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International logo of Big Brother
|Created by||John de Mol Jr.|
|Original work||Big Brother (Netherlands)|
|Films and television|
|Television series||Big Brother (independent international versions, see below and special editions)|
Celebrity/VIP Big Brother
|First aired||16 September 1999|
|Based on||Nineteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell|
Big Brother is a Dutch reality competition television franchise created by John de Mol Jr., broadcast in the Netherlands and subsequently syndicated internationally. As of 26 November 2018[update], there have been 445 seasons of Big Brother in over 54 franchise countries and regions.
In the show, contestants called "housemates" (or "HouseGuests") live together in a specially-constructed house that is isolated from the outside world. Housemates are voted out (usually on a weekly basis) until only one remains and wins the cash prize. During their stay in the house, contestants are continuously monitored by live television cameras as well as personal audio microphones.
English-language editions of the program are often referred to as "BB". Many Spanish-language editions of the program are called Gran Hermano (GH).
At regular intervals, the housemates privately nominate a number of their fellow housemates whom they wish to be evicted from the house. The housemates with the most nominations are then announced, and viewers are given the opportunity to vote via telephone for the nominee they wish to be evicted or saved from eviction. The last person remaining is declared the winner.
Some more recent editions have since included additional methods of voting, such as voting through social media and smartphone applications. Occasionally, non-standard votes occur, where two houseguests are evicted at once or no one is voted out. In the earlier series of Big Brother, there were 10 contestants with evictions every two weeks. However, the UK version introduced a larger number of contestants with weekly evictions. Most versions of Big Brother follow the weekly eviction format, broadcast over approximately three months for 16 contestants.
The contestants are required to do housework and are assigned tasks by the producers of the show (who communicate with the housemates via the omnipresent authority figure known to them only as "Big Brother"). The tasks are designed to test their teamwork abilities and community spirit. In some countries, the housemates' shopping budget or weekly allowance (to buy food and other essentials) depends on the outcome of assigned tasks.
The term Big Brother originates from George Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four, with its theme of continuous oppressive surveillance. The program also relies on other techniques, such as a stripped back-to-basic environment, evictions, weekly tasks and competitions set by Big Brother, and the "Diary Room" (or "Confession Room") where housemates convey their private thoughts to the camera and reveal their nominees for eviction.
The first version of Big Brother was broadcast in 1999 on Veronica in the Netherlands. In the first season of Big Brother, the house was very basic. Although essential amenities such as running water, furniture and a limited ration of food were provided, luxury items were often forbidden. This added a survivalist element to the show, increasing the potential for social tension. Nearly all later series provide a modern house for the contest with a jacuzzi, sauna, VIP suite, loft and other luxuries.
The format has become an international TV franchise. While each country or region has its own variation, the common theme is that the contestants are confined to the house and have their every action recorded by cameras and microphones, and that no contact with the outside world is permitted.
Most international versions of the show remain quite similar to each other: their main format remains true to the original fly on the wall observational style with the emphasis on human relationships, to the extent that contestants usually are forbidden from discussing nominations or voting strategy. In 2001, the US version adopted a different format during its second season, where the contestants are encouraged to strategize to advance in the game; in this format the contestants themselves vote to evict each other. In 2011, the UK version controversially adapted the discussion of nominations before reversing this rule after a poll by Big Brother broadcaster Channel 5.
From a sociological and demographic perspective, Big Brother allows an analysis of how people react when forced into close confinement with people outside of their comfort zone (having different opinions or ideals, or from a different socioeconomic group). The viewer has the opportunity to see how a person reacts from the outside (through the constant recording of their actions) and the inside (in the Diary or Confession Room). The Diary Room is where contestants can privately express their feelings about the game, strategy and the other contestants. The results range from violent or angry confrontations to genuine and tender connections (often including romantic interludes).
The show is notable for involving the Internet. Although the show typically broadcasts daily updates during the evening (sometimes criticized by viewers and former contestants for heavy editing by producers), viewers can also watch a continuous feed from multiple cameras on the Web in most countries. These websites were successful, even after some national series began charging for access to the video stream. In some countries, Internet broadcasting was supplemented by updates via email, WAP and SMS. The house is shown live on satellite television, although in some countries there is a 10–15 minute delay to allow libelous or unacceptable content (such as references to people not participating in the program who have not consented to having personal information broadcast) to be removed.
Contestants occasionally develop sexual relationships; the level of sexual explicitness allowed to be shown in broadcast and Internet-feed varies according to the country's broadcasting standards.
Big Brother contestants are isolated in the house, without access to television, radio or the Internet. They are not permitted routine communication with the outside world. This was an important issue for most earlier series of the show. In more-recent series, contestants are occasionally allowed to view televised events (usually as a reward for winning at a task). In most versions of the program, books and writing materials are also forbidden, although exceptions are sometimes made for religious materials such as the Bible, Tanakh or the Qur'an. Some versions ban all writing implements, even items that can be used to write (such as lipstick or eyeliner). Despite the housemates' isolation, some contestants are occasionally allowed to leave the house as part of tasks. Contestants are permitted to leave the house in an emergency.
