According to the 2011 UK Census people self described as African, Caribbean, black or any other black background make up around 1.0 percent of Scotland's population, compared to 3.0 percent of the overall UK population.
A report in 2000 suggested that black people in Scotland had difficulties in feeling a sense of Scottish identity.
With some brief exceptions, such as Jamaican born Gil Heron at Celtic, Walter Tull signing for Rangers, and John Walker at Hearts, Black players largely disappeared from Scottish football for the next 100 years until the arrival of Mark Walters at Rangers in 1988. Walters arrival at the club resulted in incidents of racial abuse.
The Scotland national team did not call up a second player of black heritage until Nigel Quashie (black Ghanaian father and white English mother), made his debut against Estonia in May 2004. He qualified to play for Scotland, due to having a grandfather from Scotland. Subsequently Coatbridge born Chris Iwelumo (black father from Nigeria), has also played for Scotland. Other notable Scottish players with black heritage include: