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Bahadur Shah Zafar

Bahadur Shah II
Mughal Emperor of India
King of Delhi
Badshah
Shahanshah-e-Hind
Bahadur Shah II of India.jpg
19th Mughal Emperor
Reign28 September 1837 – 14 September 1857
Coronation29 September 1837 at the Red Fort
PredecessorAkbar II
SuccessorEmpire abolished
(Victoria as Empress of India)
Born24 October 1775
Shahjahanabad, Mughal Empire
(present-day Old Delhi, Delhi, India)
Died7 November 1862(1862-11-07) (aged 87)
Rangoon, British Burma
(present-day Yangon, Myanmar)
Burial7 November 1862
Yangon, Myanmar
SpouseAshraf Mahal,
Akhtar Mahal,
Zeenat Mahal,
Taj Mahal
IssueMirza Dara Bakht,
Mirza Mughal,
Mirza Fath-ul-Mulk Bahadur,
Mirza Khizr Sultan,
Mirza Jawan Bakht,
Mirza Shah Abbas,
16 more
Full name
Abu Zafar Siraj-ud-din Muhammad Bahadur Shah[1]
HouseTimurid Dynasty
FatherAkbar Shah II
MotherLela Banu Begum
ReligionSunni Islam

Bahadur Shah Zafar or Bahadur Shah II (Persian: بهادرشاه ظفر‎) (born as Mirza Abu Zafar Siraj-ud-din Muhammad) (24 October 1775 – 7 November 1862) was the last Mughal emperor. He was the second son[2] of and became the successor to his father, Akbar II, upon his death on 28 September 1837. He was a nominal Emperor, as the Mughal Empire existed in name only and his authority was limited only to the walled city of Old Delhi (Shahjahanbad). Following his involvement in the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British exiled him to Rangoon in British-controlled Burma (now in Myanmar), after convicting him on several charges.

Zafar's father, Akbar II had been imprisoned by the British and he was not his father's preferred choice as his successor. One of Akbar Shah's queens, Mumtaz Begum, pressured him to declare her son, Mirza Jahangir, as his successor. However, The East India Company exiled Jahangir after he attacked their resident, in the Red Fort,[2] paving the way for Zafar to assume the throne.

Reign

Bahadur Shah II enthroned
Emblem of the emperor in the first year of his reign

Bahadur Shah Zafar ruled over a Mughal Empire that had by the early nineteenth century been reduced to only the city of Delhi and the surrounding territory as far as Palam. The Maratha Empire had brought an end to the Mughal Empire in the Deccan during the 18th century and the regions of India formerly under Mughal rule had either been absorbed by the Marathas or had declared independence and become smaller kingdoms.[3] The Marathas installed Shah Alam II in the throne in 1772, under the protection of the Maratha general Mahadaji Shinde and maintained suzerainty over Mughal affairs in Delhi. The East India Company became the dominant political and military power in mid-nineteenth-century India. Outside the region controlled by the Company, hundreds of kingdoms and principalities, fragmented their land. The emperor was respected by the Company, who provided him with a pension. The emperor permitted the Company to collect taxes from Delhi and maintain a military force in it. Zafar never had any interest in statecraft or had any "imperial ambition". After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British exiled him from Delhi.

Bahadur Shah Zafar was a noted Urdu poet, having written a number of Urdu ghazals. While some part of his opus was lost or destroyed during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, a large collection did survive, and was compiled into the Kulliyyat-i-Zafar. The court that he maintained was home to several prolific Urdu writers, including Mirza Ghalib, Dagh, Mumin, and Zauq.

After his defeat, he said:[4][unreliable source?]

غازیوں میں بو رھےگی جب تک ایمان کی
تخت لندن تک چلےگی تیغ ھندوستان کی

Ghaziyoñ meñ bū rahegī jab tak imān kī

Takht London tak chalegī tegh Hindostān kī.

As long as there remains the scent of faith in the hearts of our Ghazis, so long shall the Talwar of Hindustan flash before the throne of London.