Contestants have regularly-scheduled interactions with the show's host on eviction nights. Throughout each day, the program's producer, in the "Big Brother" voice, issues directives and commands to contestants. Some versions of the show allow private counseling sessions with a psychologist. These are allowed at any time, and are often conducted by telephone from the Diary Room.
Due to the intelligibility of certain languages across several nations, it has been possible to make regional versions of Big Brother. All of these follow the normal Big Brother rules, except that contestants must come from each of the countries in the region where it airs: Big Brother Albania of Albania and Kosovo, Big Brother Angola e Moçambique of Angola and Mozambique, Big Brother Africa of Africa (includes Angola, Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe), Big Brother: الرئيس of the Middle East (includes Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Syria and Tunisia), Gran Hermano del Pacífico of South America (includes Chile, Ecuador and Peru), Big Brother of Scandinavia (includes Norway and Sweden) and Veliki brat of the Balkans (includes Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia). The British version of the show accepts Irish applicants and was available between 2000 and 2010 as Channel 4 was available; as of 2015[update] the show returned to Irish screens as TV3 bought the rights from UK broadcaster Channel 5 to air the show.
On the other hand, some countries have multiple franchises based on language. India has the most regional based versions Hindi, Marathi, Telugu, Bengali, Tamil, Kannada and Malyalam language versions; Canada has French- and English-language versions; and the United States has English- and Spanish-language versions of the show.
In 2001, Big Brother 3 of the Netherlands introduced the "Rich and Poor" concept, wherein the house is separated into a luxurious half and a poor half and two teams of housemates compete for a place in the luxurious half. The Dutch version continued this concept until its fourth season. Other versions later followed and introduced a similar concept, of which some have their own twists: Africa (in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013), Albania (in 2010), Australia (in 2003 and 2013), Balkan States (in VIP 2010 and 2011), Brazil (in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2013 and 2014), Canada (2013–present), Denmark (in 2003), Finland (in 2009 and 2014), France (in 2009, 2011–present), Germany (in 2003, 2004–05, 2005–06, 2008 and 2008–09), Greece (in 2003), India (in 2012 and 2013), Israel (in 2009), Italy (in 2006 and 2007), Norway (in 2003), Philippines (in 2009, Teen 2010 and 2011), Poland (in 2002), Portugal (in VIP 2013 and 2016), Slovakia (in 2005), Slovenia (in 2008, 2015 and 2016), Scandinavia (in 2005), South Africa (in 2014), Spain (in VIP 2004, 2008, 2009–10 and 2010), United Kingdom (in 2002, Celebrity 2007, 2008, Celebrity 2013 and 2016) and United States (2009–present).
In 2011–12, the seventh Argentine series added La Casa de al Lado ("The House Next Door"), a smaller, more luxurious house which served multiple functions. The first week it hosted 4 potential housemates, and the public voted for two of them to enter the main house. The second week, two pairs of twins competed in the same fashion, with only one pair allowed in. Later, the 3rd, 4th and 5th evicted contestants were given the choice of staying on their way out and they competed for the public's vote to reenter the house. Months later, after one of the contestants left the house voluntarily, the House Next Door reopened for four contestants who wanted to reenter and had not been in such a playoff before. The House Next Door was also used in other occasions to accommodate contestants from the main house for limited periods of time, especially to have more privacy (which of course could be seen by the public).
The ninth Brazilian season featured the "Bubble": a glass house in a shopping mall in Rio de Janeiro where four potential housemates lived for a week. Later in the season a bubble was built inside the Big Brother house, with another two housemates living in it for a week until they were voted in and the glass house dismantled. The Glass House was reused in the eleventh season, featuring five evicted housemates competing for a chance to join the house again, and in the thirteenth season, with six potential housemates competing for two places in the main house. A dividing wall from the ninth season was reused in the fourteenth Brazilian season, when mothers and aunts of the housemates entered for International Women's Day and stayed in the house for 6 days, though they could not be seen by the housemates.
In the fourth English-Canadian season, two house guests were evicted and moved into a special suite where they were able to watch the remaining house guests. A week later, the house guests were required to unanimously decide which of them to bring back into the house.
In 2004, the fifth UK series introduced a villainous Big Brother with harsher punishments, such as taking away prize money, more difficult tasks and secret tricks. This concept has also been used in Australia, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Finland, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, South America,[clarification needed] Scandinavia,[clarification needed] Serbia, Spain, Thailand, Philippines and Mexico.
In 2004, the fifth US season introduced twins who were tasked with secretly switching back and forth in the house; they were allowed to play the game as individual house guests after succeeding at the deception for five weeks. This twist was reused in the seventeenth US season with an easier task of successfully changing places for five weeks without being evicted.
This twin or triplet twist was used in several countries. Some made modifications to this twist; others have had twins in the house together without this element of secrecy. The following are the countries that have featured twins or triplets: Australia (in 2005), Germany (in 2005–06), Bulgaria (in 2006, 2012 and VIP 2017), United Kingdom (in 2007, Celebrity 2011, Celebrity 2012, 2013, 2015, 2016 and Celebrity 2017), France (in 2007, 2011, 2013, 2015 and 2016), Spain (in 2007 and 2013), Poland (in 2007), India (in 2008), Africa (in 2009), Balkan Region (in 2009 and 2013), Philippines (in 2009, Teen 2012 and 2014), Portugal (in 2010 and 2012), Israel (in 2011), Ukraine (in 2011), Argentina (in 2011 and 2016) and Albania (in 2013).
