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Bernard Lugan

Bernard Lugan
Born (1946-05-10) May 10, 1946 (age 74)
Alma materParis Nanterre University
OccupationAfrican history
OrganizationNational Council of European Resistance

Bernard Lugan (born 10 May 1946) is a French historian who specialized in African history. He is a professor at the Institut des Hautes Études de Défense Nationale (IHEDN) and the editor of the journal L'Afrique réelle ("Real Africa"). Lugan previously taught at Jean Moulin University Lyon 3, and at the military school of Saint-Cyr until 2015. He served as an expert witness for Hutu defendants involved in the Rwandan genocide at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. Close to the far-right, Lugan is a self-declared monarchist and right-wing anarchist.

Early life and education

Bernard Lugan was born in Meknes on 10 May 1946.[1] During the May 1968 events, he was the head of Action Française's security personnel.[2][3] Lugan attended Paris X University Nanterre and earned a PhD in history in 1976 after a thesis on Rwandan economy in the 19th century.[4][3]

Academic career

Lugan moved to Africa in the early 1970s where he conducted archaeological research in Rwanda.[1] The results were published in Études Rwandaises and Tervuren between 1978 and 1983.[5] From 1972, he taught African history at the National University of Rwanda.[1][3] In June 1982, Lugan left Rwanda and became an Associate Professor of African history at Jean Moulin University Lyon 3.[6][3]

In 1983, Lugan authored another thesis for a state doctorate, Between the servitudes of the hoe and the spells of the cow: the rural world in ancient Rwanda.[7] In 1988, he received the M. et Mme Louis Marin prize from the Académie Française for his book The French People Who Made South Africa.[8] In September 1993, he founded the review L'Afrique Réelle, which has been described as a supporter of "Boers-Afrikaners" in South Africa.[9] Lugan has also been involved with far-right news outlets like Minute, National-Hebdo [fr] or Présent, which regard him as a specialist of African history.[3] Until 2006, he hosted a talk show on Radio Courtoisie named the Libre Journal.[10]

Lugan served as a Professor at the military school of Saint-Cyr until 2015, when his class was suspended at the request of the French Defence Ministry.[11] He is now teaching at the Institut des Hautes Études de Défense Nationale (IHEDN).[12]

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

Following the Rwandan genocide of 1994, Lugan served an expert witness at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. He was cited by several Hutu defendants ultimately convicted for their involvement in the genocide, including Théoneste Bagosora, Tharcisse Renzaho and Emmanuel Ndindabahizi.[13]

Although he does not deny the existence or downplays the figures of the genocide, Lugan controversially claims that the events were not "programmed" by the Hutu leadership, and that president Juvénal Habyarimana was not assassinated by Hutu extremists.[14][15] In the 1990–2000s, several media and personalities have been condemned for libel for calling Lugan a "genocide denier" or a "supporter of apartheid".[16][17] At the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Senegalese President Abdoulaye Wade publicly labelled Lugan's work a form of "intellectual racism" and accused him of minimizing the contributions of Black people to the history of Africa in his research.[18]

Political involvement

Lugan is a self-declared monarchist.[19] When testifying at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, Lugan admitted that he is a right-wing anarchist, adding: "of musketeer leaning".[20] He is in favour of the re-establishment of dueling for libel and public insult, and founded in 1990 with Vladimir Volkoff an association to promote this agenda.[21][22]

In 2012–2013, Lugan was among the sponsors of TV Libertés, a far-right web TV.[23] In June 2014, he co-founded Institut Iliade with Jean-Yves Le Gallou and Philippe Conrad [fr], a think thank which describes itself "in the continuity of Dominique Venner's thought and action". The organization held a colloquium with Renaud Camus, Charlotte d'Ornellas and Jean Raspail in April 2016.[24] Lugan is also a member of the National Council of European Resistance, launched in November 2017 and presided by Renaud Camus.[25]


Lugan's notable work includes several books on Southern Africa, Morocco and Rwanda including "History of South Africa", When Africa was German [26] and African Legacy, Solutions for a Community in Crisis where he describes how individualism hasn't replaced preexisting loyalties to clans, groups, and tribes.[27]

In this book, he rejects what he calls "the victimization paradigm," which says colonial exploitation and the slave trade brought Africa to its knees, rejects solutions based on Western guilt and claim that a correct interpretation of history is necessary for Africans to "build a future on a more solid foundation" and save an African continent ravaged by famine, economic disaster and civil war. He notably proposes a redrawing of national African frontiers in accordance with ethnic groupings and promotes a new type of democracy, more rooted in those native groupings rather than on Western "one man one vote" system.