Rebellion of 1857

Capture of the emperor and his sons by William Hodson at Humayun's tomb on 20 September 1857
Bahadur Shah Zafar in 1858, just after his trial and before his departure for exile in Burma.
A daring seizure of King of Delhi by Capt Henry M Hodson of Hodson's Horse

As the Indian rebellion of 1857 spread, Sepoy regiments reached the Mughal Court at Delhi. Because of Zafar's neutral views on religions, many Indian kings and regiments accepted and declared him as the Emperor of India.[5]

On 12 May 1857, Zafar held his first formal audience in several years.[6] It was attended by several sepoys who were described as treating him "familiarly or disrespectfully".[7] When the sepoys first arrived at Bahadur Shah Zafar's court, he asked them why they had come to him, because he had no means of maintaining them. Bahadur Shah Zafar's conduct was indecisive. However, he yielded to the demands of the sepoys when he was told that they would not be able to win against the East India Company without him.[8]

On 16 May, sepoys and palace servants killed fifty-two Europeans who were prisoners of the palace and who were discovered hiding in the city. The executions took place under a peepul tree in front of the palace, despite Zafar's protests. The aim of the executioners who were not the supporters of Zafar was to implicate him in the killings.[9] Once he had joined them, Bahadur Shah II took ownership for all the actions of the mutineers. Though dismayed by the looting and disorder, he gave his public support to the rebellion. It was later believed that Bahadur Shah was not directly responsible for the massacre, but that he may have been able to prevent it, and he was therefore considered a consenting party during his trial.[8]

The administration of the city and its new occupying army was described as "chaotic and troublesome", which functioned "haphazardly". The Emperor nominated his eldest son, Mirza Mughal, as the commander in chief of his forces. However, Mirza Mughal had little military experience and was rejected by the sepoys. The sepoys did not have any commander since each regiment refused to accept orders from someone other than their own officers. Mirza Mughal's administration extended no further than the city. Outside Gujjar herders began levying their own tolls on traffic, and it became increasingly difficult to feed the city.[10]

When the victory of the British became certain, Zafar took refuge at Humayun's Tomb, in an area that was then at the outskirts of Delhi. Company forces led by Major William Hodson surrounded the tomb and Zafar was captured on 20 September 1857. The next day, Hodson shot his sons Mirza Mughal and Mirza Khizr Sultan, and grandson Mirza Abu Bakht under his own authority at the Khooni Darwaza, near the Delhi Gate. Bahadur Shah himself was taken to his wife's Haveli, where he was treated disrespectfully by his captors. When brought news of the executions of his sons and grandson, the former emperor was described as being so shocked and depressed that he was unable to react.[11]

Trial

The trial was a consequence of the Sepoy Mutiny and lasted for 41 days, had 19 hearings, 21 witnesses and over a hundred documents in Persian and Urdu, with their English translations, were produced in the court.[12] At first the trial was suggested to be held at Calcutta, the place where Directors of East India company used to their sittings in connection with their commercial pursuits. But instead, Red Fort in Delhi was selected for the trial.[13] It was the first case to be tried at the Red Fort.[14][unreliable source?]

Zafar was tried and charged on four counts:[15]

1) Aiding and abetting the mutinies of the troops

2) Encouraging and assisting divers persons in waging war against the British Government

3) Assuming the sovereignty of Hindostan

4) Causing and being accessory to the murder of the Christians.

— Proceedings of the April 1858 Trial of Bahadur Shah Zafar 'King of Delhi'

On the 20th day of the trial Bahadur Shah II defended himself against these charges.[12] Bahadur Shah, in his defense, stated his complete haplessness before the will of the sepoys. The sepoys apparently used to affix his seal on empty envelopes, the contents of which he was absolutely unaware. While the emperor may have been overstating his impotence before the sepoys, the fact remains that the sepoys had felt powerful enough to dictate terms to anybody.[16] The eighty-two year old poet-king was harassed by the mutineers and was neither inclined to nor capable of providing any real leadership. Despite this, he was the primary accused in the trial for the rebellion.[14]

Hakim Ahsanullah Khan, Zafar's most trusted confidant and both his Prime Minister and personal physician, had insisted that Zafar did not involve himself in the rebellion and had surrendered himself to the British. But when Zafar ultimately did this, Hakim Ahsanullah Khan betrayed him by providing evidence against him at the trial in return for a pardon for himself.[17]

Respecting Hodson's guarantee on his surrender, Zafar was not sentenced to death but exiled to Rangoon, Burma.[12] His wife Zeenat Mahal and some of the remaining members of the family accompanied him. At 4 am on 7 October 1858, Zafar along with his wives, two remaining sons began his journey towards Rangoon in bullock carts escorted by 9th Lancers under command of Lieutenant Ommaney.[18]

