Autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APSs), also called polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PGASs) or polyendocrine autoimmune syndromes (PASs), are a heterogeneous group of rare diseases characterized by autoimmune activity against more than one endocrine organ, although non-endocrine organs can be affected. There are three types of APS, and there are a number of other diseases which involve endocrine autoimmunity.
Each "type" of this condition has a different genetic cause. IPEX syndrome is inherited in males by an x-linked recessive process. The FOXP3 gene, whose cytogenetic location is Xp11.23, is involved in the mechanism of the IPEX condition.
Immunosuppressive therapy may be used in type I of this condition.Ketoconazole can also be used for type I under certain conditions.
The component diseases are managed as usual; the challenge is to detect the possibility of any of the syndromes and to anticipate other manifestations. For example, in a person with known type 2 autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome but no features of Addison's disease, regular screening for antibodies against 21-hydroxylase may prompt early intervention and hydrocortisone replacement to prevent characteristic crises[medical citation needed]