This page uses content from Wikipedia and is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Barium sulfide

Barium sulfide
NaCl polyhedra.png
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.040.180
EC Number 244-214-4
Properties
BaS
Molar mass 169.39 g/mol
Appearance white solid
Density 4.25 g/cm3 [1]
Melting point 2,235[2] °C (4,055 °F; 2,508 K)
Boiling point decomposes
2.88 g/100 mL (0 °C)
7.68 g/100 mL (20 °C)
60.3 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Solubility insoluble in alcohol
2.155
Structure
Halite (cubic), cF8
Fm3m, No. 225
Octahedral (Ba2+); octahedral (S2−)
Hazards
Harmful (Xn)
Dangerous for the environment (N)
R-phrases (outdated) R20/22, R31, R50
S-phrases (outdated) (S2), S28, S61
NFPA 704
Flammability code 3: Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions. Flash point between 23 and 38 °C (73 and 100 °F). E.g. gasolineHealth code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g. chloroformReactivity code 2: Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water. E.g. white phosphorusSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
3
2
2
Related compounds
Other anions
Barium oxide
Other cations
Magnesium sulfide
Calcium sulfide
Strontium sulfide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
☑Y verify (what is ☑Y☒N ?)
Infobox references

Barium sulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula BaS. BaS is an important precursor to other barium compounds including BaCO3 and the pigment lithopone, ZnS/BaSO4.[3] Like other chalcogenides of the alkaline earth metals, BaS is a short wavelength emitter for electronic displays.[4] It is colorless, although like many sulfides, it is commonly obtained in impure colored forms.

Discovery, production, properties

BaS was prepared by Vincentius (or Vincentinus) Casciarolus (or Casciorolus, 1571-1624) via reduction of BaSO4 (available as the mineral barite).[5] It is currently manufactured by an improved version of Casciarolus's process using coke in place of flour. This kind of conversion is called a carbothermic reaction:

BaSO4 + 2 C → BaS + 2 CO2

The phosphorescence of the material made by Casciarolus made it a curiosity.[6][7][8]

BaS crystallizes with the NaCl structure, featuring octahedral Ba2+ and S2− centres.

The observed melting point of barium sulfide is highly sensitive to impurities.[2]

Safety

BaS is quite poisonous, as are related sulfides, such as CaS, which evolve toxic hydrogen sulfide upon contact with water.

References

  1. ^ Lide, David R., ed. (2006). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87th ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0487-3.
  2. ^ a b Stinn, C., Nose, K., Okabe, T. et al. Metall and Materi Trans B (2017) 48: 2922. [doi.org]
  3. ^ Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
  4. ^ Vij, D. R.; Singh, N. "Optical and electrical properties of II-VI wide gap semiconducting barium sulfide" Proceedings of SPIE (1992), 1523 (Conf. Phys. Technol. Semicond. Devices Integr. Circuits, 1992), 608-12.
  5. ^ F. Licetus, Litheosphorus, sive de lapide Bononiensi lucem in se conceptam ab ambiente claro mox in tenebris mire conservante, Utini, ex typ. N. Schiratti, 1640. See [www.chem.leeds.ac.uk]
  6. ^ "Lapis Boloniensis". www.zeno.org.
  7. ^ Lemery, Nicolas (1714). Trait℗e universel des drogues simples.
  8. ^ Ozanam, Jacques; Montucla, Jean Etienne; Hutton, Charles (1814). Recreations in mathematics and natural philosophy .