Death

Prime Minister of India Manmohan Singh prays at the Mazar of Bahadur Shah Zafar, in Yangon, Myanmar

In 1862, at the age of 87, he had reportedly acquired some illness. In October, his condition deteriorated. He was "spoon-fed on broth" but he found that difficult too by 3 November.[19] On 6 November, the British Commissioner H.N. Davies recorded that Zafar "is evidently sinking from pure despitude and paralysis in the region of his throat". To prepare for his death Davies commanded for the collection of lime and bricks and a spot was selected at the "back of Zafar's enclosure" for his burial. Zafar died on Friday, 7 November 1862 at 5 am. Zafar was buried at 4 pm near the Shwe Degon Pagoda at 6 Ziwaka Road, near the intersection with Shwe Degon Pagoda road, Yangon. The shrine of Bahadur Shah Zafar Dargah was built there after recovery of its tomb on 16 February 1991.[20][21] Davies commenting on Zafar, described his life to be "very uncertain".

Family and descendants

Purported photograph of Zinat Mahal Begum, his consort
Sons of Bahadur Shah Zafar. On the left is Jawan Bakht, and on the right is Mirza Shah Abbas.

Bahadur Shah Zafar had four wives and numerous concubines. His wives were:[22]

  • Begum Ashraf Mahal
  • Begum Akhtar Mahal
  • Begum Zeenat Mahal
  • Begum Taj Mahal

He had twenty two sons including:

He had at least thirty-two daughters including:

  • Rabeya Begum
  • Begum Fatima Sultan
  • Kulsum Zamani Begum
  • Raunaq Zamani Begum (possibly a granddaughter, d. 1930)

Many individuals claim to be descendants of Bahadur Shah Zafar, living in places throughout India, such as Hyderabad, Aurangabad, Delhi, Bhopal, Kolkata, and Bangalore. However, the claims are often disputed.[24][25]

Religious beliefs

A panorama showing the imperial procession to celebrate the feast of the Eid ul-Fitr, with the emperor on the elephant to the left and his sons to the right (24 October 1843)

Bahadur Shah Zafar was a devout Sufi.[26] He was regarded as a Sufi Pir and used to accept murids or pupils.[26] The newspaper Delhi Urdu Akhbaar described him as "one of the leading saints of the age, approved of by the divine court."[26] Before his accession, he lived like "a poor scholar and dervish", differing from his three royal brothers, Mirza Jahangir, Salim and Babur.[26] In 1828, a decade before he succeeded the throne, Major Archer said that "Zafar is a man of spare figure and stature, plainly apparelled, almost approaching to meanness."[26] His appearance is that of an indigent munshi or teacher of languages".[26]

One of the many Alam (flags) of the Mughal Empire.

As a poet, Zafar imbibed the highest subtleties of mystical Sufi teachings.[26] He was also a believer of the magical and superstitious side of the Orthodox Sufism.[26] Like many of his followers, he believed that his position as both a Sufi pir and emperor gave him spiritual powers.[26] In an incident in which one of his followers was bitten by a snake, Zafar tried to cure him by giving a "seal of Bezoar" (a stone antidote to poison) and some water on which he had breathed to the man to drink.[27]

The emperor had a staunch belief in ta'aviz or charms, especially as a palliative for his constant complaint of piles, or to ward off evil spells.[27] During a period of illness, he told a group of Sufi pirs that several of his wives suspected that someone had cast a spell over him.[27] He requested them to take some steps to remove all apprehension on this account. The group wrote some charms and asked the emperor to mix them in water and drink it, which would protect him from the evil. A coterie of pirs, miracle workers and Hindu astrologers were always in touch with the emperor. On their advice, he would sacrifice buffaloes and camels, buried eggs and arrested alleged black magicians, and wore a ring that cured for his indigestion. He also donated cows to the poor, elephants to the Sufi shrines and horses to the khadims or clergy of Jama Masjid.[27]

In one of his verses, Zafar explicitly stated that both Hinduism and Islam shared the same essence.[28] This philosophy was implemented by his court which embodied a multicultural composite Hindu-Islamic Mughal culture.[28]

Epitaph

Poem written by Zafar, dated 29 April 1844

He was a prolific Urdu poet and calligrapher.[29] He wrote the following Ghazal (Video search)[unreliable source?] as his own epitaph. In his book, The Last Mughal, William Dalrymple states that, according to Lahore scholar Imran Khan, the beginning of the verse, umr-e-darāz māńg ke ("I asked for a long life") was not written by Zafar, and does not appear in any of the works published during Zafar's lifetime.[citation needed] The verse was allegedly written by Simab Akbarabadi.[30][unreliable source?]