  • Le Safari du Kaiser, La Table Ronde, Paris, 1987, 231 p. ISBN 9782710392309
  • Huguenots et Français : ils ont fait l'Afrique du Sud, La Table ronde, Paris, 1988, 296 p.
  • History of South Africa, Garzanti Publishing, 1989, 1st éd. : Perrin, coll. « Vérités et légendes », Paris, 1986, 272 p.
  • Afrique : l'histoire à l'endroit, Perrin, coll. « Vérités et légendes », 1989, 285 p. Rééd. : 1996
  • The Last Boer Commando: A French Volunteer in the Anglo-Boer War, 1900-1902, éd. du Rocher, 1989
  • Villebois-Mareuil, le La Fayette de l'Afrique du Sud, éd. du Rocher, 1990
  • When Africa was German, Jean Picollec, coll. « Documents dossiers », Paris, 1990, 267+16 p. ISBN 2-86477-108-X
  • Afrique, bilan de la décolonisation, 1st éd. : Perrin, coll. « Vérités et légendes », Paris, 1991, 304 p. Rééd. : 1996
  • La Louisiane française : 1682-1804, Perrin, coll. « Vérités et légendes », Paris, 1994, 273 p. Titre alternatif : Histoire de la Louisiane française : 1682-1804
  • Afrique : de la colonisation philanthropique à la recolonisation humanitaire, C. de Bartillat, coll. « Gestes », Étrépilly, 1995, 390 p.
  • The French People Who Made South Africa, Bartillat, coll. « Gestes », Étrépilly, 1996, 430 p. ISBN 2-84100-086-9
  • Histoire du Rwanda : de la préhistoire à nos jours, Bartillat, Paris, 1997, 606 p.
  • La guerre des Boers : 1899-1902, éd. Perrin, Paris, 1998, 364+8 p.
  • History of Morocco, éd. Perrin et éd. Critérion, coll. « Pour l'histoire », Paris, 2000, 363 p.
  • Atlas historique de l'Afrique des origines à nos jours, Éd. du Rocher, Paris, Monaco, 2001 (2nd ed. 2018), 268 p. ISBN 978-2268096445
  • Histoire de l'Égypte, des origines à nos jours, éd. du Rocher, Paris, Monaco, 2002, 290 p. ISBN 978-2268081670
  • Douze années de combats judiciaires (1990-2002), Lyon, Édition de l’Afrique réelle, s.d.
  • African Legacy; Solutions for a Community in Crisis, Carnot, 224p, 2003, ISBN 1-59209-035-4.
  • Rwanda : le génocide, l'Église et la démocratie, éd. du Rocher, Paris et Monaco, 2004, 234 p. ISBN 978-2268050607
  • François Mitterrand, l'armée française et le Rwanda, éd. du Rocher, Paris, Monaco, 2005, 288 p. ISBN 978-2268054155
  • Rwanda. Contre-enquête sur le génocide, éd. Privat, 2007, ISBN 978-2708968752
  • Rwanda : un génocide en questions, Editions du Rocher, 2014, ISBN 978-2-268-07579-2
  • Osons dire la vérité à l'Afrique, Monaco-Paris, France, Éditions du Rocher, 2015, 224 p. ISBN 978-2-268-07740-6
  • Histoire de l'Afrique du Nord (Egypte, Libye, Tunisie, Algérie, Maroc) : Des Origines à nos jours, Éditions du Rocher, 736 p., 2016, ISBN 978-226808-167-0