Several versions of the program feature variations of the housemates competing in pairs:
Secret missions are a common element of the show since their introduction during the sixth UK series. During these missions, one or more housemates are set a task from Big Brother with the reward of luxuries for the household and/or a personal reward if the task is successful. Some versions of Big Brother have secret tasks presented by another character who lives in plain sight of the housemate. Such characters include Marsha the Moose (from BB Canada) and Surly the Fish (from BB Australia).
The eighth US season introduced "America's Player", where a selected house guest must complete various tasks (determined by public vote) in secret for the duration of their stay in the house in exchange for a cash reward. It was repeated in the tenth US season for a week. The eleventh US season featured Pandora's Box, in which the winning head of household was tempted to open a box, with unintended consequences for the house. The twelfth US season featured a saboteur, who entered the house to wreak havoc with tasks suggested by viewers. The sixteenth US season featured "Team America", in which 3 houseguests were selected to work as a team to complete tasks (determined by public voting) for a cash reward; this continued for the entire season despite the eviction of a team member.
The fourth Argentine series added a telephone in the living room. This telephone rang once a week for ten seconds, and the person to pick up the receiver was given an order or news from Big Brother (which typically no other housemate could hear). The order could be beneficial or detrimental, but a refused order resulted in nomination for eviction. If nobody picked up the call, the whole house would be nominated for eviction.
Since Big Brother 2, the UK series has opened with a twist. This has included having three finalists (Big Brother 2); public voting for least-favourite housemates, with the housemates choosing between two nominees to evict (Big Brother 3); first-night nominations (Big Brother 4); suitcase nominations (Big Brother 5); Unlucky Housemate 13 (Big Brother 6); Big Brother Hood (Big Brother 7); an all-female house and a set of twins as contestants (Big Brother 8); a couple entering as housemates, who must hide their relationship (Big Brother 9); housemates having to earn housemate status (Big Brother 10); a mole entering the house with an impossible task (Big Brother 11); Pamela Anderson entering as a guest for 5 days (Big Brother 12); first-night nominations and a public vote for a wildcard to become a housemate (Big Brother 13); a professional actor posing as a housemate and a mother and daughter as contestants (Big Brother 14); one contestant gets a pass to the final (Big Brother 15); first night eviction (Big Brother 16); two houses with "the other house" featuring enemies from the main house housemates past (Big Brother 17); Jackie Stallone entering a house containing her son's ex-wife Brigitte Nielsen (Celebrity Big Brother 3); a non-celebrity in a celebrity edition (Celebrity Big Brother 4); a visit from Jade Goody's family (Celebrity Big Brother 5) and unlocked bedrooms allowing housemates to immediately claim beds with the last housemate becoming the Head of House (Celebrity Big Brother 6).
A common opening twist is to only introduce cast of a single sex on the premiere of the show while having members of the opposite sex introduced over the next few days. The eighth UK series first used this twist with an initial all-female house, adding a male housemate two days later. The same twist was used in the (fourth Bulgarian series), and an all-male premiere was used on Big Brother Africa 4.
The fifth UK series introduced fake evictions, where Big Brother misleads housemates that an eviction has taken place, only for the "evicted" housemate to reenter the house sometime later.
In the eighth UK series one housemate was evicted, interviewed and sent back into the house.
In the fifth Philippine edition, four housemates were fake-evicted and stayed in a place called bodega.
In the tenth Australian season, Benjamin Zabel was fake-evicted for 24 hours before being returned to the house with immunity from eviction for that week. In the eleventh Australian season Travis Lunardi was fake-evicted and received advice from Benjamin Zabel for 24 hours; Travis returned to the house after a 3-day absence with immunity from eviction for that week.
In the thirteenth Brazilian series, Anamara Barreira was fake-evicted. She was removed and put into a small private apartment without the other housemates knowing she was still in the house. After 24 hours, she returned to the house as Head of Household and with immunity from eviction that week. In the sixteenth Brazilian series, Ana Paula Renault was similarly fake-evicted, put into a small private apartment, and returned after 48 hours with immunity from eviction that week. In the eighteen Brazilian series, Gleici Damasceno was similarly fake-evicted, put into a small private apartment, and returned after 72 hours with immunity from eviction and with the power to put someone to eviction.
In the first Turkish series, there is a fake eviction in week 10.
The Indian version Bigg Boss sees frequent fake evictions.
The fourteenth US season had four house guests from past seasons return to coach twelve new house guests, playing for a separate prize of $100,000. However, in a reset twist, they opted to join the normal game alongside the other house guests.
The seventh Argentine series incorporated a red button into the Confession Room, which would sound an alarm throughout the house. This button was to be used when a contestant wanted to leave the house voluntarily, and the contestant would be given five minutes to leave the house. A red button is also used in Secret Story series, however in this case whoever presses the button will try to guess someone's secret.
