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|Bangsamoro Organic Law|
Areas in red constitute the proposed Bangsamoro Autonomous Region
|17th Congress of the Philippines|
|Organic Law for the Bangsamoro in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM)|
|Enacted by||House of Representatives of the Philippines|
|Enacted by||Senate of the Philippines|
|Bill citation||House Bill No. 6475|
|Introduced by||Speaker Pantaleon Alvarez, Majority Leader Rodolfo Fariñas, and Minority Leader Danilo Suarez|
|First reading||October 3, 2017|
|Second reading||May 30, 2018|
|Third reading||May 30, 2018|
|Bill citation||Senate Bill No. 1717|
|Introduced by||Senate President Aquilino Pimentel III et al.|
|First reading||February 28, 2018|
|Second reading||May 31, 2018|
|Third reading||May 31, 2018|
|Date passed by conference committee||July 18, 2018|
The Bangsamoro Organic Law, also known as Bangsamoro Basic Law and often referred to by the acronym "BBL" (Filipino: Batayang Batas para sa Rehiyong Awtonomo ng Bangsamoro), refers to a number of similar legislative bills to establish a proposed new autonomous political entity known as the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region, replacing the current Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).
The measure was first proposed and deliberated upon by the 16th Congress of the Philippines but failed to pass into law. The issue was taken up once again in the 17th Congress where two complimentary bills has currently passed in the Senate and House of Representatives respectively. The two chambers are currently set to meet in a bicameral conference to reconcile the two versions of the bill before it being ratified into law.
As an organic act, the Basic Law aims to abolish the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao and provide for the basic structure of government for the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region, following the agreements set forth in the Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro peace agreement signed between the Government of the Philippines and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front in 2014.
The various portions of the BBL as proposed by the Bangsamoro Transition Commission which had been assigned to draft the bill include sections covering:
In the Philippine Senate, a revised version of the BBL, known as the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region Law (Senate Bill 2894), was presented on August 11, 2015 after lengthy deliberations on the BBL in the Committee on Local Government, and was due for interpellation on August 17, 2015. Due to the length and complexity of the bill, however, the senate temporarily deferred the period of interpellation for the bill. The 16th Congress went on recess without passing the bill on February 2, 2016.
The passage of the Bangsamoro Basic Law, initially not set to be tackled by the 17th Congress of the Philippines, is now being pushed by President Rodrigo Duterte. Poised to pass within the second session of the 17th Congress, the latest draft submitted on July 17, 2017 is now being reviewed by the President.  Once the BBL is passed, it will set a precedence for federalism as pushed by the administration.
On 15 October 2012, a preliminary peace agreement was signed in the Malacañan Palace between the Moro Islamic Liberation Front and the Government of the Philippines. This was the Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro, which called for the creation of an autonomous political entity named Bangsamoro, replacing the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).
The signing came at the end of peace talks held in Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia from 2–6 October. These talks were the last of 32 peace talks between the two parties, which spanned a period of nine years.
The Framework Agreement was later fleshed out by four Annexes and an addendum:
On 27 March 2014, a final peace agreement fully fleshing out the terms of the framework agreement and annexes, known as the Comprehensive Agreement on Bangsamoro (CAB) was signed between the two parties. Under the agreement, the Islamic separatists would turn over their firearms to a third party, which would be selected by the rebels and the Philippine government. The MILF had agreed to decommission its armed wing, the Bangsamoro Islamic Armed Forces (BIAF). In return, the government would establish an autonomous Bangsamoro. Power sharing was a central point to the autonomy redesign.
On Sunday, January 25, 2015, three platoons of the elite Special Action Force (SAF) under the Philippine National Police entered the guerrilla enclave of Tukanalipao, Mindanao, Philippines, with the goal of detaining two high-ranking Jemaah Islamiyah-affiliated, improvised-explosive-device experts, Zulkifli Abdhir (also known as Marwan) and Abdul Basit Usman. The SAF troops raided the hut where they believed Marwan was located, and the man they believed to be Marwan engaged them in a firefight and was killed. However, the shooting alerted armed forces in the area. What followed was a bloody encounter that left 44 SAF, 18 MILF, and 5 BIFF dead, where the 44 SAF members were trapped with little ammunition between the rogue BIFF and a group of MILF fighters. A video was released afterwards which showed MILF fighters shooting the feet of a SAF member then shooting the head twice while taking the video.
Supposedly as a result of the negative media coverage arising from the Mamasapano incident, the March 2015 survey conducted by public opinions polling group Pulse Asia found that 44% of Filipinos were opposed to the Bangsamoro Basic Law's passage, with only 22% supporting its passage. Opposition to the law was strongest among the poor (45% in Class D, 43% in Class E) and among those living in Mindanao (62%). Awareness of the law was high, at 88%.
With the collapse in popularity of the bill, House Speaker Feliciano Belmonte, Jr. acknowledged the prospect that the bill may be rejected by Congress in the face of stiff public opposition, and hoped that the government would produce a "Plan B".
Numerous indigenous groups in the Bangsamoro region do not adhere to Catholicism nor Islam, making them vulnerable to exploitation in a proposed Muslim-controlled regional government. In 2015, various indigenous people groups rejected the formation of the Bangsamoro due to lack of consultation with all stakeholders, especially the non-Muslim indigenous people who form a huge minority in the proposed region.
Roman Catholics and numerous Christian groups form a huge minority in the proposed Bangsamoro, notably in Basilan, Cotabato City, Palawan, the Cotabato region, Zamboanga City, Zamboanga provinces, and Lanao del Norte. Various cities and municipalities, notably Isabela City in Basilan and Zamboanga City have rejected their inclusion in the Bangsamoro region.