had been "numerous cures." He said "the police, the courts, and the judges" had referred "many cases directly" to the church.:91
1965 – Kimball again addressed homosexuality in his January 5 BYU speech "Love vs. Lust." He called it a "gross", "heinous", "obnoxious", "abominable" "vicious" sin. The text states that those with homosexual "desires and tendencies" could "correct" and "overcome" it "the same as if he had the urge toward petting or fornication or adultery", but that "the cure ... is like the cure for alcoholism, subject to continued vigilance." In the speech he stated BYU "will never knowingly enroll ... nor tolerate ... anyone with these tendencies who fails to repent", and that it is a "damnable heresy" for a homosexual person to say "God made them that way." He also states that sometimes masturbation is an introduction to homosexuality.:149
1965 – Five suicides of gay male BYU students are reported in one year.:156
1967 – After a policy change allowing BYU bishops to share confidential information gained from the students during interviews with BYU administration took place, a dramatic rise in students suspected of homosexual activity was reported totaling 72 recorded by BYU administration by the end of August 1968. Security files were kept by BYU on students suspected of being gay and students were encouraged to spy on other students.:154
1969 – BYU alumnus and Mormon painter Trevor Southey joined BYU's faculty teaching art until he was fired in 1979. He had attended the university as a student from 1965–1969 and later divorced his wife and came out as gay in 1982. He died in 2015 at the age of 75.
1971 – Jim Dabakis enrolled at BYU after serving an LDS mission, but left and came out at as gay at the age of 23. He was elected to the Utah State Senate in 2012.
1971 – Kenneth Mark Storer was a gay Mormon BYU graduate student. He would later become a pastor in the gay-friendly Metropolitan Community Church in Salt Lake, Boise, and Tacoma, and a leader in an AIDS-victim advocacy group in the 80s.
1973 – It was decided by the BYU Board of Trustees that the ban on people attracted to those of the same sex would be lifted and they could enroll at BYU with local church leadership permission as long as they were not sexually expressing their attractions.:155
1973 – BYU psychology professor Allen Bergin published an article in the July Ensign portraying some homosexuals as "psychologically disturbed persons" who are "compulsively driven to frequent and sometimes bizarre acts." He cited two clients with "compulsive or uncontrollable homosexuality" caused by intense fear for the opposite sex, a lack of social skills for male-female relationships, and seeking security exclusively from the same sex. Bergin discussed the behavioristsexual orientation change efforts he used in an attempt to change their same-sex sexual behavior and attractions.
BYU president Oaks instituted a system of surveillance to identify and expel or attempt to "cure" homosexual students in the '70s.
1974 – BYU president Oaks delivered a speech on campus in which he spoke in favor of keeping criminal punishment for "deviate sexual behavior" such as private, consensual, same-sex sexual activity. The speech was later printed by the university's press.
1975 – As part of the ongoing BYU security homosexual entrapment campaigns, BYU security claimed that an agency director for the US Department of Social Services man was caught soliciting sex by tapping his feet in a bathroom stall next to an undercover officer while visiting the campus, but the man denied the charges and called the security sting harassment. BYU banned the man from campus after he refused to meet with campus officials.
1976 – The church-operated university BYU began a purge in January to expel homosexual students:126 as part of president Oaks' widespread campaign to curtail the influence of homosexual people on campus. The purge including interrogations of fine arts and drama students and surveillance of Salt Lake City gay bars by BYU security. These activities were noted in the Salt Lake Tribune and the gay newspaper Advocate.:442
1976 – BYU music professor Carlyle Marsden completed suicide two days after being outed by an arrest for alleged homosexual activity.
1976 – A 20-year study by a BYU Sociology professor is published showing that 10% of BYU men and 2% of BYU women indicated having had a "homosexual experience.":442–443 In 1950, 1961, and 1972 Wilford E. Smith conducted a survey of thousands of Mormon students at several universities including many from the BYU sociology department as part of a larger survey. He found that "the response of Mormons [at BYU] did not differ significantly from the response of Mormons in state universities."
1977 – After hearing anti-gay rhetoric from BYU professor Reed Payne, BYU student Cloy Jenkins and gay BYU instructor Lee Williams produced the Payne Papers (later called Prologue) outlining information and experiences in defense of homosexual Mormons. It was later anonymously mailed to all high-ranking church leaders.:157–159
1977 Stephan Zakharias (formerly Stephen James Matthew Prince) and a group of other lesbian and gay Mormons and former-Mormons organized the first official LGBTQ Mormon group under the name Affirmation: Gay Mormons United on June 11 in Salt Lake City at the conference for the Salt Lake Coalition for Human Rights.
Pamphlet cover to a reprint of Packer's BYU speech on homosexuality.
1978 – The apostle Boyd Packer delivered a sermon at BYU on March 5 entitled "To the One", which went on to be published by the church as a pamphlet. Packer characterizes homosexual interaction as a perversion and presents the possibility that it had its roots in selfishness and could be cured with "unselfish thoughts, with unselfish acts.":6 He states that the church had not previously talked more about homosexuality because "some matters are best handled very privately":3 and "we can very foolishly cause things we are trying to prevent by talking too much about them.":19
Three text advertisements placed by BYU security in a gay Salt Lake City monthly newspaper in order to entrap gay students.
1978 – In November BYU Security began placing entrapment ads in a monthly Salt Lake City LGBT newspaper to ensnare BYU students. This resulted in the 1979 arrest of David Chipman, a former BYU student, who made a romantic advance after being taken on a drive by undercover BYU security agent David Neumann posing as a gay BYU student. Chipman's controversial conviction due to the security officers making an arrest outside their jurisdiction for an entrapment case went to the Utah State Supreme Court.:126
1979 – Under the guidance of BYU president Dallin Oaks, BYU security began campaigns to entrap any students participating in same-sex sexual behavior and purge them from the university.:126
1979 – BYU's newspaper published a series of articles in April quoting BYU and church leaders and gay students on homosexuality. The series included comments by Maxine Murdock of the BYU Counseling Center and Ford McBride, a former psychology student who conducted BYU electroshock aversion experiments on fourteen gay BYU students. McBride and Murdock estimated that 4% of BYU students (or around 1,200 students) are homosexual. Additionally, commissioner of LDS Social Services Harold Brown stated that homosexuality is not biological or inborn, and that church leaders just want to help them overcome their problem, and Victor Brown Jr. compared it to an alcoholic's addiction that can be cured.
A BYU sign at the 1979 Los Angeles Pride parade.
1979 – A BYU alumni sign among others was held aloft by the Affirmation group at the Los Angeles Pride Parade in what was called the first out gay Mormon presence at a pride parade.:48 One of the participants was interviewed on camera wearing a BYU jersey.
1982 – The Church-owned television station KBYU refused to air the third segment of a documentary on homosexuality in Utah in part because it contained interviews of anonymous gay BYU students. The producer Kevin Mitchell stated their faces were not shown as he believed they would be kicked out of BYU if their identities were revealed.
