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Language branches in the Baltic region
Baltic region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countries refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.
The first to name it the
Baltic Sea ( "Mare Balticum") was eleventh century German chronicler Adam of Bremen.
Depending on the context the
Baltic region might stand for:
The countries that have shorelines along the Baltic Sea:
Denmark, Estonia, Latvia, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, and Sweden. The group of countries presently referred to by the shorthand
Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and
Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, exclaved from the remainder of Russia. Historic
East Prussia and the historical lands of Livonia, Courland and Estonia ( Swedish Estonia and Russian Estonia). The former
Baltic governorates of Imperial Russia: Today's Estonia and Latvia (excluding parts of modern Eastern Latvia that were part of Vitebsk Governorate). The countries on the historical
British trade route through the Baltic Sea, i.e. including the Scandinavian Peninsula ( Sweden and Norway). The
Council of the Baltic Sea States, comprised by the countries with shorelines along the Baltic Sea, in addition to Norway, Iceland and the rest of European Union. The islands of the
Euroregion B7 Baltic Islands Network, which includes the islands and archipelagos Åland (autonomous), Bornholm ( Denmark), Gotland ( Sweden), Hiiumaa (Estonia), Öland ( Sweden), Rügen ( Germany), and Saaremaa (Estonia). On historic Scandinavian and German maps, the Balticum sometimes includes only the historically or culturally German-dominated lands, or provinces, of Estonia, Livonia, Courland and Latgale (corresponding to modern Estonia and Latvia), as well as sometimes Pomerania, Kashubia and East Prussia, while the historically less-Germanized Lithuania is occasionally excluded.