Johnston began as a traditional composer of art music before working with Harry Partch. He helped the senior musician to build instruments and use them in the performance and recording of new compositions. Partch then arranged for Johnston to study with Darius Milhaud at Mills College (Duckworth 1995, 122). In 1952, Johnston met Cage, who invited him to come to New York to study with him in the summer. Though Johnston decided he did not have sufficient time to prepare for such studies, he did go to New York for several weeks and assisted, along with Earle Brown, in the production of Cage's eight-track tape composition, Williams Mix (Von Gunden 1986, 22).
Later, in 1957 and 1959, he studied with Cage (Von Gunden 1986, 22), who encouraged him to follow his desires and use traditional instruments rather than electronics or newly built instruments (Bush 1997). Unskilled in carpentry and finding electronics unreliable, Johnston struggled with how to integrate microtonality and conventional instruments for ten years. He also struggled with how to integrate microtones into his compositional language through a slow process of many stages (Gann 1995). However, since 1960 Johnston has almost exclusively used a system of microtonal notation based on the rational intervals of just intonation, what Gann describes as a "lifelong allegiance" to "microtonality" (Gann 1995, 1). Johnston also studied with Burrill Phillips and Robert Palmer (Tyranny 2011; Von Gunden 1986, 23).
Tempered tuning is not the acoustically simplest kind. In just tuning, any interval is tuned so as to eliminate 'beating' (the result of vibrations interfering with each other). Just intonation is the easiest to achieve by ear. In this kind of tuning, all intervals have vibration rates related by small whole-number ratios. The larger the integers of the ratio, the greater the dissonance. (Johnston 2006a, 42).
Johnston's compositional style is eclectic. He uses serial processes, folk song idioms (string quartets 4, 5, and 10), repetitive processes, traditional forms like fugue and variations, and intuitive processes (Fonville 1991, 120–21). His main goal "has been to reestablish just intonation as a viable part of our musical tradition" (Bush 1997). According to Mark Swed, "ultimately, what Johnston has done, more than any other composer with roots in the great American musical experiments of the '50's and '60's, is to translate those radical approaches to the nature of music into a music that is immediately apprehensible" (Swed 1995,[page needed], quoted in Bush 1997).
Most of Johnston's later works use a large number of pitches, generated through just-intonation procedures. In these works, he forms melodies based on an "otonal" eight-note just-intonation scale made from the 8th through 15th partials of the harmonic series, or its "utonal" inversion. He then gains new pitches by using common-tone transpositions or inversions. Many of his works also feature an expansive use of just intonation, using high prime limits. His String Quartet No. 9 uses intervals of the harmonic series as high as the 31st partial. He uses "potentially hundreds of pitches per octave," in way that is "radical without being avant-garde," and not for the creation of "as-yet-unheard dissonances," but in order to, "return... to a kind of musical beauty," he perceives as diminished in Western music since the adoption of equal-temperament (Gann 1995). "By the beginning of the 1980s he could say of his elaborately microtonal String Quartet no. 5... 'I have no idea as to how many different pitches it used per octave'" (Gilmore 2006, xviii).
Just perfect fifth on D Play (help·info). The perfect fifth above D (A+, 27/16) is a syntonic comma (81/80 or 21.5 cents) higher than the just major sixth above C (A♮, 5/3) (Fonville 1991, 109), 27/16 ÷ 9/8 = 3/2.
Beginning in the 1960s, Johnston had proposed an approach to notating music in just intonation, redefining the understanding of conventional symbols (the seven "white" notes, the sharps and flats) and adding further accidentals, each designed to extend the notation into higher prime limits. Johnston‘s method is based on a diatonic C major scale tuned in JI, in which the interval between D (9/8 above C) and A (5/3 above C) is one Syntonic comma less than a Pythagorean perfect fifth 3:2. To write a perfect fifth, Johnston introduces a pair of symbols representing this comma, + and –. Thus, a series of perfect fifths beginning with F would proceed C G D A+ E+ B+. The three conventional white notes A E B are tuned as Ptolemaic major thirds (5:4, Ptolemy's intense diatonic scale) above F C G respectively. Johnston introduces new symbols for the septimal ( & ), undecimal (↑ & ↓), tridecimal ( & ), and further prime extensions to create an accidental-based exact JI notation for what he has named "extended just intonation" (Johnston 2006b, 77–88).