1982 – In an address to BYU on August 28, then president of Ricks CollegeBruce Hafen counseled students to avoid homosexuality "at all costs, no matter what the circumstances." He further cited the 1973 removal of homosexuality as a mental disorder from the DSM as an example of something gone wrong "deep within our national soul."
1983 – The on-campus electroshock aversion therapy program ended.:64–65
1986 – BYU published a study by BYU professor and area Church Welfare Services director Victor Brown Jr. stating that people can eliminate homosexual feelings.
1986 – Church Seventy Theodore Burton implied a link between a "selfish indulgence" in pornography and homosexuality in his address to BYU on June 3.
1986 – An article was published referencing a gay BYU student who had been preparing for an opposite-sex temple marriage in the 80s under counsel from BYU professor and stake president Richard Cracroft. A few months into the marriage the man shot himself, and Cracroft stated that "Admittedly, not many of us know how to counsel homosexuals."
1988 – BYU psychologist Allen Bergin was published in the October Ensign stating that homosexuality was "caused by some combination of biology and environment."
1988 – Gay BYU history professor and former BYU studentMichael Quinn resigned under increasing pressure for publications on controversial aspects of Mormon history after working for the university since 1976. He came out as gay in 1996 when his book Same-Sex Dynamics Among Nineteenth-Century Americans: A Mormon Example was released.
1990s – Transgender woman Cammie Vanderveur a BYU engineering student gender expressed wearing a dress on campus only at night to avoid punishment.
1990 – The independent BYU newspaper Student Review began publishing articles on the topic of homosexuality, dedicating an entire issue to the discussion, and frequently addressing the topic over the next four years.
1991 – An informal poll of students by an independent BYU newspaper found that 5% of current students identified their sexual orientation as gay and 22% of all students knew of a BYU student who was gay or lesbian.:59,60
1992 – The apostle Packer stated in a sermon at BYU sermon that humans can degrade themselves below animals by pairing with people of the same-sex since animals don't mate with other animals of the same sex. However, same-sex pairing has been observed in more than 1,500 species, and well-documented for 500 of them.
1994 – Then apostle James Faust gave a November speech on campus in which he stated that homosexuality is not biological or inborn and that same-sex marriage would unravel families, the fabric of human society.
1996 – BYU Spanish professor Thomas Matthews was reported to a top LDS authority in July for previously stating that he was gay in private conversations. He stated that BYU did not like that he was out of the closet despite being celibate and keeping BYU codes of conduct, and eventually left the university. BYU president Lee had stated that it was "simply not comfortable for the university" for him to continue teaching there.:162–163
1996 – A campus group for gay students and friends "Open Forum" was founded, and with faculty advisor Paul Thomas they sought but were denied official club status from BYU administrators.:162–163
1997 – A poll of over 400 BYU students found that 42% of students believed that even if a same-sex attracted person keeps the honor code they should not be allowed to attend BYU and nearly 80% said they would not live with a roommate attracted to people of the same sex. The poll's stated 5 percent margin of error was criticized as being too low an estimate because of the cluster sampling in classes, however.:162
1997 – The university newspaper published an article featuring several openly gay students. One lesbian student told her roommates and one moved out because of it. A housing manager said that some students panic when they find out their roommate is attracted to some people of the same sex and he advised them to go to the Honor Code Office. The Honor Code Office director Rush Sumpter stated that BYU forbids actions of verifiable, overt displays of gay affection, but does not punish attractions. One student stated she tried to pray her feelings away, and another said her parents sent her to BYU in an attempt to straighten out her homosexual feelings.
1998 – Out gay student Sam Clayton graduated from BYU after activism in helping organize the LGBT student group "Open Forum" and conducting sociological surveys on LGBT topics at BYU.:162 He reported threats of expulsion from BYU administrators.
2000 – BYU's newspaper published an article in which some students questioned BYU's official neutrality on same-sex marriage initiatives in California.
2000 – On 25 February Stuart Matis, a former BYU student and a gay Mormon active in the church, completed suicide on the steps of a California church stake center building. Four days before his death he wrote a letter that was published in the BYU newspaper pleading for the acceptance of homosexual individuals in response to a letter published by BYU five days before which compared homosexuality to pedophilia, bestiality and Satanism. Right before his death he wrote a note stating, "God never intended me to be straight. Hopefully, my death might be a catalyst for some good."
2000 – BYU psychology professor Richard Williams presented a criticism of same-sex parenting at BYU's 2000 World Family Policy Forum.
2001 – At BYU's Family Under Fire Conference, LDS Family Services director Jerry Harris gave some "steps to recovery" from homosexuality for gay people to use.
2003 – After facing criticism from several organizations KBYU and BYU-TV cancelled the planned broadcast of LDS therapists Jeff Robinson's presentation "Homosexuality: What Works and What Doesn't Work" given at BYU's 2002 Families Under Fire conference. The talk characterized homosexuality as a serious addiction that could be cured with enough motivation, and stated that gay men can develop a sexual attraction to women if they walk away from rather than focusing on or fighting the dragon of their gayness.
2003 – Former BYU student Clay Essig reported writing a note while at the brink of suicide after years of trying to change his attractions through therapy originally prescribed to him by his BYU bishop.
2003 – For his senior project a BYU student created a documentary Troy Through a Window about his gay brother and how his Mormon family dealt with his coming out.
2003 – LDS Family Services counselor Jerry Harris presented at BYU's Families Under Fire conference on helping people overcome their homosexuality.
2004 – In March BYU molecular biology professor William Bradshaw received media attention for presenting evidence for biological underpinnings to human homosexuality.
2005 – The Foundation for Attraction Research (FAR) was founded and run by mostly BYU professors including BYU psychology professor Dean Byrd, BYU social work professor Shirley Cox, with a board of directors also consisting of BYU English professor Doris Dant, BYU law professor William Duncan, BYU religion professor John Livingstone, and retired BYU psychology professor Gawain Wells. In 2009 the organization published Understanding Same-Sex Attraction which advocated therapy to change sexual attractions. In 2012 FAR co-hosted the Reconciling Faith and Feelings conference with the Association of Mormon Counselors and Psychotherapists (AMCAP).
2005 – At BYU's Families Under Fire Conference social work professor Shirley Cox presented on homosexuality stating that homosexual attractions can be diminished and that the treatment of unwanted same-sex attraction has a history of being successful.
2006 – Soulforce'sEquality Ride made a stop at BYU campus in April protesting BYU's policies towards LGBTQ students. 5 riders were arrested on the 10th for giving speeches on campus, while other riders were allowed to remain answering student questions as long as they did not make a demonstration. The next day 5 current and 4 former BYU students and 15 riders were arrested for involvement in a procession of about 30 individuals bringing lilies onto campus and lying down in a 'die-in' in remembrance of LGBT Mormon suicide victims. Those arrested later received a $200 fine.
