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Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters

Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters
Leader(s)
  • Ameril Umbra Kato 
  • Ismael Abubakar (alias "Imam Bongos")[1]
  • Ustadz Karialan (alias "Imam Minimbang")[1]
  • Esmael Abdulmalik (alias "Abu Toraife")[2]
Dates of operation 2008–present
Active region(s) Mindanao
Ideology Salafi jihadist Islamism[1]
Moro nationalism (one faction)[1]
Ideology of ISIL (one faction)[2]
Status Active
Size c. 500 (July 2016)[1]

The Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF), also known as the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Movement,[3] is an Islamist militant organization based in Mindanao, the Philippines. It is a smaller player in the overall Moro insurgency in the Philippines and is mostly active in Maguindanao and other places in central Mindanao. It is a breakaway group from the Moro Islamic Liberation Front founded by Ameril Umbra Kato.[4] Following Kato's death, the group split into three factions, one of which has aligned with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL),[2][5] while the other two are less radical.[2]

History

Foundation and operations under Ameril Umbra Kato

Kato broke with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) in 2008 because he disagreed with the MILF's acceptance of autonomy rather than full independence.[4][6] In 2008, after the Philippine Supreme Court nullified the Memorandum of Agreement on Ancestral Domain signed by the Philippine government and the MILF, Kato led a contingent of MILF fighters in an attack against civilians.[7] In December 2010, Kato formed the BIFF.[4] He claimed to have 5,000 fighters but the government said that he had only 300.[4] It was not until August 2011 that the MILF recognized the break and declared the BIFF a "lost command".[4]

The BIFF rejected the 2012 Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro, a preliminary peace agreement signed between the Government of the Philippines and the MILF, and vowed to continue their fight.[3][8][9] In January 2014, after the final annexes of the Framework Agreement were signed, the Armed Forces of the Philippines launched Operation Darkhorse against the BIFF. The army captured the BIFF's main camp in Barangay Ganta, Shariff Saydona Mustapha, Maguindanao which reportedly had 500 fighters.[10]

On February 4, 2014, the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) commander Habib Mujahab Hashim confirmed reports that the BIFF had forged an alliance with his group.[11]

Along with the MILF, on January 25, 2015, the BIFF was involved in the 2015 Mamasapano clash, leading to the deaths of 44 members of the SAF, 18 from the MILF and five from the BIFF. Following the event, the group engaged in some clashes against the AFP, prompting AFP Chief of Staff Gregorio Pio Catapang to announce in late February 2015 an all-out offensive against the BIFF.[12] The offensive resulted in more than 100 casualties in the BIFF. It also suffered a split when a commander Tambako formed the Justice for Islamic Movement to protect the foreign militants hiding in BIFF controlled areas. He was captured in General Santos City trying to escape the law.[13]

Split after Ameril Umbra Kato's death

After founder Ameril Umbra Kato's death, BIFF's former vice-chairman for political affairs, Ismael Abubakar, alias "Imam Bongos", took over leadership of the group.[14] Among the first moves of the BIFF under Abubakar was the bombing of an outpost of the Philippine Army and two different detachments of the Special Action Force (SAF) in Maguindanao on April 19, 2015.[15] Over time, Ismael Abubakar began to increasingly adopt the radical ideology of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL),[1] and openly declared an alliance with ISIL in August 2015.[16]

This development caused unrest among the group. As result, one commander of BIFF, Ustadz Karialan (alias "Imam Minimbang"), split from the group with his followers and formed a separate faction. This faction stated that "we are not to be swayed by the ISIS ideology because we adhere to the cause of the Moro struggle and teachings of the Koran".[1] Despite this, disagreements over ideological trends continued in Ismael Abubakar's faction, with part of his followers regarding his stance as too moderate. These hardliners eventually left as well, forming the "Jamaatul al-Muhajireen wal-Ansar" wing of the group and electing Esmael Abdulmalik (alias "Abu Toraife") as leader. This most radical faction of BIFF has openly adopted ISIL's ideology.[2]

Battle of Marawi

It is possible that BIFF participated in the Battle of Marawi of 2017. The Philippine military stated in May 2017 that BIFF fighters were among the Jihadists in the city,[17] while Secretary of National Defense Delfin Lorenzana claimed in June 2017 that about 40 fighters of the group took part in the fighting.[18] According to other reports, the group had not only contributed fighters to the battle, but also provided "logistical support" to the ISIL forces besieged in Marawi.[2]

Nevertheless, a BIFF spokesman stated in June 2017 that though his group "welcomed" the offensive by the Maute group and Abu Sayyaf, BIFF's operations at the time were unrelated to the Battle of Marawi.[19] Furthermore, the leader of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front Murad Ebrahim claimed in July 2018 that BIFF had not participated in the battle.[20]

Engagements

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "BIFF splits in two factions". Update Philippines. 22 July 2016. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Bong S Sarmiento (22 November 2017). "Islamic State's new frontline in the Philippines". Asia Times. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF) | Terrorist Groups | TRAC". Trackingterrorism.org. Retrieved September 28, 2013.
  4. ^ a b c d e "Is BIFF the MILF's 'BFF'?". Philippine Daily Inquirer. February 1, 2015. Retrieved February 1, 2015.
  5. ^ Caleb Weiss (28 May 2016). "Islamic State-loyal groups claim attacks on Filipino military". Long War Journal. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
  6. ^ "BIFF, Abu Sayyaf pledge allegiance to Islamic State jihadists". GMA News Online. August 16, 2014. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
  7. ^ Romero, Alexis (February 3, 2014). "Military declares end of offensive vs BIFF". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved February 3, 2014.
  8. ^ Acosta, Rene P. (September 24, 2012). "Philippines rebel group Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters undermines peace talks | Asia Pacific Defense Forum in English". Apdforum.com. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved September 28, 2013.
  9. ^ "5 soldiers, 18 Moro rebels slain in clashes | Inquirer News". Newsinfo.inquirer.net. July 8, 2013. Retrieved September 28, 2013.
  10. ^ Pacardo, Louie O., and Albert F. Arcilla (February 2, 2014). "Soldiers overrun rebel camp in Maguindanao". Business World. Retrieved February 3, 2014.
  11. ^ Medina, Andrei (February 4, 2014). "MNLF, BIFF form alliance – report". GMA News. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
  12. ^ Hegina, Aries Joseph (February 25, 2015). "AFP chief Catapang orders 'all-out offensive' vs BIFF". Inquirer. Retrieved February 27, 2015.
  13. ^ Fernandez, Edwin (March 16, 2015). "Rebel leader in killing of SAF men falls to gov't troops". Inquirer. Retrieved March 12, 2016.
  14. ^ Andong, Lore Mae (14 April 2015). "BIFF confirms Kato's death; replacement named". ABS-CBN News Central Mindanao. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
  15. ^ "BIFF bombs Army, SAF detachments in Maguindanao". Philippine Star. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  16. ^ Caleb Weiss (21 December 2015). "Islamic State supporters show training camp in the Philippines". Long War Journal. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
  17. ^ Placido, Dharel (29 May 2017). "BIFF fighting alongside Maute, Abus in Marawi: military". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 29 May 2017.
  18. ^ Caleb Weiss (5 June 2017). "Islamic State video shows destruction of church in Marawi". Long War Journal. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
  19. ^ Felipe Villamor (21 June 2017). "Militants' Siege of Philippine Elementary School Ends After 12 Hours". New York Times. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  20. ^ Jeoffrey Maitem (25 July 2018). "Autonomy Could Strip Foreign Fighters of Southern Philippine Sanctuaries: MILF Chief". Benar News. Retrieved 31 July 2018.