The 3D crystallographic structure (see figure and links to the right) of the β2-adrenergic receptor has been determined by making a fusion protein with lysozyme to increase the hydrophilic surface area of the protein for crystal contacts. An alternative method, involving production of a fusion protein with an agonist, supported lipid-bilayer co-crystallization and generation of a 3.5 Å resolution structure.
This receptor is directly associated with one of its ultimate effectors, the class C L-type calcium channel CaV1.2. This receptor-channel complex is coupled to the GsG protein, which activates adenylyl cyclase, catalysing the formation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) which then activates protein kinase A, and counterbalancing phosphatasePP2A. Protein kinase A then goes on to phosphorylate (and thus inactivate) myosin light-chain kinase, which causes smooth muscle relaxation, accounting for the vasodilatory effects of beta 2 stimulation. The assembly of the signaling complex provides a mechanism that ensures specific and rapid signaling. A two-state biophysical and molecular model has been proposed to account for the pH and REDOX sensitivity of this and other GPCRs.
Beta-2 adrenergic receptors have also been found to couple with Gi, possibly providing a mechanism by which response to ligand is highly localized within cells. In contrast, Beta-1 adrenergic receptors are coupled only to Gs, and stimulation of these results in a more diffuse cellular response. This appears to be mediated by cAMP induced PKA phosphorylation of the receptor.
Actions of the β2 receptor include:
The β2 andrenoreceptor has been correlated with anabolic properties and muscular hypertrophy with usage of agents such as oral clenbuterol as well as intravenous albuterol, though oral albuterol did not generate the same impacts on muscle mass, suggesting that drugs with a short half-life do not maintain sufficient activation to achieve these effects. Long-acting β2 agonists such as clenbuterol (not used clinically in the United States) are frequently abused performance-enhancing drugs for their anabolic, lipolytic, and performance-enhancing effects.. As a result, most of these agents are banned by WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency), though some are permissible under a therapeutic use exemption and are typically monitored for usage in athletes. Clenbuterol remains banned not as a beta-agonist, but rather an anabolic agent.
Subsequent increased pressure-dependent uveoscleral outflow of humour, despite reduced drainage of humour via the Canal of Schlemm.
In glaucoma, drainage is reduced (open-angle glaucoma) or blocked completely (closed-angle glaucoma). In such cases, beta-2 stimulation with its consequent increase in humour production is highly contra-indicated, and conversely, a topical beta-2 antagonist such as timolol may be employed.
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