2007 – Soulforce'sEquality Ride made a second stop at BYU's campus on March 22. The demonstration resulted in two arrests when a mother and her transgender son walked onto campus to present administrators with a collection of concerns from former and current BYU LGBTQ students.
2007 – BYU Law professor Lynn Wardle addressed the 4th World Congress of Families in Poland on same-sex marriage and published his speech in a law journal. He compared his warnings "tragic consequences" and "dangers of legalizing same-sex marriage" as the warnings of a Hungarian man warning Elie Wiesel's town about the dangers the incoming Nazis posed to the Jewish population there. He also stated that if same-sex marriages were legalized there would be no basis to deny polygamous or incestuous marriages, and a decreased ability to "protect their children from exposure to gay propaganda."
2007 – Shortly after the Soul Force demonstration, the BYU Board of Trustees, under the direction of First Presidency member Thomas Monson, revised the BYU Honor Code in April to clarify that "one's stated same-gender attraction is not an Honor Code issue" while continuing to ban "all forms of physical intimacy that give expression to homosexual feelings."
2007 – Actor Taylor Frey stated that he'd experienced what he called a witch hunt in which he was falsely reported to the Honor Code Office by another student for same-sex romantic behavior with what was a platonic friend.
2009 – The first explicit mention of homosexuality in the language of the school's code of conduct available to students was publicly published in the Fall.
2010 – Shortly after a policy change removing the ban on LGBT BYU students gathering together in a group, LGBT and straight students began weekly meetings on BYU campus as USGA to discuss issues relating to homosexuality and the LDS Church.
January – A BYU law student stated that he was threatened with expulsion for publishing the book Homosexuality: A Straight BYU Student’s Perspective which contained arguments in favor of same-sex marriage.
February – BYU's Honor Code was updated to remove the ban on any "advocacy of homosexual behavior" defined as "promoting homosexual relations as being morally acceptable."
November – BYU fired a gay broadcasting department faculty member. The employee stated that BYU had become an increasingly hostile work environment and that being gay played into his being fired.
March – LGBT BYU students received national attention for their "It Gets Better" video.
April – A Sociology Department panel of LGBT BYU students received press coverage as well as complaints to the university from a conservative political group.
February – Gay BYU student Jimmy Hales gained media attention with a comedic video of coming out live to family and friends.
May – Ty Mansfield, an openly gay Mormon, taught two religion classes in the summer of 2013 at BYU as an adjunct faculty member.
January – In a BYU devotional, BYU professor Jonathan Sandberg mentions the church's website mormonsandgays.org and encourages people who are experiencing challenges like the "struggle" of "same-gender attraction" to keep faith and trust God.
April – A BYU survey to students gained media attention for only giving the option of "heterosexual but struggles with same-sex attraction" or "heterosexual and does not struggle with same-sex attraction" for identifying ones sexual orientation.
August – The BYU Bookstore briefly sold greeting cards for congratulating recently married same-sex couples. The cards were quickly pulled making international news.
October – BYU student Curtis Penfold who had been at the university for over two years was kicked out of his apartment, fired from his job, and expulsed from BYU after disagreeing with LDS teachings on LGBT rights. He stated that he, "felt so hated by this community I used to love."
October – A film student Scott Raia's documentary about queer BYU students Bridey Jensen and Samy Galvez was shown on campus.
January – A gay BYU student and Church Missionary Training Center employee was physically assaulted by his roommates after he told one of them that he was gay. The man experienced bruised ribs after allegedly being dragged from his room amid gay slurs. The situation resulted in a lawsuit.
September – In a BYU Devotional address Ronald Rasband, then in the Presidency of the Seventy addressed concerns about the church's involvement in politics. He shared hypothetical stories of a man fired for being gay and a woman marginalized at work for being Mormon and bemoaned that it is less politically correct to empathize with the religious woman. He invited students to discuss LGBT rights and religious freedom and to write comments on his Facebook post. The address was later reprinted in a church magazine.
2015 – In a survey of 92 LGBTQ BYU students done by USGA, 52% had at some point considered self-harm.
January – The advocacy organization FreeBYU filed an accreditation complaint to the American Bar Association against the BYU law school. The complaint argued that the honor code's prohibition of dating, romantic expression, and marriage between same-sex partners, but not their heterosexual counterparts, violated the accrediting body's anti-discrimination policies. The American Bar Association acknowledged the complaint and forwarded it to committee for consideration, then rejected the complaint after BYU made changes to its Honor Code.
February – BYU student Harry Fisher came out on Facebook in 2015. About two months later after experiences of hearing anti-gay rhetoric from individuals around him, and after instances of having to leave his BYU singles ward meeting to cry in his car, he completed suicide on 12 February 2016.
Protesters deliver 60,000 petition signatures to BYU's administration in response to reports of administrators mistreating rape and assault survivors, including LGBT student.
August – During the BYU Title IX controversy around the university's policies and treatment of student survivors of sexual assault, the Salt Lake Tribune published an article containing firsthand accounts of several current and former LGBTQ BYU students who were sexually assaulted or raped as students and their subsequent experiences with administrators.
October – BYU student Jessyca Fulmer was featured on the LDS church's website Mormon and Gay.
November – The Provo newspaper Daily Herald published a series of six in-depth articles on the experiences of BYU LGBT students, centered around the topics of why they attend, USGA, mental health, the Honor Code, and why some leave. The articles were written over the space of two months, with an editorial conclusion at the end of the series asking administrators to listen to LGBT BYU students.
BYU's first official campus LGBTQ-specific event in April 2017.
April – The first LGBT-specific campus-wide event was held on the 7th by the BYU NAMI club. Some LGBTQ BYU students discussed some of their experiences and difficulties posed by being a sexual or gender minority at BYU.
September – BYU students and a professor are featured prominently in an article on the Provo LGBT Pride Festival.
September – The unofficial BYU group "Rise and Shout" held the university's first LGBTQ alumni gathering.
October – A lesbian BYU student gained media attention for her coming out images and quotes on Faces of USGA.
October – A Provo newspaper published an article on transgender current and former BYU students.
November – In response to a question about LGBT young single adults in the church the apostle Ballard told BYU students in a campus-wide event that, "I believe you have a place in the kingdom and recognize that sometimes it may be difficult for you to see where you fit in the Lord’s Church, but you do." He also told cisgender, heterosexual members, "We need to listen to and understand what our LGBT brothers and sisters are feeling and experiencing. Certainly, we must do better than we have done in the past so that all members feel they have a spiritual home." He further explained that church leaders believe "core rights of citizenship should be protected for all people — for LGBT people, for people of all faiths,” and that "reasonable compromises" should be found "in other areas when rights conflict." He stated that church leaders supported the recent LoveLoud Festival to send a message that "LGBT youth or anyone else should never be mistreated."
November – A BYU survey was released having been completed by 43% of students in which .2% of the 12,602 who completed the survey (or 25 responders) reported that their gender identity was transgender or something other than cisgender male or female.