In Celebrity Hijack UK, evicted housemates were given the opportunity to choose if a "ninja" delivered good or bad gifts to the house. Later that year, the eighth Australian series introduced the Housemate Hand Grenade, where an evicted housemate decided which remaining housemate received a penalty. A similar punishment used on Big Brother Africa was called the Molotov Cocktail, Dagger or Fuse.
The fifteenth US season allowed viewers to vote for a house guest to be made M.V.P., who then secretly nominates a third house guest for eviction (in addition to the two selected by the Head of Household).
In a further twist introduced part-way through the MVP twist, the viewers themselves decided who the third nominee would be, with the HouseGuests still thinking one of their own is the MVP. Like many such twists, this was ended halfway into the season as the pool of contestants shrank.
The sixteenth US season and seventeenth US season featured two Heads of Household every week and had four house guests nominated for eviction. There was also a "Battle of the Block" competition where the two sets of nominees competed to save themselves; the winning pair not only saved themselves but dethroned the Head of Household who nominated them, who was then vulnerable as a replacement nominee if a veto was used. It was also used on Big Brother Brasil 16, Big Brother Brasil 17 and Big Brother Brasil 18 where the HOH's had to nominate one person and they had to choose between 10 thousand dollars or immunity.
In 2011, Big Brother Africa (season 6) was the first season of Big Brother to have two winners, each getting US$200,000. In 2015, the sixth Philippine season, also had two winners; one from the teens and one from the regular adults. Each of which received PHP1,000,000.
Bigg Boss 8 (India) ended with a twist, where the top five contestants were crowned 'champions'. The season was extended by 35 days (total 135) as a spin off called Bigg Boss: Halla Bol, where ex contestants from previous seasons entered the house to compete with the five champions.
In 2016, on season 4 of Big Brother Canada brothers Nick and Phil Paquette won the season, playing together as one.
The fourth Philippine season introduced reserved housemates, short-listed auditioners who were given a chance to be a housemate by completing tasks assigned by Big Brother. This was also done in Argentina's seventh season and Brazil's ninth season.
In 2002, the Mexican and Spanish editions (BBM1 and GH3) made temporary housemate exchanges. Mexico's Eduardo Orozco swapped with Spain's Andrés Barreiro for 7 days. In 2010, the first 2-housemate exchange was held by Spain and Italy (GH11 and GF10). Gerardo Prager and Saray Pereira from Spain were swapped with Carmela Gualtieri and Massimo Scattarella of Italy for 7 days.
In later years, several housemate exchanges were done around the world: Argentina (GH3) and Spain (GH4), Ecuador (GH1) and Mexico (BBM2), and Africa (BBA1) and United Kingdom (BB4) in 2003; Scandinavia (BB2) and Thailand (BBT2) in 2006; Philippines (PBB2) and Slovenia (BB1), and Argentina (GH5) and Spain (GH9) in 2007; Africa (BBA3) and Finland (BB4) in 2008; Finland (BB5) and Philippines (PBB3) in 2009; Finland (BB6) and Slovenia (BBS1) in 2010; Spain (GH12) and Israel (HH3) in 2010–11; Finland (BB7) and Norway (BB4) in 2011; Argentina (GH7) and Israel (HH4) in 2012; and Mexico (BB4) and Spain (GH16) in 2015; Spain (GHVIP5) and Brazil (BBB17) in 2017.
In 2003, Mexico's Isabel Madow (BB VIP2) and Spain's Aída Nízar (GH5) were swapped for 7 days. This twist was also done between Russia (BBR1) and Pacific (GHP1) in 2005, and Argentina (GH4) and Brazil (BBB7) in 2007.
In 2012, four contestants from Denmark's BB4 visited Sweden's BB6 and competed in a Viking-themed challenge. The Danish team won and 'kidnapped' Swedish contestant Annica Englund to the Denmark house for the following week.
In 2012, evicted housemate Laisa Portella of Brazil (from BBB12) was a guest on Spain's Gran Hermano 13 for a week; the following week, non-evicted Noemí Merino of GH13 stayed in the Brazilian Big Brother house for 5 days.
In 2016, Big Brother UK housemate Nikki Grahame and Big Brother Australia housemate Tim Dormer were voted in by Canada to be houseguests on the 4th season of Big Brother Canada. Similarly, Big Brother UK housemate Jade Goody appeared as a housemate on Bigg Boss India.
Big Brother Australia (2015) contestant Priya Malik joined Bigg Boss 9 (India) the same year as a wild card.