Original Urdu Devanagari transliteration Roman transliteration English Translation

'

لگتا نہیں ہے جی مِرا اُجڑے دیار میں
کس کی بنی ہے عالمِ ناپائیدار میں

بُلبُل کو پاسباں سے نہ صیاد سے گلہ
قسمت میں قید لکھی تھی فصلِ بہار میں

کہہ دو اِن حسرتوں سے کہیں اور جا بسی
اتنی جگہ کہاں ہے دلِ داغدار میں

اِک شاخِ گل پہ بیٹھ کے بُلبُل ہے شادماں
کانٹے بِچھا دیتے ہیں دلِ لالہ زار میں

عمرِ دراز مانگ کے لائے تھے چار دِن
دو آرزو میں کٹ گئے، دو اِنتظار میں

دِن زندگی کے ختم ہوئے شام ہوگئی
پھیلا کے پائوں سوئیں گے کنج مزار میں

کتنا ہے بدنصیب ظفر دفن کے لئے
دو گز زمین بھی نہ ملی کوئے یار میں

[31]

लगता नहीं है जी मेरा उजड़े दयार में
किसकी बनी है आलम-ए-नापायेदार में

बुलबुल को पासबाँ से न सैयाद से गिला
क़िस्मत में क़ैद लिखी थी फ़स्ल-ए-बहार में

कह दो इन हसरतों से कहीं और जा बसें
इतनी जगह कहाँ है दिल-ए-दाग़दार में

इक शाख़-ए-गुल पे बैठ के बुलबुल है शादमाँ
काँटे बिछा दिये हैं दिल-ए-लालाज़ार में

उम्र-ए-दराज़ माँगके लाए थे चार दिन
दो आरज़ू में कट गए, दो इन्तज़ार में

दिन ज़िन्दगी के ख़त्म हुए शाम हो गई
फैला के पाँव सोएँगे कुंज-ए-मज़ार में

कितना है बदनसीब “ज़फ़र″ दफ़्न के लिए
दो गज़ ज़मीन भी न मिली कू-ए-यार में

lagtā nahīń hé jī mérā ūjař'é dayār méń
kiskī banī hé ālam-e-nā-pāyedār méń

būlbūl ko pāsbāń se na saiyyād se gilā
qismet méń qaid likhī tthī fasl-e-bahār méń

kaeh do in hassretoń se kahīń aur jā bas'éń
itnī jageh kahāń hé dil-e-dāGhdār méń

ik shāKh-e-gūl pe baiTh ke būlbūl hé shādmāń
kānTe bichā diye héń dil-e-lālāzār méń

umr-e-darāz māńg ke lāye tthe chār din
do ārzū méń kaT gayé do intezār méń

din zindagī ke Khatm hué shām ho gayī
p'hailā ke pāoń soyeń-ge kūńj-e-mazaar méń

kitnā hé bad-naseeb zafar dafn ke liye
do gaz zamīn bhī na milī kū-e-yār méń

My heart has no repose in this despoiled land
Who has ever felt fulfilled in this futile world?

The nightingale complains about neither the sentinel nor the hunter
Fate had decreed imprisonment during the harvest of spring

Tell these longings to go dwell elsewhere
What space is there for them in this besmirched heart?

Sitting on a branch of flowers, the nightingale rejoices
It has strewn thorns in the garden of my heart

I asked for a long life, I received four days
Two passed in desire, two in waiting.