March – BYU Student Life hosted the first university-hosted LGBT campus event. It featured a panel of four students answering student-submitted questions.
April – After a controversy over BYU's policies around LGBT people, a conference for the US Society for Political Methodology was moved off of campus citing a "long-strained relations between the LGBTQ community and BYU" and concerns over the university's ban on homosexual behavior which the Society repudiated along with "the intolerance it represents."
July – Church leaders' continued denial of BYU LGBT students' years of requests to form a club on campus received national coverage.
November – The NCAA Common Ground IV forum was hosted at BYU. The goal of this forum is to "establish inclusive and respectful athletics environments for participants of all sexual orientations, gender identities and religious beliefs. Notable attendees were the president of BYU, Kevin J Worthen, and NCAA Vice president of Inclusion and Human Resources, Katrice Albert.
November – BYU's Instagram was hosted by an out gay student for a day and he answered questions about being a gay BYU student.
April – At a graduation ceremony speech the Political Science Department's valedictorian came out as gay publicly for the first time, an event which received national media attention.
July – Emma Gee became the first Division I athlete in BYU's 143-year history to be publicly out, after she came out as bisexual. She reported having what she called a traumatizing and homophobic required meeting with her bishop in which her sexual orientation was discussed.
September – The American Geophysical Union in Washington, D.C., and the Geological Society of America in Colorado pulled BYU professor job ads from their websites after complaints from constituents that BYU's honor code discriminates against anyone in a same-sex marriage or relationship from applying in violation of both organizations' ethical standards.
January – The BYU Office of Student Success and Inclusion hosted a panel focused on LGBTQ+ topics at BYU.
February – BYU removed the ban on "homosexual behavior" from its Honor Code, which many initially thought finally allowed LGBT students to perform ordinary public displays of romantic affection, although, like straight students, they still must abstain from sexual relationships outside of marriage. However, BYU leadership later clarified removing "homosexual behavior" from the Honor Code still did not permit any public displays of romantic affection towards a same-sex partner or same-sex dating which sparked more outrage and protests from the LGBT community and allies.
^ abSmart, Michael (22 March 1997). "BYU Student Poll: Ban Gay Students". The Salt Lake Tribune. ProQuest288698514. Brigham Young University students who surveyed campus attitudes towards homosexuals say 42 percent of the students questioned believe same-sex oriented students should not be allowed in school, even if they obey its honor code, which prohibits homosexual behavior. ... As part of a project for their English class, Sam Clayton, Dale Franklin and Melanie Dinger conducted the school-approved survey to 420 students in randomly selected classes on campus. ... Almost 80 percent of respondents would not live with a same-sex oriented roommate.
^ abcdeKerr, Emma (22 May 2018). "Inside Gay Students' Fight to Be Heard at BYU". The Chronicle of Higher Education. There are no institutional means of supporting students or educating professors on LGBTQ issues. ... USGA, is forced to meet in a local library because the university does not support or sanction its existence. Students in the group say they’ve been told it will never be allowed on campus.
^Shire, Emily (13 May 2014). "Mormon U. Forces homosexuals to Be Celibate". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 20 June 2017. Since LGBT students can be expelled for hugging or kissing someone of the same sex, they are forced to take their displays of affection off campus.
^"LGBT BYU students explain why they chose to attend and stay". The Daily Universe. BYU. Associated Press. 4 November 2016. The decision by LGBT students to attend or stay at BYU comes with the price of being unable to participate in the university’s dating culture. It oftentimes means staying home while roommates go on dates or watching as they get engaged. It’s knowing that two straight friends can hug, or go on a friend date, but that two LGBT students who are the same gender can’t do the same.
^Wilkinson, Ernest (12 September 1962). BYU Diary. BYU Library Special Collections UA 1000 Box 101 Folder 1: Brigham Young University. Retrieved 16 November 2016.CS1 maint: location (link)
^Blackley, Jared (11 June 2007). "Nothing to Hide? What it means to be gay at BYU". Salt Lake City Weekly. Copperfield Publishing Inc. In 1965, for instance, then-university President Ernest Wilkinson said in a speech to the student body that BYU does 'not intend to admit to campus any homosexuals. If any of you have this tendency and have not completely abandoned it, may I suggest that you leave the university immediately after this assembly; and if you will be honest enough to let us know the reason, we will voluntarily refund your tuition. We do not want others on this campus to be contaminated by your presence.'
^Lambert, Michael (6 September 2016). "LGBT Students on Leaving Religious Colleges: 'I Feel Like I Would Be Giving Up'". Out Magazine. Here Publishing Inc. The school’s Honor Code forbids 'all forms of physical intimacy that give expression to homosexual feelings.' Violations can lead up to expulsion. 'I'm very affectionate with my friends,' he says. 'But every time I hug someone, in the back of my mind, there’s always something nagging at me. Like, 'Oh, they’re going to be watching.' It is really stressful.'
^Peterson, Eric S. (7 July 2010). "Gay Students vs. BYU Honor Code". Salt Lake City Weekly. Since he had admitted to being in love with his boyfriend, Kovalenko was told that any contact with him—even a handshake or a hug—would be inappropriate. Any sign of affection would be just as inappropriate as sexual relations and be seen by the honor code as advocating for homosexual behavior.
^Quinn, D. Michael (1996). Same-Sex Dynamics among Nineteenth-Century Americans. University of Illinois Press. p. 442. ISBN978-0252022050. 1975 (Jan.) Brigham Young University began an effort to expel all homosexual male students. BYU security officers interrogated students majoring in fine arts or drama. Security operatives also took down license plate numbers of cars parked outside Salt Lake City's gay bars and cross-checked them with cars registered with BYU by current students. BYU's president Dallin H. Oaks acknowledged these activities in general terms in the Salt Lake Tribune on March 22. The Advocate published three articles about this investigation, beginning with the issue of 18, June.
^ abcd"Brigham Young U. Admits Stake outs on Homosexuals". New York Times. 27 Sep 1979. p. A16. Brigham Young University says its security police staked out homosexual bars in Salt Lake City to investigate homosexual activity at the Latter-day Saint‐owned school, but stopped the practice once administrators learned of it. Paul Richards, director of public relations for the university, confirmed yesterday allegations by the American Civil Liberties Union that security officers ventured off campus and wrote letters to a homosexual‐oriented newspaper soliciting responses as part of a crackdown on homosexuals. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has a strict ban on homosexual behavior in line with traditional Christian teachings. “Those things were done,” Mr. Richards said. “But, when President [Dallin] Oaks got involved, he said, ‘Cut that out right now.’ “Mr. Richards said the surveillance had occurred more than a year ago, before the Utah Legislature approved a controversial bill giving peace officer status to campus police.