Anouska Golebiewski, an evicted housemate from the United Kingdom (housemate from BB4) visited Australia (BB3) in 2003. In 2005, United Kingdom (Nadia Almada of BB5) visited Australia (BB5) again. In 2006, United Kingdom (Chantelle Houghton of CBB4) visited Germany (BBG6). This twist was used in later years by other countries: Africa (Ricardo Ferreira of BBA3) visited Brazil (BBB9) in 2009; Germany (Annina Ucatis and Sascha Schwan of BBG9) visited the Philippines (PBB3), and Italy (George Leonard and Veronica Ciardi of GF10) visited Albania (BB3) in 2010; Sweden (Martin Granetoft and Peter OrrmyrSara Jonsson of BB5) visited Norway (BB4) in 2011; Brazil (Rafael Cordeiro of BBB12) visited Spain (GH12), and Argentina (Agustín Belforte of GH4) visited Colombia (GH2) in 2012; United States (Dan Gheesling of BB10/BB14) visited Canada (BB1 and the BB2 Jury) in 2013; Canada (Emmett Blois of BB1) visited South Africa (BBM3) in 2014; and Spain (Paula Gonzalez of GH 15) visited Mexico (BBM4) in 2015.
A similar event took place between the United States and Canada in 2014 wherein Rachel Reilly (from BB12/BB13) made a video chat to Canada (BB2). Rachel Reilly also appeared on Big Brother Canada's side show, which airs after the eviction episode.
There were occasions that a former housemate from one franchise participated and competed in a different franchise: Daniela Martins of France (SS3) competed in Portugal (SS1); Daniel Mkongo of France (SS5) competed in Italy (GF12); Brigitte Nielsen of Denmark (BB VIP) competed in the United Kingdom (CBB3); Jade Goody of the United Kingdom (BB3, BB Panto, and CBB5) competed in India (BB2); Sava Radović of Germany (BB4) competed in the Balkan States (VB1); Nikola Nasteski of the Balkan States (VB4) competed in Bulgaria (BB All-Stars 1); Žarko Stojanović of France (SS5) competed in the Balkan States (VB VIP5); Željko Stojanović of France (SS5) competed in the Balkan States (VB VIP5); Kelly Baron of Brazil (BBB13) competed in Portugal (BB VIP); Lucy Diakovska of Bulgaria (VIP B4) competed in Germany (PBB1); Leila Ben Khalifa of Italy (GF6) competed in France (SS8); Priya Malik of Australia (BB11) competed in India (BB9); Tim Dormer of Australia (BB10) and Nikki Grahame of the United Kingdom (BB7, UBB) competed in Canada (BB4); Leonel Estevao-Luto of Africa (BB4) competed in Angola & Mozambique (BB3); Frankie Grande of the United States (BB16) competed in the United Kingdom (CBB18); Fanny Rodrigues of Portugal (SS2) competed in France (SS10); and Tucha Anita of Angola (BB3); Amor Romeira of Spain (GH9) competed in Portugal (SS6) and Alain Rochette of Spain (GH17) competed in France (SS11); Despite being American, Brandi Glanville competed first in the United Kingdom (CBB20) then later competed in first Celebrity series in the United States (CBB1); Aída Nizar of Spain (GH5 and GHVIP5) competed in Italy (GF15).
|Team and Song||Jury's points||Dates||Winner|
|GH12: "A-Ba-Ni-Bi"||12||12||12||36||30 Dec 2010 to 4 Jan 2011||5 Jan 2011||6 Jan 2011||7 Jan 2011||8 Jan 2011||GH12|
| BB10 Germany
BB11 United Kingdom
|A screening of the 2010 FIFA World Cup (Round of 16) Germany vs. England game||After five penalties, the score was 1–1 and the game went to sudden death. After 36 penalties, German housemate Robert shot the ball wide and UK housemate Ife scored, winning 2–1.||BB11||26 June 2010|
The Big Brother format has been adapted in some countries; the housemates are local celebrities, and the shows are called Celebrity Big Brother or Big Brother VIP. In some countries, the prize money normally awarded to the winning housemate is donated to a charity, and all celebrities are paid to appear in the show as long as they do not voluntarily leave before their eviction or the end of the series. The rest of the rules are nearly the same as those of the original version.
The 2006 Netherlands series was entitled Hotel Big Brother. This variation introduced a group of celebrity hoteliers and a Big Boss, who run a hotel and collect money for charity without nominations, evictions or a winner.
Another variation appeared in the UK in early 2008, entitled Big Brother: Celebrity Hijack. Instead of being housemates the celebrities became Big Brother himself, creating tasks and holding nominations with the help of Big Brother. The housemates were considered by the producers "Britain's most exceptional and extraordinary" 18- to 21-year-olds. The prize for the winner of the series was £50,000.
In 2009, VIP Brother 3 Bulgaria introduced the concept of celebrities competing for charitable causes, which changed each week. Housemates were sometimes allowed to leave the house to raise money for the charity. Nine out of ten seasons of Bigg Boss (the Indian version of Big Brother) have been celebrity-only seasons. The 10th season of Big Boss had celebrities put up against commoners, where a commoner ultimately won.
The US and Canadian versions of Big Brother differ from most global versions of the series. The US series began in 2000 with the original Dutch format—i.e., housemates, or HouseGuests, as they are styled in the US, nominating each other for eviction and the public voting on evictions and the eventual winner. But due to both poor ratings and the concurrent popularity of Survivor, a gameplay-oriented format was introduced in the second season, with HouseGuests encouraged to openly strategize and form alliances to survive eviction, with evictions being determined by the HouseGuests themselves.
