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Blagar language

Blagar
Tereweng
Native toIndonesia
RegionPantar Island
Native speakers
10,000 (2014)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
beu – Blagar
twg – Tereweng
Glottologblag1240  Blagar[2]
tere1277  Tereweng[3]
Alor-pantar map color.png
Languages of the Alor Islands. Blagar is shown in yellow.

Blagar is a Papuan language of Pantar island in the Alor archipelago of Indonesia. The Tereweng lect spoken on Tereweng island off the southeast coast of Pantar[4] is sometimes considered a separate language.[5]

Use of the language is declining in favor of Indonesian.[6] In the 1970s Indonesian replaced Blagar as the language of the church and the mosque.[6] In the early 2000s the introduction of electricity on Pura Island further increased the influence of Indonesian.[6]

Phonology

Vowels

Blagar has five vowels, with a sharp contrast between short and long vowels.[6]

[6]
Front Back
Close /i/
/i:/
/u/
/u:/
Mid /e/
/e:/
/o/
/o:/
Open /a/
/a:/

Consonants

[6]
Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive p   b    d k   g ʔ
Implosive ɓ
Fricative s   z h
Nasal m n ŋ
Trill r
Lateral l
Approximant j

Grammar

Blagar is morphologically simple.[7] It has a limited number of pronouns, adverbs, particles, auxiliaries and clitics, but an unrestricted number of verbs and nouns.[7] Verbs can be transitive or intransitive, and nouns can be alienable or inalienable.[7] Nouns are placed before adjectives.[6]

[6]
Blagar Gloss English
Ne koŋdo boʔori. 1SG.POSS shirt yellow My shirt is yellow.
Mehal ʔaŋu guru niaŋ. man that teacher not That man is not a teacher.
ʔana naiŋ bue. 3SG.SBJ 1SG.OBJ hit He/she hit me.
Na aiŋ bue niaŋ. 1SG.SBJ 2SG.OBJ hit not I didn't hit you.
Na ne mol veŋ niaŋ. 1SG.SBJ 1SG.POSS banana with not I don't have a banana.

Questions

[6]
Blagar Gloss English
ʔ-ene nuba? 3SG-name who What's his/her name?
Id ʔaŋa ʔ-ene naba? star this 3SG-name what What's the name of this star?
Vet ʔaŋa nuba ʔe? coconut this who 3SG.POSS Whose coconut is this?

Writing system

The Blagar language uses the 26 letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet, and has two digraphs: ⟨ng⟩ and ⟨sy⟩.

[5]
Uppercase letters A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Lowercase letters a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
IPA /a/ /b/ /t͡ʃ/ /d/ /e/ /f/ /g/ /h/ /i/ /d͡ʒ/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /o/ /p/ /k/, /q/ /r/~/ɾ/ /s/ /t/ /u/ /f/, /v/ /w/ /ks/ /j/ /s/, /z/
[5]
Digraphs ng sy
IPA /ŋ/ /ʃ/

⟨c⟩, ⟨q⟩, ⟨x⟩, ⟨z⟩ and ⟨sy⟩ are only used in foreign place names and loanwords.[5]

Another writing system is also used, which is phonemic and is similar to the writing system of Indonesian.[8]

Letters a b b’ d e g h i j k l m n ng o p q r t u v y
IPA /a/ /b/ /ɓ/ /d/ /e/ /g/ /h/ /i/ /ɟ/, /ɟ͡ʝ/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ /o/ /p/ /ʔ/ /r/ /t/ /u/ /w/ /j/

References

  1. ^ "UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in danger". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 2018-06-06.
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Blagar". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tereweng". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ "Tereweng". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-06-27.
  5. ^ a b c d "Blagar alphabet, prounciation [sic] and language". Omniglot. Retrieved 2018-06-27.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Steinhauer, Hein (2014). "Blagar". In Schapper, Antoinette (ed.). The Papuan Languages of Timor, Alor and Pantar: Volume 1: Sketch Grammars. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 147–219.
  7. ^ a b c H. Steinhauer. ""Going" and "Coming" in the Blagar of Dolap (Pura--Alor--Indonesia) 1)" (PDF). SEAlang. Retrieved 2018-06-28.
  8. ^ Steinhauer, Hein; Gomang, Hendrik D.R. (2016). Kamus Blagar-Indonesia-Inggris: Blagar-Indonesian-English Dictionary. ISBN 978-602-433-356-0.

Further reading

  • Steinhauer, Hein; Gomang, Hendrik D.R. (2016). Kamus Blagar-Indonesia-Inggris: Blagar-Indonesian-English Dictionary. ISBN 978-602-433-356-0.

External links