^Alberty, Erin (7 Oct 2014). "Longtime Utah LGBT advocates recount brutal history". Salt Lake Tribune. Archived from the original on 4 November 2017. The fears proved well-founded. Designated drivers in the parking lots of gay bars saw men writing down license plate numbers. Some Brigham Young University students reported being outed by campus security soon thereafter, Aaron says.'Then the families ended up finding out they were excommunicated,' he says.
^ ab"Homosexuals Level Charges at Mormon Church". Kokomo Tribune. Community Newspaper Holdings Inc. Associated Press. 27 October 1979. p. 15. Archived from the original on 4 November 2017. The letter sought people interested in forming a "BYU gay underground." [David] Chipman, although not a BYU student, met his contact in the student center, but was arrested by the man in a canyon away from the school. The man revealed he was a BYU police officer posing as a homosexual. ... [Security Chief Robert] Kelshaw admits a BYU detective wrote the unauthorized "gay underground" letter.
^McQueen, Robert (13 Aug 1975). "BYU Inquisition". The Advocate.
^Williams, Ben (2010-12-23). "The Payne Papers". gaysaltlake.com. QSaltLake Magazine. The institute also proposed attempts to get an East Coast publisher to publish their anti-homosexuality data so it would appear as an “independent” source in support of their claims that homosexuality is curable and preventable.
^Williams, Ben (2010-12-23). "The Payne Papers". gaysaltlake.com. QSaltLake Magazine. Later that summer, Salt Lake City gay activist Ken Kline ... who knew a gay man who worked in the church office building’s mail room, also managed to get the pamphlet mailed to all the General Authorities, TV and radio stations, and most of the LDS church faculty at BYU and Ricks College. Doing this made it look as though the pamphlet was a BYU publication and that the church had approved it. Needless to say, LDS leaders were pissed.
^Williams, Ben (2010-12-23). "The Payne Papers". gaysaltlake.com. QSaltLake Magazine. The 'pro-homosexuality' pamphlet flustered church officials to such a degree that in August, Allen Bergin, director of the Institute for Studies in Values and Human Behavior at BYU, was directed by LDS Social Services and BYU Comprehensive Clinic to prepare a response to 'The Payne Papers.' It was entitled 'A Reply to Unfounded Assertions Regarding Homosexuality.' It was dismal. ... The Presiding Bishop Office of the LDS Church financed BYU’s Value’s Institute attempts to rebut 'The Payne Papers' through the tithing funds that church members contributed for 'humanitarian projects.' ... Victor L. Brown of the Values Institute decried 'the fallacious claims in the Payne Papers' as the 'opposition’s attempts to indoctrinate our people.' ... By the beginning of 1980, BYU’s Institute for Studies in Values and Human Behavior hadn’t succeeded in achieving its directive to refute 'The Payne Papers.'
^Wilson, John K. (1 August 2008). Patriotic Correctness: Academic Freedom and Its Enemies. Routledge. p. 146. ISBN978-1594511943.
^Wilson, John K. (1 August 2008). Patriotic Correctness: Academic Freedom and Its Enemies. Routledge. p. 145. ISBN978-1594511943.
^Mardesich, Jodi (25 Sep 2001). "Pass or Fail". The Advocate. Archived from the original on 7 July 2019. [BYU student Ricky] Escoto says he knows of 13 other BYU students who were kicked off campus last year after being caught watching the Showtime series Queer as Folk. Also archived here.
^Wilson, John K. (1 August 2008). Patriotic Correctness: Academic Freedom and Its Enemies. Routledge. p. 145. ISBN978-1594511943. Brigham Young University Student (BYU) Matthew Grierson was expelled because he held hands with a man in an Orem, Utah shopping mall in January 2001. He was recognized and reported to BYU's honor code office. ... BYU student Ricky Escoto was also suspended in 2001 after his roommates accused him of kissing a man on their couch .... Escoto denied the allegations ....
^"Honor Code Faculty Information". facultycenter.byu.edu. BYU. Archived from the original on 2016-01-06. Retrieved 2 December 2017. Question: One of my female students has shaved her head. Do I have a responsibility here? Answer: Yes, faculty have a responsibility in this situation! A girl shaving her head, a guy dying his hair bright blue, or any other extreme fashion is not appropriate for representatives of the Church and the University. Question: One of my male students wears black clothing and eye shadow to class; and his fingernails are at least half an inch long. What can I do about it? Answer: That sort of appearance is not appropriate for a BYU student, particularly a male.
^ abFletcher Stack, Peggy (9 November 1997). "42 Percent At BYU Want Gays Kept Out; Gays Unwelcome, Say Many at BYU". The Salt Lake Tribune – via ProQuest Newsstand. Forty-two percent of Brigham Young University students think those with a same-sex orientation should not be allowed to attend the LDS Church-owned school, according to a recent survey. ... In the first study, BYU student Samuel Clayton, with the help of several faculty members, gave questionnaires anonymously to 420 students in randomly selected classes.
^ abMurphy, Barbara; Tate, Alice; Long, David; Welker, Joseph (10 April 1979). "Homosexuality: Cause for Concern?". The Daily Universe. BYU. p. 1. According to local psychologists who are working on homosexuality research, anywhere from 1 to 4 percent of the BYU male population have homosexual tendencies. Dr. Ford McBride, a psychologist at Timpanogos Community Mental Health Center, and Dr. Maxine Murdock, licensed psychologist at the BYU Counseling Center who works with homosexual students, estimate the figure at 4 percent. McBride said his estimate is based on extrapolation of the old Kinsey report.
^Herbst, Casi (16 January 2003). "Homosexuality broadcast axed". The Daily Universe. BYU. LDS Church. [Jeff] Robinson, a marriage and family counselor in Orem whose caseload is approximately 90 percent homosexual men ... said there are approximately 2 to 3 percent homosexual men worldwide. Mike Buxton, a counselor at BYU who deals with many of the people on campus with this tendency, said this statistic pertains to homosexual women and the number for men dealing with homosexuality is 4 to 5 percent worldwide. Both agree the number of BYU students dealing with homosexuality is somewhere around 4 to 5 percent.
^ ab"Report on the Campus Climate Survey on Sexual Assault"(PDF). news.byu.edu. BYU. November 2017. p. 2. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2017-12-01. Retrieved 2017-11-23. The online survey was conducted in spring 2017. Email invitations were sent to 29,471 BYU students; 13,784 (48%) started the survey and 12,602 completed the survey, for a response rate of 43%. Demographic data revealed the survey participants to be very similar to the broader BYU population in terms of gender, ethnicity, year in school, and other measures. Key demographics include the following: ... Gender: 52% male, 48% female, and 0.2% transgender or other
^Meerwijk, Esther L.; Sevelius, Jae M. (February 2017). "Transgender Population Size in the United States: a Meta-Regression of Population-Based Probability Samples". American Journal of Public Health. 107 (2): e1–e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303578. PMC5227946. PMID28075632. [O]ur final analysis included 20 samples. Table 1 describes each of these samples in more detail. Among them, 6 samples (30%) were drawn from the general population and 14 (70%) from college and university students and adult inmates. ... The estimated proportion of transgender individuals based on surveys that categorized transgender as gender identity was 0.39% (95% confidence interval [between 0.16% and 0.62%]). ... An estimate extrapolating our meta-regression results ... suggests that the proportion of transgender adults in the United States is 0.39% ... and almost 1 million adults nationally. Our estimate of 0.39% is not quite as high as the 1% that was posited on the basis of a qualitative review of international studies.