In this format, HouseGuests vote each other out and choose the winner. Each week, one HouseGuest is chosen (usually by competition) as the Head of Household (HoH), who sleeps in a luxurious bedroom and nominates two fellow HouseGuests for eviction in a formal Nomination Ceremony. HoH also chooses Haves, who enjoy luxury foods and other special privileges, and Have-Nots, who must eat "slop" (a fortified oatmeal), sleep in designated uncomfortable beds, and take cold showers. Before the sixteenth US season, HouseGuests competed in a Have/Have-Not challenge similar to the shopping tasks on Big Brother UK and other international editions.
The winner of the Power of Veto (PoV), introduced in the third US season, has the option to save one nominee (including him/herself) from eviction, forcing the HoH to nominate another HouseGuest in the former nominee's place. The HouseGuests then vote to evict one of the nominees. When only two contestants remain, a jury formed of the most recently evicted HouseGuests (generally seven or nine) votes which of the two finalists wins the grand prize. Beginning in the fourth (2003) US season, jury members were sequestered off-site so that they would not be privy to the day-to-day goings-on in the house.
In 2013, English-speaking Canada introduced its own version of the show on the cable channel Slice; the series moved to Global TV for its third (2015) season. The show followed the US format, but with more elaborate twists and greater viewer participation in the game. Secret tasks were introduced, usually presented by the show's mascot, "Marsha the Moose"; also, as in most global franchises, Big Brother was a distinct character who interacted with the HouseGuests. The French Canadian version mostly followed the US/Anglophone Canadian format, but the public could evict a housemate on some occasions and decided the winner.
Big Brother Brasil combines the US/Canada and international formats. Brazil votes on evictions and the winner, but housemates compete for HoH, Power of Immunity, and Haves/Have-Nots. HoH nominates one housemate for eviction, while the rest of the house nominates a second housemate. Power of Immunity is similar to the US/Canada PoV, with the winner getting to choose not only someone to "take off the block" but also someone to punish.
The pilot for Big Brother China, which premiered exclusively online in 2015, had housemates voting on evictions but the public voting for the winner. The same format was used for Big Brother: Over the Top, an online-only spinoff of the US series that ran in 2016.
The Big Brother format has been otherwise modified in some countries:
There are also "test runs", with a group of celebrities (or journalists) living in the house for several days to test it. There are occasions where people who have auditioned for the show are also put in the house, most notably in the British edition, where many housemates claim to have met before. These series have been televised in Argentina, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Mexico, the Pacific region, the Philippines and Spain. In some cases, it is not broadcast, but in others, such as the US edition, it is used as a promotional tool.
As of 5 November 2018, Big Brother has produced 427 winners in over 54 franchises.
|Big Brother Africa||M-Net
|Big Brother Albania||Top Channel
|Big Brother VIP||
|Big Brother Angola||DStv|
|Big Brother Angola e Moçambique||Season 3, 2016: Anderson Mistake & Papetchulo|
|Big Brother: الرئيس
Big Brother: The Boss
|MBC 2||Season 1, 2004: Discontinued||Razan Moughrabi|
DirecTV (live;1–3, 6–8)
Cablevisión (live; 4–5, 8)
|Gran Hermano Famosos||Telefe
|Australia||Big Brother Australia||Network Ten
TV2 (1–3, 5)
|Gretel Killeen (1–7)|
Kyle Sandilands (8)
Jackie O (8)
|Celebrity Big Brother||Network Ten||Season 1, 2002: Dylan Lewis||Gretel Killeen|
|Veliki Brat – Big Brother|| RTL (4–5)
B92 (1–3, 5)
Pink BH (1–4)
Pink M (1–4)
|Veliki Brat VIP|| B92 (1–2, 5)
Pink M (1–4)
Pink BH (1–4)
|Veliki Brat – Generalna proba||B92||Season 1, 2006: Jelena Provči & Marko Miljković||Marijana Mićić|
|Belgium||Big Brother||Kanaal Twee||Walter Grootaers|
|Big Brother VIPs||vtm
|Big Brother All-Stars||Kanaal Twee||Season 1, 2003: Heidi Zutterman||Walter Grootaers|
|Brazil||Big Brother Brasil||Rede Globo
