In Argentina, presidential elections are conducted under the ballotage system. This system added by the 1994 amendment to the Constitution of Argentina, as part of the negotiations between Raúl Alfonsín and President Carlos Menem.
Most countries with a two-round system require a candidate to win at least 50 percent of the vote to win the presidency in a single round. In Argentina, however, a candidate does not need a majority for a first-round victory. Instead, a candidate can win outright if he wins at least 45 percent of the vote, or wins 40 to 44 percent of the vote and is at least 10 percent ahead of the runner-up. Lower-level Argentine districts, such as the city of Buenos Aires, provided with a two-round system in their local constitutions, but with the standard requirements.
Since the amended constitution took effect, only two elections have had a result that required a ballotage.
In 2003 elections, Menem took 24.45% of the vote to 22.24% for Néstor Kirchner. However, Menem pulled out of the runoff when polls showed him losing badly to Kirchner, effectively handing the presidency to Kirchner.
The 2015 elections also required a ballotage. FPV candidate and Buenos Aires Province Governor Daniel Scioli led the field in the first round, but finished with only 37 percent of the vote, just three percentage points ahead of opposition leader and Buenos Aires Mayor Mauricio Macri's 34 percent. In the first runoff ever held for an Argentine presidential election, Macri narrowly defeated Scioli, with Macri obtaining 51.34% of the votes to Scioli's 48.66%.
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