^Jenkins, Cloy; Williams, Lee; Williams, Jeff; Salisbury, Howard (1978). Prologue. Salt Lake City, UT: Prometheus Enterprises. p. 13. Archived from the original on 4 August 2007. Retrieved 22 November 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ abWeakland, Sean. "Legacies". Yale University Library. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
^Schafer, Bill (12 May 2000). "Mormon Electroshock Therapy". Las Vegas Bugle. 'They promised me it would work, and who doesn't want to live a life that's normal and acceptable in your society and have your family embrace you?' he asks rhetorically. Therapist Ron Lawrence of Community Counseling Center in Las Vegas says this 'reparative therapy' is 'equivalent to what I would call the kind of torture that people experienced in Nazi concentration camps.' Jayce displays the scars on his hands and tells of more scars where the electrodes were placed 'on my torso, and [breathing deeply as though reliving some excruciating pain ] on my genitalia.' The words don't come easily to Jayce as he explains why he so willingly gave up his education savings [$9,000]—and put his earning potential on hold—in order to endure what Lawrence describes as 'assault and battery, abuse'. 'You're taught that the leaders of the church will never lie to you, never deceive you and you're taught to believe them blindly,' Jayce explains. 'I believed the counselors. I believed it would work. I believed that through that [reparative therapy], faith, temple attendance and prayer and fasting I would be healed. I believe that through God anything's possible. And I was told it would work. It probably sounds really naive, but I truly believed it would work.' Reprinted here.
^Galliher, Renee; Bradshaw, William; Hyde, Daniel; Dehlin, John; Crowell, Katherine (April 2015). "Sexual orientation change efforts among current or former LDS church members". Journal of Counseling Psychology. 62 (2): 95–105. doi:10.1037/cou0000011. PMID24635593. The LDS church claims the Holy Bible as scripture and, through traditional Biblical interpretations, has historically both condemned same-sex sexuality as sinful and explicitly encouraged its lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) members to attempt sexual orientation change. While the LDS church has somewhat softened its stance toward LGBTQ individuals in recent years, it continues to communicate to its LGBTQ members that sexual orientation change is possible through various means including prayer, personal righteousness, faith in Jesus Christ, psychotherapy, group therapy, and group retreats. In these respects, the LDS church’s approach to SSA has closely paralleled other religious traditions including Orthodox Judaism, evangelical Christianity, and Roman Catholicism.
^Glitz, Michael (28 June 2011). "'The Book Of Mormon' — Why Aren't More People Offended?". Huffington Post. What about 'Turn It Off?' In this show-stopper for Tony-nominated supporting actor Rory O’Malley as Elder McKinley, some missionaries share their approach to confusing thoughts or bad feelings. ... [W]hen you have gay thoughts for your best friend, well, 'Turn it off!' Non-believers hear hypocrisy and an absurdly simplistic solution to difficult issues: 'Turn it off/ Like a light switch/ Just go flick/ It’s our nifty little Mormon trick.' ... It’s not an official approach by any faith, as such, but numerous fundamentalist faiths acknowledge that some men are inherently gay. They want those men to simply tamp down these bad feelings and marry a woman anyway, because with prayer and the proper spouse and God’s love you can be alright.
^Atkinson, Sally (7 June 2011). "Clark Johnsen: From Mormon Missionary to Broadway in The Book of Mormon". The Daily Beast. On the show-stopper 'Turn It Off,' sung by a closeted missionary struggling with his sexuality. 'I'm one of the few missionaries who actually was out to myself as a gay person on my mission and out to some of my mission companions—the ones who asked. [The Book of Mormon song] 'Turn It Off' is such an insightful view into the psychology of a homosexual missionary in particular, but also into all Mormons. In the church, you don't say you're gay, you say you have homosexual tendencies, because gay is this label they want you to hopefully outgrow, which I tried to do. It didn't work.
^"Mormon and Gay". ChurchofJesusChrist.org. LDS Church. Retrieved 29 October 2016. While shifts in sexuality can and do occur for some people, it is unethical to focus professional treatment on an assumption that a change in sexual orientation will or must occur.
^Loftin, Josh (31 July 2011). "Gay Utah Democratic boss Jim Dabakis moves beyond sexuality". Deseret News. LDS Church. But he understands Mormons, having converted to the faith as a teenager because he wanted to play basketball and most LDS ward houses have courts and organized leagues, he said. The church later sent him on a mission to San Francisco at the age of 19 and he attended Brigham Young University before coming out at the age of 23.
^Oaks, Dallin (27 March 1974). The Popular Myth of the Victimless Crime (Speech). Commissioner’s Lecture. BYU.
^Oaks, Dallin (1974). "The Popular Myth of the Victimless Crime". The LDS Church Educational System Commissioner's Lecture Series. Brigham Young University Press: 8. I believe in retaining criminal penalties on sex crimes such as adultery, fornication, prostitution, homosexuality, and other forms of deviate sexual behavior. I concede the abuses and risks of invasion of privacy that are involved in the enforcement of such crimes and therefore concede the need for extraordinary supervision of the enforcement process. I am even willing to accept a strategy of extremely restrained enforcement of private, noncommercial sexual offenses. I favor retaining these criminal penalties primarily because of the standard-setting and teaching function of these laws on sexual morality and their support of society's exceptional interest in the integrity of the family.
^Be Ye Therefore Perfect. byu.edu. LDS Church. 17 September 1974. Event occurs at 24:24. [I]t is hard for me to understand why men wish to resemble women and why women desire to ape the men. ... Then we’re appalled to find an ever-increasing number of women who want to be sexually men and many young men who wish to be sexually women. What a travesty! I tell you that, as surely as they live, such people will regret having made overtures toward the changing of their sex. Do they know better than God what is right and best for them? Alternative youtube.com and archive.org links.
^Moes, Garry J. (22 Mar 1975). "Ex-BYU Security Officer Tells of Intrigue, Spying". Salt Lake Tribune. Then, when President Oaks was asked if there was a more widespread campaign to find drug abusers and homosexuals among BYU students, he replied: 'Our security force is charged with helping protect our university from influences that we try to exclude from our university community. Two influences we wish to exclude from the BYU community are active homosexuals and drug users, and these subjects are therefore among those with which our security force is concerned.
^"Davis Man Found Dead in Vehicle". Ogden Standard Examiner. 10 March 1976. p. 11A. Carlyle D. Marsden was found in his car along Nichols Road dead from a pistol wound of the chest.