The days of life are over, evening has fallen
I shall sleep, legs outstretched, in my tomb

How unfortunate is Zafar! For his burial
Not even two yards of land were to be had, in the land of his beloved.[32]

In popular culture

Zafar was portrayed in the play 1857: Ek Safarnama set during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 by Javed Siddiqui. It was staged at Purana Qila, Delhi ramparts by Nadira Babbar and the National School of Drama Repertory company in 2008.[33] A Hindi-Urdu black and white movie, Lal Quila (1960), directed by Nanabhai Bhatt, showcased Bahadur Shah Zafar extensively. A television series titled "Bahadur Shah Zafar" aired on Doordarshan in 1986. Ashok Kumar played the lead role in it.

See also

References

  1. ^ Frances W. Pritchett, Nets of Awareness: Urdu Poetry and Its Critics (1994), p. 5
  2. ^ a b Husain, S. Mahdi (2006). Bahadur Shah Zafar; And the War of 1857 in Delhi. Aakar Books.
  3. ^ Mehta, Jaswant Lal (2005). Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707–1813. Sterling Publishers. p. 94.
  4. ^ Savarkar, Vinayak Damodar (10 May 1909). The Indian War of Independence – 1857 (PDF).
  5. ^ "The Sunday Tribune – Spectrum". Tribuneindia.com. 10 May 1907. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
  6. ^ "Altrincham", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 1 December 2007, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u5395
  7. ^ Dalrymple, The Last Mughal, p. 212
  8. ^ a b "Proceedings of the April 1858 Trial of Bahadur Shah Zafar 'King of Delhi'". Parliamentary Papers. June 1859.
  9. ^ Dalrymple, The Last Mughal, p. 223
  10. ^ Dalrymple, The Last Mughal, p. 145 fn
  11. ^ Dalrymple (2006, pp. 341-47)
  12. ^ a b c Bhatia, H.S. Justice System and Mutinies in British India. p. 204.
  13. ^ Gill, M.S. Trials that Changed History: From Socrates to Saddam Hussein. p. 53.
  14. ^ a b Sharma, Kanika. A Symbol of State Power: Use of the Red Fort in Indian Political Trials (PDF). p. 1.
  15. ^ "Proceedings of the April 1858 Trial of Bahadur Shah Zafar 'King of Delhi'" (PDF). Parliamentary Papers. June 1859.
  16. ^ "The Rebel Army in 1857: At the Vanguard of the War of Independence or a Tyranny of Arms?". Economic and Political Weekly. 42.
  17. ^ Dalrymple, William (2007). The Last Mughal: The Fall of Delhi, 1857. Penguin India.
  18. ^ Dalrymple, William (2007). The Last Mughal. Penguin Books. ISBN 9780143102434.
  19. ^ Dalrymple, The Last Mughal, p. 473
  20. ^ By Amaury Lorin (9 February 2914). "Grave secrets of Yangon's imperial tomb". www.mmtimes.com. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  21. ^ Dalrymple, The Last Mughal, p. 474
  22. ^ Farooqi, Abdullah. "Bahadur Shah Zafar Ka Afsanae Gam". Farooqi Book Depot. Archived from the original on 9 July 2007. Retrieved 22 July 2007.
  23. ^ "Search the Collections | Victoria and Albert Museum". Images.vam.ac.uk. 25 August 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2012.[permanent dead link]
  24. ^ No Living Mughals, for now, The Hindu, Dec 09, 2002
  25. ^ The slumdog princess: How the descendant of the Indian Moghul rulers who built the Taj Mahal now lives in desperate poverty Daily Mail, Wills Robinson, 18 September 201
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i William Dalrymple, The Last Mughal, p. 78
  27. ^ a b c d William Dalrymple, The Last Mughal, p. 79
  28. ^ a b William Dalrymple, The Last Mughal, p. 80
  29. ^ "Zoomify image: Poem composed by the Emperor Bahadhur Shah and addressed to the Governor General's Agent at Delhi February 1843". Bl.uk. 30 November 2003. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
  30. ^ "[SASIALIT] bahadur shah zafar poem and its translation attempts". Mailman.rice.edu. 7 January 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
  31. ^ "BBC Hindi – भारत". Bbc.co.uk. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
  32. ^ "Jee Nehein Lagta Ujrey Diyaar Mein". urdupoint.com. Retrieved 21 July 2007.
  33. ^ "A little peek into history". The Hindu. 2 May 2008.

Bibliography

External links

Poetry
Descendants
Bahadur Shah Zafar
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Akbar II
Mughal Emperor
1837–1857
Succeeded by
Queen Victoria
as Empress of India