This page uses content from Wikipedia and is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Bismuth pentafluoride

Bismuth pentafluoride
Bismuth-pentafluoride-chains-from-xtal-1971-3D-balls.png
Bismuth-pentafluoride-chains-from-xtal-1971-3D-SF.png
Names
Other names
bismuth(V) fluoride
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.029.205
Properties
BiF5
Molar mass 303.97 g mol−1
Appearance long white needles,[1] colourless crystalline solid[2]
Density 5.40 g cm−3[1]
Melting point 151.4 °C (304.5 °F; 424.5 K) ,[2] 154.4 °C[1]
Boiling point 230 °C (446 °F; 503 K)[1][2]
Structure
octahedral Bi
Hazards
NFPA 704
Related compounds
Other anions
bismuth trichloride, bismuth tribromide, bismuth triiodide, pentamethylbismuth
Other cations
phosphorus pentafluoride, arsenic pentafluoride, antimony pentafluoride
Related compounds
bismuth trifluoride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Bismuth pentafluoride is an inorganic compound with the formula BiF5. It is a white solid that is highly reactive. The compound is of interest to researchers but not of particular value.

Structure

BiF5 is polymeric and consists of linear chains of trans-bridged corner sharing BiF6 octahedra.[1][3] This is the same structure as α-UF5.[1]

Bismuth-pentafluoride-chain-from-xtal-1971-3D-balls.png
Bismuth-pentafluoride-chain-from-xtal-1971-3D-SF.png
Bismuth-pentafluoride-chain-packing-from-xtal-1971-3D-balls.png Bismuth-pentafluoride-chain-packing-from-xtal-1971-3D-SF.png
(BiF5) chain
packing of chains

Preparation

BiF5 can be prepared by treating BiF3 with F2 at 500 °C.[2]

BiF3 + F2 → BiF5

In an alternative synthesis, ClF3 is the fluorinating agent at 350 °C.[4]

BiF3 + ClF3 → BiF5 + ClF

Reactions

Bismuth pentafluoride is the most reactive of the pnictogen pentafluorides and is an extremely strong fluorinating agent. It reacts vigorously with water to form ozone and oxygen difluoride, and with iodine or sulfur at room temperature. BiF5 fluorinates paraffin oil (hydrocarbons) to fluorocarbons above 50 °C and oxidises UF4 to UF6 at 150 °C. At 180 °C, bismuth pentafluoride fluorinates Br2 to BrF3 and Cl2 to ClF.[1]

BiF5 also reacts with alkali metal fluorides, MF, to form hexafluorobismuthates, M[BiF6], containing the hexafluorobismuthate anion, [BiF6].[2]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 561–563. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8.
  2. ^ a b c d e Holleman, Arnold Frederik; Wiberg, Egon (2001), Wiberg, Nils (ed.), Inorganic Chemistry, translated by Eagleson, Mary; Brewer, William, San Diego/Berlin: Academic Press/De Gruyter, pp. 769–770, ISBN 0-12-352651-5
  3. ^ C. Hebecker (1971). "Zur Kristallstruktur von Wismutpentafluorid". Z. anorg. allg. Chem. 384 (2): 111–114. doi:10.1002/zaac.19713840204.
  4. ^ A. I. Popov; A. V. Scharabarin; V. F. Sukhoverkhov; N. A. Tchumaevsky (1989). "Synthesis and properties of pentavalent antimony and bismuth fluorides". Z. anorg. allg. Chem. 576 (1): 242–254. doi:10.1002/zaac.19895760128.