^Weist, Larry (16 March 1976). "Homosexual Suspects Arrested in Utah County". Daily Herald. p. 1. Archived from the original on 7 December 2017 – via Newspapers.com. Eight men were arraigned in the Pleasant Grove Precinct Justice Court Monday afternoon on charges of lewdness and sodomy stemming from alleged homosexual activity at the two rest stops on I-15 north of Orem. ... Two of the suspects were arrested and charged with an act of sodomy. One of them, a 54-year-old Salt Lake County man, died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the chest two days after his arrest, according to Serge Moore, state medical examiner.
^Weist, Larry (16 March 1976). "Homosexual Suspects Arrested in Utah County". Daily Herald. p. 4. Archived from the original on 7 December 2017 – via Newspapers.com. Funeral services for Carlyle D. Marsden, 54, of 1388 Nichols Road, Fruit Heights, who died Monday, March 8, 1976, will be Friday at 10 a.m. in the Kaysville 11th-14th LDS Ward Chapel ... Mr. Marsden was a music teacher at Eisenhower Junior High School and at Brigham Young University.
^"Our History". affirmation.org. Affirmation: LGBT Mormons, Families & Friends. In mid-1977 and early 1978, a group of gay Mormons began meeting very quietly at BYU. One member of this group, Matthew Price, became very enthused at the idea of a national organization of gay LDS people and began to promote it with gusto. He organized a group in Salt Lake City and then moved on to Denver and Dallas, forming groups in those cities. Under Matt’s guidance, a constitution for the organization was written, stating its goals and purposes. A name was selected: 'Affirmation – Gay Mormons United.'
^"Chipman Case Appealed; Insufficient Evidence Cited". The Daily Universe. BYU. 13 May 1980. p. 2.
^"Homosexual Crack Down; A Duty for BYU Security Police". Points West. Salt Lake Community College. 5 December 1979. pp. 10–11. Non-Student Is Set Is Set Up and Arrested Kelshaw (Security Chief) admits a BYU detective wrote an unauthorized letter to a gay newspaper in Salt Lake the Open Door in an effort to obtain the names of students who would be interested in forming a 'BYU gay underground'. David Chipman not a student of BYU responded to the article and was thereby set up for later arrest. David made connection with the detective who was posing as a homosexual. The two then drove into a nearby canyon where David was arrested when he touched the groin of the officer. Chipman has pleaded innocent and his attorney has moved for dismissal on grounds of entrapment... 'The law passed on May 10 is blatantly unconstitutional for allowing police power to be used to enforce views, if not exclusively limited to, at least including in church doctrine,' said Shirley Pedler director of the American Civil Liberties Union in Utah ... Salt Lake Tribune Oct 23, 1979.
^"Chipman Found Guilty of Attempted Abuse". The Daily Universe. BYU. 8 April 1980. p. 1.
^Murphy, Barbara; Tate, Alice; Long, David; Welker, Joseph (11 April 1979). "LDS Views of Homosexuality". The Daily Universe. BYU. p. 16.
^Bergera, James; Priddis, Ronald (1985). Brigham Young University: A House of Faith. Signature Books. ISBN978-0941214346. In 'Homosexuality: Cause for Concern?' DU [Daily Universe], 10 April 1979, Maxine Murdock of the [BYU] Counseling Center conservatively estimated that 4 percent of the student body (approximately 1,200) is homosexual. See footnote 71.
^ abMurphy, Barbara; Tate, Alice; Long, David; Welker, Joseph (11 April 1979). "Homosexuality Stirs Controversy". The Daily Universe. BYU. p. 1.
^Murphy, Barbara; Tate, Alice; Long, David; Welker, Joseph (12 April 1979). "Homosexuality: 'Change Possible'". The Daily Universe. BYU. p. 3.
^"Our History". affirmation.org. Affirmation: LGBT Mormons, Families & Friends. The year 1979 was a year of significant growth for Affirmation and gay LDS people. It was the year that Affirmation decided to proclaim itself. In June of that year, for the first time ever, Gay Mormons marched in a Gay parade in Los Angeles. In September, 14 members participated in the "March on Washington for Gay Rights." Now there would never be any turning back. It was the first national mainstream coverage Gay Mormons had ever received and it raised our goals and spirits.
^"KBYU Cancels Gay Documentary". Sunstone Review. 2 (9): 8. September 1982. KBYU viewers who turned on their television sets August 6 to see the last in a three-part series on homosexuality in Utah heard instead an announcement that the segment had been cancelled ... The segment contained interviews with homosexual students at BYU. ...[P]roducer of the series Kevin Mitchell told the Provo Daily Herald 'I didn't want their faces shown because if they were caught, they would be kicked out of the university.'
^Brown Jr., Victor (1 January 1986). "Healing Problems of Intimacy by Clients' Use of Gospel-Based Values and Role Definitions". BYU Studies Quarterly. 26 (1): 7, 23–24. Recognition of inadequate treatment regimens regimes regimens may account for erroneous but widespread beliefs such as that male homosexuality is not changeable. ... Change was embedded in an accepting evaluative and loving non-erotic social milieu that provided expectations ideology and actual interpersonal experiences leading to the extinction of homosexual impulses and behaviors. ... Warren was discovering that he was not the odd man out he had believed all his life and as his gender security increased his homosexual desires decreased.
^Waterman, Bryan (September 1997). "Student Review and BYU: Over Ten Years of Un-Official Press (And Official Resistance) in Provo"(PDF). Sunstone. 20 (107): 52. In 1990, the [Student Review] staff threw aside the magazine's taboos and published its 'What?!? Homosexuality HERE at BYU!?!' issue, which explored the topic from a variety of religious and social perspectives. Over the next four years gay issues took up much space in the Review—perhaps because the Review had become a semi-safe space for gay students themselves. Such articles—without exception promoting tolerance if not outright social and theological change—always drew critical response from students.
^Packer, Boyd (29 March 1992). The Fountain of Life (Speech). BYU 18-Stake Fireside. Provo, Utah: LDS Church. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2017. For instance, animals do not pair up with their own gender to satisfy their mating instincts. ... Children of God can willfully surrender to their carnal nature and, seemingly without remorse, defy the laws of morality and degrade themselves even below the beasts.
^Goudarzi, Sara (16 November 2006). "Homosexual Animals Out of the Closet". Live Science. Purch. A first-ever museum display, "Against Nature?," which opened last month at the University of Oslo's Natural History Museum in Norway, presents 51 species of animals exhibiting homosexuality.'Homosexuality has been observed in more than 1,500 species, and the phenomenon has been well described for 500 of them,' said Petter Bockman, project coordinator of the exhibition.
^Smart, Michael (22 March 1997). "BYU Student Poll: Ban Gay Students". The Salt Lake Tribune. ProQuest288698514.