  1. ^ a b c Moukoko, Pierre E. (2020). Relations Afrique-France : les gâchis français: Plaidoyer pour un changement de paradigme dans la politique africaine de la France. Éditions L'Harmattan. p. 31. ISBN 978-2-343-19375-5.
  2. ^ Lecomte, Louis (14 January 2019). "Bernard Lugan : Afrique adieu". L'Incorrect.
  3. ^ a b c d e Rousso, Henry (2004). Rapport sur le racisme et le négationnisme à Lyon III (PDF) (Report). pp. 71–73.
  4. ^ Newbury, David; Chubaka, Bishikwabo (1980). "Recent Historical Research in the Area of Lake Kivu: Rwanda and Zaire". History in Africa. 7: 23–45. doi:10.2307/3171655. ISSN 0361-5413.
  5. ^ Études Rwandaises (Nov 1978), vol. 10; (Oct 1979), vol. 13; Tervuren (1983), p. 130–136, plates 82–91.
  6. ^ Venner, Fiammetta (2006). Extreme France (in French). Grasset. ISBN 9782246666097.
  7. ^ Twagilimana, Aimable (2007). Historical Dictionary of Rwanda. Scarecrow Press. p. 194. ISBN 9780810864269.
  8. ^ "Prix M. et Mme Louis Marin". Académie française.
  9. ^ Leclercq, Jacques (2008). Dictionnaire de la mouvance droitiste et nationale, de 1945 à nos jours (in French). L'Harmattan. p. 19. ISBN 9782296064768.
  10. ^ "Libre Journal de Bernard Lugan". Radio Courtoisie.
  11. ^ Lugan, Bernard (15 April 2015). "Le blog officiel de Bernard Lugan: A Saint-Cyr, l'Afrique n'est plus au programme..." Le blog officiel de Bernard Lugan.
  12. ^ Dignat, Alban (28 November 2019). "Atlas historique de l'Afrique - Scoop : l'Afrique a une Histoire !". Herodote.
  13. ^ Rugiririza, Ephrem (30 November 2003). "Un historien français affirme que Kigali était ingérable pendant le génocide". JusticeInfo – Hirondelle Foundation (in French).
  14. ^ Dubuc, Bérénice (7 April 2014). "Tensions France-Rwanda: Manque de travail de repentance ou manipulation?". 20 Minutes.
  15. ^ Lugan, Bernard (2014). Rwanda: un génocide en questions. Éditions du Rocher. ISBN 978-2-268-08239-4.
  16. ^ Staff (7 July 2004). "L'africaniste n'était pas révisionniste". 20 Minutes (in French).
  17. ^ Cour de Cassation (30 September 2003), France, Cour de cassation, Chambre criminelle, 30 septembre 2003, 02-87196 (in French), Juricaf
  18. ^ "Le Sécrétaire Général Invite les Chefs d'État et de Gouvernement à Mettre en Place les Structures et la Legislation Adequates pour Prévenir les Discriminations". United Nations. 31 August 2001.
  19. ^ Landrin, Sophie (7 October 2001). "Des africanistes dénoncent la promotion d'un historien de Lyon-III proche de l'extrême droite". Le Monde (in French).
  20. ^ Rugiririza, Ephrem (30 November 2001). "Le Préfet Renzaho n'avait aucun autorité militaire, explique Lugan". JusticeInfo – Hirondelle Foundation (in French).
  21. ^ "Bernard Lugan : pour le rétablissement des duels en matière de presse !". Revue Médias. 2012. Archived from the original on 2014-10-07.
  22. ^ Lugan, Bernard (2012-10-08). "Vive le duel !". Boulevard Voltaire (in French). Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  23. ^ "L'extrême droite à la recherche de fonds". La Lettre A (in French). 24 January 2013.
  24. ^ de Boissieu, Laurent (25 May 2016). "Institut Iliade (ILIADE)". France Politique.
  25. ^ "À propos". Conseil National de la Résistance Européenne (in French).
  26. ^ When Africa was German - notes by Bureau International de l'Edition Française Archived July 11, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ Book Review by Steven D. Laib, J.D., M.S. Archived October 20, 2007, at the Wayback Machine

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