Canal BBB (live on PPV)
|Bulgaria||Big Brother||Nova Television
Nova+ (live; 1–4)
Diema Family (live; 5)
|Big Brother Family||Nova Television
Diema Family (live)
|VIP Brother||Nova Television
Nova+ (live; 1–2)
Diema 2 (live; 3)
Diema Family (live; 4)
|Big Brother All Stars||Nova Television
Diema Family (live; 1)
|Big Brother Canada||Slice||Arisa Cox|
|Loft Story: La Revanche||Season 6, 2009: Sébastien Tremblay||Pierre-Yves Lord|
|Big Brother||V||Season 1, 2010: Vincent Durand Dubé||Chéli Sauvé-Castonguay|
Big Brother China: Pilot Season
|Season 1, 2015–16: Tan Xiangjun||Zhou Wentao (Live Final)|
|Colombia||Gran Hermano||Caracol TV||Season 1, 2003: Mónica Patricia Tejón||Adriana Arango|
|Citytv Bogotá||Season 2, 2012: Diana Hernández||Agmeth Escaf|
|Celebrity Big Brother||Season 1, 2008: Danijela Dvornik||Antonija Blaće|
|Czech Republic||Big Brother||TV NOVA||Season 1, 2005: David Šín|
|Denmark||Big Brother||TV Danmark||Lisbeth Janniche|
The Voice TV (live; 4)
|Big Brother VIP||TV Danmark||Season 1, 2003: Thomas Bickham||Lisbeth Janniche|
|Big Brother Reality All-Stars||Season 1, 2005: Jill Liv Nielsen||Lisbeth Janniche|
|Ecuador||Gran Hermano||Ecuavisa||Season 1, 2003: David Burbano||Toty Rodríguez|
|Jim||Season 10, 2019: Upcoming season ||TBA|
|Julkkis Big Brother||Sub||Season 1, 2013: Jori Kopponen||Mari Sainio|
|France||Loft Story||M6||Benjamin Castaldi|
NT1 (Daily recaps: 9)
CanalSat (live; 1)
|Christophe Beaugrand (9–11) |
Benjamin Castaldi (1–8)
|Celebrity Big Brother||TF1||
|Germany||Big Brother||RTL II
Sky (live; 10–11)
Clipfish (live; 10–11)
Premiere (live; 5–9)
VIVA (5, 9)
Tele 5 (4–6)
MTV2 Pop (4–5)
Single TV (2)
|Promi Big Brother||Sat.1
sixx (2–4, 6)
Bild (live; 4)
Sky (live; 3)
maxdome (live; 2)
Sky (live 3 hours; 1)
Sat.1 emotions (1)
|Big Brother Greece||ANT1|
| Alpha TV
|Big Brother VIP|
|Való Világ powered by Big Brother||RTL II||Puskás Péter (9–)|
Nádai Anikó (8–)
Istenes Bence (6–8)
|SET||Season 1, 2006–07: Rahul Roy||Arshad Warsi|
MTV India (11-12)
Colors TV UK
|Bigg Boss Halla Bol!
|Bigg Boss Kannada
|ETV Kannada||Season 1, 2013: Vijay Raghavendra||Sudeep|
|Suvarna TV||Season 2, 2014: Akul Balaji|
|Colors Kannada (3–4)
Colors Super (4–present)
|Bigg Boss Bangla
|ETV Bangla||Season 1, 2013: Aneek Dhar||Mithun Chakraborty|
|Colors Bangla||Season 2, 2016: Joyjeet Banerjee||Jeet|
|Bigg Boss Tamil
|Star Vijay||Kamal Haasan|
|Bigg Boss Telugu
|Bigg Boss Marathi
|Colors Marathi||Season 1, 2018: Megha Dhade||Mahesh Manjrekar|
|Bigg Boss Malayalam
|Asianet||Season 1, 2018: Sabumon Abdusamad||Mohanlal|
|Indonesia||Big Brother Indonesia||Trans TV||Season 1, 2011: Alan Wangsa|
Channel 26 (live)
|VIP האח הגדול
HaAh HaGadol VIP
Channel 26 (live)
|Italy||Grande Fratello||Canale 5
Italia 1 (Daily recaps; 13–15)
Stream TV (live; 1–3)
SKY (live; 4–5, 8–9)
Mediaset Premium (live; 6–14)
Mediaset Extra (live; 15)
La5 (live; 11–15)
|Grande Fratello VIP||Canale 5
Italia 1 (Daily recaps; 1–3)
Mediaset Extra (live; 1–3)
La5 (live; 1–3)
The House of Secrets
|TV3 Lithuania||Season 1, 2013: Gintautas Katulis|
|Mexico||Big Brother México||Televisa
|Big Brother PM||Canal 5
|Big Brother VIP||Televisa
|Big Brother VIPs||Veronica||Season 1, 2000: No winner||Unknown|
|Talpa||Season 2, 2006: No winner||Caroline Tensen|
|Secret Story||NET 5||Season 1, 2011: Sharon Hooijkaas|
|Nigeria||Big Brother Nigeria||M-Net
|Season 1, 2006: Katung Aduwak|
|Big Brother Naija||GOtv
|TV 2 Bliss||Season 4, 2011: Tine Barstad|
|Gran Hermano del Pacífico|| RedTeleSistema
|Season 1, 2005: Juan Sebastián López|
|Panama||Big Brother Panamá||TVN Canal 2||Season 1, 2016: Katherine Sandoval|
|Peru||La Casa de Los Secretos
The House of Secrets
|Frecuencia Latina||Season 1, 2012: Álvaro de la Torre|
|Philippines||Pinoy Big Brother||ABS-CBN
Studio 23 (live; 1–3)
|Pinoy Big Brother
|Pinoy Big Brother: Celebrity Edition|
|Pinoy Big Brother: Teen Edition|
|Big Brother VIP||TV4||Season 5 (part 1), 2008: Jarek Jakimowicz|
TVI Eventos (live; 1)
|Big Brother Famosos||TVI
TVI Direct (live; VIP)
|Big Brother VIP|
|Secret Story: Casa dos Segredos||TVI
TVI Direct (live; 1–5)
TVI Reality (live; 6–)
|Secret Story: Desafio Final||Teresa Guilherme|
|Secret Story: Luta Pelo Poder||Season 1, 2015: Bruno Sousa|
|Secret Story: O Reencontro||Season 1, 2018: Carina Ferreira||Manuel Luís Goucha|