^Waterman, Bryan; Kagel, Brian (1998). The Lord's University: Freedom and Authority at BYU. Signature books. p. 162. ISBN978-1-56085-117-2. The group [Open Forum] secured a faculty advisor, Paul Thomas, the parent of a gay son, though a year later, after extensive discussion with school officials, the group still had not succeeded in gaining official club status. The group aimed, in part, to 'publicize the fact that gays and lesbians were welcome at the university.' See fotnote 191
^Hart, Jonathan (7 November 1997). "We Have Gays in the Church—Good People". BYU Student Review.
^"About Us". foundationforattractionresearch.org. Foundation for Attraction Research. Archived from the original on 2011-10-21. Retrieved 2019-06-15. Foundation for Attraction Research was founded by Dennis V. Dahle, JD; A. Dean Byrd, PhD, MBA, MPH; and Shirley E. Cox, DSW, LCSW in 2005 for the purpose of developing resources and conducting research supportive of traditional Judeo-Christian standards of morality. ... The members of the Foundation’s board of directors, all of whom served as editors of Understanding Same-Sex Attraction, follow: A. Dean Byrd, PhD, MBA, MPH; Shirley E. Cox, DSW, LCSW; Dennis V. Dahle, JD; Doris R. Dant, MS, MA; William C. Duncan, JD; John P. Livingstone, EdD; M. Gawain Wells, PhD
^Reid, Kimberly W. (2010). "Review: Understanding Same-Sex Attraction: Where to Turn and How to Help". BYU Studies. 49 (1): 189–190. Instead, the authors of this book assert the unpopular opinion, backed by scientific research, that same-sex attraction can be lessened or eradicated in those who desire change and are willing to try. Readers who empathize with the Church’s position on homosexuality will likely find hope and useful ideas in this five-hundred-page compilation ... Here essayists recount how they emerged from homosexual lifestyles to find satisfaction in rejoining the Church mainstream, some even finding success in heterosexual marriages ... As some professional and state organizations frown on therapists who believe in reorientation therapy—seeking to ban their practice, in some cases—this book fills a void.
^Wardle, Lynn D. "The Attack on Marriage As the Union of a Man and a Woman". worldcongress.org. Howard Center for Family, Religion and Society. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. If same-sex marriage is legalized on the principle of personal choice, there is no principled basis to deny those who want to call incestuous relationships 'marriages,' or polygamous relationships marriages, or polyamorous unions 'marriages.' ... In Massachusetts since same-sex marriage has been legalized there already have been numerous controversies about ... parents' rights to protect their children from exposure to gay propaganda. ... Although Elie Wiesel was one of the Jews who refused to believe the warnings [about the Nazis], yet he remembered gratefully Moishe’s attempt to warn the people. ... We too must speak up and get involved. ... Unless we persuade them now of the dangers of legalizing same-sex marriage, then they will naively adopt laws and policies that will cause tragic consequences.
^Baker, Camille (25 September 2017). "LGBTQ BYU alumni event encourages community". Daily Universe. BYU. USGA President J.D. Goates said the mission of USGA is “to improve and save the lives of LGBTQ/SSA (Same Sex Attracted) BYU students.” The USGA organization was created in 2010 when BYU authorized LGBTQ students to participate in groups, according to Goates. USGA has a leadership team of 40 students and is specifically geared towards BYU students, although it is open to anyone in the community. During the Fall and Winter semesters, USGA meetings regularly see 70-90 students in attendance, Goates said.
^Rivero, Daniel (2 May 2016). "Law student says he was almost expelled for writing in favor of gay marriage". Fusion. Yahoo! - ABC News Network. Fusion Media Network, LLC. Archived from the original on 4 May 2016. He expected he would have to make minor changes—not rewrite the book. ... 'I was basically threatened with removal from the university if I went forward and took a public stance in favor of gay marriage,' [Brad] Levin, 33, told Fusion, citing conversations he said he had with senior school officials. 'I was told that I had to change the contents of my book to be on the right side of the church.' After calculating how far back in life such an expulsion would set him, Levin relented, changing key parts of his book. Years earlier, he remembered, his brother was expelled from the school after leaving the Mormon faith, and it cost him severely. Republished at Splinter News.
^Zavadski, Katie (31 March 2015). "Lose Your Faith, Get Expelled at BYU". Daily Beast. [Brad] Levin began to doubt as he wrote a book about church doctrine and homosexuality. When it became clear to him that the church’s top officials, whose words guided his life for so long, were wrong on the science of sexual orientation, 'something snapped' inside him. And the research and critical thinking skills the university taught him? They were getting him in trouble. His academic conclusions did not adhere to church doctrine. He felt like roommates could turn him in at any moment. He ultimately published his book without the most provocative conclusions because of the difficulty of transferring graduate school work.
^Fortenbury, Jon (28 September 2014). "The Health Effects of Leaving Religion". The Atlantic. Curtis Penfold got kicked out of his apartment, fired from his job, and left Brigham Young University all in the same week. ... “I felt so hated by this community I used to love,” Penfold said. Penfold originally went to BYU to be around fellow Mormons. But over the course of the two-and-a-half years he spent there, he started to find the lack of LGBT rights in the church distasteful and was unable to reconcile the idea of a loving God with the evil he saw in the world.
^Knox, Annie (26 January 2016). "National bar group looking into discrimination claim at BYU law school". The Salt Lake Tribune. FreeBYU this summer added gay and transgender rights to their cause after the U.S. Supreme Court allowed same-sex marriage nationwide. BYU also violates ABA nondiscrimination guidelines, Levin said, by forcing some LGBT members to hide their sexual orientation and gender identity or risk expulsion. ... But breaking away from the LDS religion before graduation is against a conduct code signed by each student. So are homosexual relationships. Sex-reassignment surgery can lead to excommunication from the church, which would get students booted from the school. ... The professional organization of attorneys and law students forbids schools from "taking action" based on race, religion, gender, nationality, sexuality, age or disability.
^Nuñez, Kirsten (25 January 2016). "BYU law school under investigation for possible discrimination". Fox 13. Tribune Broadcasting. An investigation is underway into Brigham Young University’s law school for possible discrimination. The American Bar Association is looking at the school's standards of expelling gay and former Mormon students.
^Pierce, Scott D. (16 September 2017). "Provo's growing gay pride festival surprised many fans headed to the BYU football game". The Salt Lake Tribune. Brigham Young University student Tom Christensen, sporting a Cougars sweatshirt, stopped by. ... No group was more visible than BYU’s unofficial LGBTQ support group, USGA ..... 'A lot of people on campus don’t know that we exist, so they feel alone. And some of them think about suicide,' said Sabina Mendoza, 22, a BYU senior from Houston. 'We don’t want anyone to feel that way.' ... That included BYU Professor Roni Jo Draper [who] was at the festival manning the PFLAG (Parents, Families and Friends of Lesbians and Gays) booth. 'I have a queer son, so my work with PFLAG is about helping parents and communities work with young people, and help them thrive,' Draper said.