Though "this notation is not tied to any particular diapason" and "what remains constant are the ratio relations between pitches" (Johnston 2006b, 77), "most of his works utilize A = 440 as the tuning note", making C 264 Hertz (Fonville 1991, 136n3). Thus, a string quartet is tuned C-, G-, D-, A, E.
2016: Ben Johnston: String Quartets Nos. 7, 8 & 6, Quietness - Kepler Quartet (New World Records CD-80730)
String Quartet No. 7
String Quartet No. 8
String Quartet No. 6
"Quietness" (string quartet and voice)
2014: Ben Johnston: Ruminations – Eclipse String Quartet, John Schneider (voice, microtonal guitar), Karen Clark (voice), Jim Sullivan (clarinet), Sarah Thornblade (violin) (MicroFest Records CD-5)
2011: Ben Johnston: String Quartets Nos. 1, 5 & 10 – Kepler Quartet (New World Records CD-80693)
String Quartet No. 5
String Quartet No. 10
String Quartet No. 1, "Nine Variations"
2008: On Track: Commissions Vol. 2. – New Century Saxophone Quartet (Alanna Records ACD-6006, Pittsburgh)
Includes Johnston's "O Waly Waly Variations"
2006: Ben Johnston: String Quartets Nos. 2, 3, 4 & 9 – Kepler Quartet (New World Records CD-80637)
Bush, Phillip. 1997. Liner notes (unpaginated) to Microtonal Piano by Ben Johnston. Phillip Bush, piano. Koch International Classics 3-7369-2. Port Washington, NY: Koch International. [Quotes The New Grove Dictionary of American Music and critic Mark Swed.]
Duckworth, William. 1995. Talking Music: Conversations with John Cage, Philip Glass, Laurie Anderson, and Five Generations of American Experimental Composers. New York: Schirmer Books; London: Prentice-Hall International. ISBN0-02-870823-7 Reprinted 1999, New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN0-306-80893-5.
Elster, Steven. 1991. "A Harmonic and Serial Analysis of Ben Johnston's String Quartet No. 6". Perspectives of New Music 29, no. 2 (Summer): 138–65.
Fonville, John. 1991. "Ben Johnston's Extended Just Intonation: A Guide for Interpreters". Perspectives of New Music 29, no. 2 (Summer): 106–37.
Gann, Kyle. 1995. Music Amici: Ben Johnston: Ponder Nothing. New World Records. Cat. No.: 80432. Liner notes.
Gilmore, Bob. 1995. “Changing the Metaphor: Ratio Models of Musical Pitch in the Work of Harry Partch, Ben Johnston, and James Tenney”. Perspectives of New Music 33, nos. 1–2 (Winter-Summer): 458–503.
Gilmore, Bob. 2006. "Introduction". In Ben Johnston, "Maximum Clarity" and Other Writings on Music, edited by Bob Gilmore, xi–xxiii. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. ISBN0-252-03098-2.
Johnson, Timothy Ernest. 2008. "13-limit Extended Just Intonation in Ben Johnston's String Quartet Number 7 and Toby Twining's Chrysalid Requiem, Gradual/Tract". D.M.A. Thesis. Urbana: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Lamparter, Wolfram. 2008. [untitled article]. Newsletter (19 November): 1. Baden-Baden and Freiburg: SWR Sinfonieorchester Baden-Baden und Freiburg.
Maltz, Richard Steven. 1991. "Microtonal Techniques in Charles Ives's Three Quarter-Tone Pieces for Two Pianos, Harry Patch's And [on] the Seventh Day Petals Fell in Petaluma, and Ben Johnston's Fourth String Quartet". Ph. D. Thesis. University of South Carolina.
Elster, Steven. (1991). "A Harmonic and Serial Analysis of Ben Johnston's String Quartet No. 6". Perspectives of New Music 29, no. 2 (summer): 138–165.
Gilmore, Bob. (1995). "Changing the Metaphor: Ratio Models of Musical Pitch in the Work of Harry Partch, Ben Johnston, and James Tenney". Perspectives of New Music 33, nos. 1–2 (winter-summer): 458–503.