|Romania||Big Brother||Prima TV|
|TNT||Season 1, 2005: Anastasia Yagaylova||Ingeborga Dapkunaite|
|Scandinavia||Big Brother|| Kanal5
| Kanal 9
|Season 3, 2014: Anders Olsson|
|Second Life||Big Brother Second Life||World Wide Web||Season 1, 2006: Madlen Flint||None|
|Slovakia||Big Brother Súboj||TV Markíza||Season 1, 2005: Richard Tkáč||Zuzana Belohorcová|
|Slovenia||Big Brother||Kanal A|
|Big Brother Slavnih||POP TV||
|South Africa||Big Brother South Africa||M-Net
|Big Brother Mzansi||Lungile Radu|
|Celebrity Big Brother||Season 1, 2002: Bill Flynn|
|Spain||Gran Hermano||Telecinco (Main show and Debate)
Telecinco Estrellas (9)
Telecinco 2 (10)
Be Mad (live; 18)
||Mercedes Milá (1–2, 4–16)|
Pepe Navarro (3)
Jorge Javier Vázquez (17–18)
|Gran Hermano VIP||Telecinco (Main show and Debate)
Be Mad (live; 6)
Jorge Javier Vázquez (6–)
Jesús Vázquez (1–2)
Jordi González (3–5)
|Gran Hermano: El Reencuentro||Telecinco (Main show and Debate)
Digital+ (live; 1)
|Gran Hermano: La Revuelta||Telecinco (Main show and Debate)
|Season 1, 2012: Alessandro Livi||Mercedes Milá|
|Gran Hermano Dúo||Telecinco (Main show and Debate)
Be Mad (live)
|Season 1, 2019: Current season||Jorge Javier Vázquez|
|Sweden||Big Brother||Kanal5||Adam Alsing|
|Big Brother Stjärnveckan||Kanal5||Season 1, 2002: Anki Lundberg||Adam Alsing|
|Switzerland||Big Brother Schweiz||TV3|
|Thailand||Big Brother Thailand||iTV|
|Turkey||Big Brother Türkiye||Star TV||Season 1, 2015–16: Sinan Aydemir||Asuman Krause|
|Ukraine||Big Brother Україна||K1||Season 1, 2011: Khrystyna Kotvytska|
|United Kingdom||Big Brother||Channel 4 and
Virgin Media One (19)
|Celebrity Big Brother||Channel 4 and
BBC One (1)
Virgin Media Two (22)
|Teen Big Brother||Channel 4/E4 and
|Series 1, 2003: Paul Brennan||Dermot O'Leary|
|Big Brother Panto||Series 1, 2004–05: No winner||Jeff Brazier|
|Celebrity Hijack||Series 1, 2008: John Loughton||Dermot O'Leary|
|Ultimate Big Brother||Series 1, 2010: Brian Dowling||Davina McCall|
| United States
Showtime 2 (8–14)
Global Reality Channel
E4 (4, 9)
|Big Brother: All-Stars||Season 7, 2006: Mike Malin|
|Big Brother: Over The Top
|CBS All Access||Season 1, 2016: Morgan Willett|
|Celebrity Big Brother||CBS (1-)
| United States
|Gran Hermano||Telemundo||Season 1, 2016: Pedro Orta||Giselle Blondet|
|Vietnam||Người giấu mặt||VTV6||Season 1, 2013–14: Hoàng Sơn Việt||Huy Khánh|
In April 2000, Castaway, an independent production company, filed a lawsuit against John de Mol and Endemol for stealing the concepts of their own show called Survive!, a reality television show where contestants are placed on a deserted island and have to take care of themselves alone. These contestants were also filmed by cameras around them. The court later dismissed the lawsuit filed by Castaway against de Mol and Endemol. The Survive! reality television format was later turned into Survivor.
In 2000, the estate of George Orwell sued CBS Television and Endemol for copyright and trademark infringement, claiming that the program infringed on the Orwell novel 1984 and its trademarks. After a series of court rulings adverse to the defendants (CBS and Endemol), the case was settled for an undisclosed amount of money on the eve of trial.
There have been two documented occurrences of possible rape happening during the show. In Big Brother South Africa, a male housemate was accused of assaulting a fellow housemate while she was asleep. The pair were filmed kissing and cuddling in bed before the cameras moved away and the male housemate reportedly claimed to housemates the next day that he had intercourse with the contestant. However, the female housemate was apparently shocked by the claims and informed female housemates that she had not consented to having sex with him. (Under South African law, this act would be constituted as rape.) This male housemate was expelled immediately after the allegations surfaced, while the female housemate was removed from the house for her own protection and counselling.
In Big Brother Brasil, many viewers reported that they watched a male housemate allegedly force himself on a female housemate while she was passed-out drunk after a "boozy party". As a result, the male housemate was later escorted out of the Big Brother house by the federal police.