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Black Hand extortion was a criminal tactic used by gangsters based in major cities, in the United States. In Chicago Black Hand extortion began around 1900 and had all but faded away by 1920, and the "Mafia" replaced it. The Mafia was initially organized by Johnny Torrio, and somewhat organized by Al Capone. Black Handers in Chicago were mostly Italian men from Calabria and Sicilian men who would send anonymous extortion notes to their victims emblazoned with a feared old country symbol: the "Black Hand". The Black Hand was a precursor to organized crime (Mafia); although it is still a tactic practiced by the Mafia and is still used in organized crime. Black Hand blackmail was also common in New York and New Orleans. Victims would pay up, or be beaten, shot, or have their place of business bombed. The Black Hand was causing difficulties for mob boss Big Jim Colosimo a former Black hand gangster and owner of brothels throughout Chicago, it was a problem that brought Johnny Torrio to Chicago, a member of New York’s Five Points Gang who became the famous successor of Big Jim Colosimo. Johnny Torrio preceded and mentored Al Capone as the organized crime ruler of Chicago. Torrio came to Chicago to fix the problem of the Black Hand; it was certainly an ironic one: Colosimo's life was being threatened by Black Hand gangsters who demanded cash to insure his physical safety.
The notorious Johnny Torrio (January 20, 1882 – April 16, 1957), also known as "The Fox", was born Giovanni Torrio in Orsara di Puglia, a village in south central Italy, was alleged to have killed ten Black Hand gangsters in his first two months in Chicago. Of the ten men he was alleged to have killed, Filippo Catalano was one of them.
Filippo Catalano was an alleged Black Hand gangster in Chicago in the early 1900s (decade). He was born in 1875, in Gioia Tauro, a coastal village in Southern Italy, in the region of Calabria,and he died on 5 June 1910, in Chicago, Illinois, from five gunshot wounds he received that evening. Catalano came to the United States and eventually he owned and operated a saloon in Chicago and was connected to the Chicago criminal night life. It was said of Catalano that he was "hated and feared by his countrymen" in the Italian Colony according to Capt. Cudmore of the Chicago police third precinct and the central detail as the investigator of his murder. Filippo Catalano was shot five times and died one hour later in the People's Hospital, before he died observing the gangland principle of omertà (total silence) Catalano never mentioned the name of his assailant, this was common for Italian/Sicilian men not to identify their assailant to the police. Filippo Catalano was allegedly killed by Johnny Torrio. Although a subsequent investigation turned up the name Eugeno Monaco who may have been the triggerman working for Torrio.
One of the stories of assassination was told in the murder of Filippo Catalano, Catalano was in the Vesuvius restaurant a restaurant frequented by Chicago's night life. On the night of June 5, 1910 as Catalano walked out from the restaurant at approx. 3 a.m. in the company of Edgar K Accetta a New York Lawyer, who was in town on business, and a third man who was later identified as the person who shot Catalano, allegedly Eugeno Monaco an Italian man, the three men were walking towards an approaching car when Monaco allegedly drew a revolver and shot Catalano five times. In an incident involving Catalano on March 27, Catalano was alleged to have shot John Jocko in front of 1821 South State Street witnesses identified Catalano as the shooter, the victim survived the shooting and would not prosecute, at that time Catalano was released. Catalano's killer escaped fleeing on foot and was traced to the Rock Island Pacific Railroad tracks where he disappeared. Filippo Catalano fits in the time period where Johnny Torrio came to Chicago to assassinate Chicago Black Hand Gangsters who was extorting his Uncle from 1909 to 1911, by 1920 Black Hand activity had all but faded. Johnny Torrio then went on to run and organize The Chicago Outfit.
Robert M. Lombardo argues that "Black Hand crime actually evolved as the result of social conditions within American society such as the isolation of the Italian community, political corruption, and an ineffective criminal justice system."