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Arawan languages

Arawán
Arauán
Geographic
distribution
Brazil and Peru
Linguistic classificationMacro-Arawakan ?
  • Arawán
ISO 639-5auf
Glottologaraw1282[1]
Arawan languages.png

Arawan (also Arahuan, Arauan, Arawán, Arawa, Arauán) is a family of languages spoken in western Brazil (Amazonas, Acre) and Peru (Ucayali).

Language contact

Jolkesky (2016) notes that there are lexical similarities with the Chapakura-Wañam, Jivaro, Kwaza, Maku, Mura-Matanawi, Taruma, Yanomami, Arawak, Nadahup, Puinave-Kak, and Tupi language families due to contact.[2]

Family division

Arauan consists of half a dozen languages:

Jolkesky (2016)

Internal classification by Jolkesky (2016):[2]

(† = extinct)

Arawa

Dienst (2010)

Internal classification by Dienst (2010):[3]

Arawan

Mason (1950)

Arauá internal classification by Mason (1950):[4]

  • Arauá
  • Culino
    • Culina
    • Curia
    • Curiana
    • Culiña
  • Pama
    • Pama
    • Pamana
  • Yamamadí
    • Yamamadí: Capaná, Capinamari, Colo
    • Purupurú: Paumarí (Pammarí)
    • Yuberi
  • Madihá
  • Sewacu
  • Sipó

Other varieties

Unattested varieties listed by Loukotka (1968):[5]

  • Purupurú - extinct language spoken in the same region on the lower course of the Purus River. (Unattested)
  • Uainamari / Wainamarí - extinct language spoken on the Inauini River, a tributary of the upper Purus River. (Unattested)
  • Uatanari / Watanarí - once spoken on the Ituxi River and Sepatini River in the same region; now perhaps extinct. (Unattested)
  • Sewacu - once spoken on the Pauini River, now on the left bank of the Purus River on the opposite side of the mouth of the Sepatini River. (Unattested)
  • Pamana - once spoken on the Ituxi River and Mucuim River near Lake Agaam, the same region; now probably extinct. (Unattested)
  • Amamati - extinct language once spoken on the Mucuim River north of the Pamana tribe. (Unattested)
  • Yuberí / Xubiri - once spoken on the middle course of the Purus River on the opposite side of the mouth of the Mamoriá River and around Lake Abunini, now on the lower course of the Tapauá River, the same region. (Unattested)
  • Sipó / Cipo - extinct language once spoken north of the Yuberi tribe on the Tapaua River. (Unattested)
  • Curina / Kurina / Kólö - language spoken in two regions; first, on the right bank of the Juruá River, along the Marari River and on the upper course of the Tapauá River; second, on the Eiru River and Gregório River and on the left bank of the Muru River, territory of Acre, Brazil.
  • Madiha - spoken on the Eiru River near Bom Jardim, Amazonas.
  • Catiana - extinct language once spoken on the Iaco River, Acre. (Unattested)

Vocabulary

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items.[5]

gloss Arauá Yamamadi Paumari Curina Madiha
one warihí itarini huarani ahã ahã
two fanihi mushamu faumini pamawi
three arisafaha uharini harabakudzeki nawi
head ä-tati dadií tazi-ama i-tati
eye ä-narobõ murubui eribu waribu
hand u-safá ä-dzäfä dzẽi iyepe zepe
water pahá pãhã pãhá patsu patsu
fire sihú yefu sidzyú dipu zipu
sun mahí mahi kasiri maxi maxi
maize kemi yoruá tapá tapa
tapir awí aui dama auhi awi
house zamí huda gurã uza uáza

Proto-language

Below are selected Proto-Arawá (Proto-Arawan) reconstructions of flora and fauna names by Dixon (2004):[6]

Flora

Proto-Arawá English gloss Portuguese gloss
*biha yam sp. carai
*boba palm sp. paxiúba
*bodi fruit sp. bacuri
*'boko tree sp. imbaúba
*doni tonka bean cumaru
*hawa patauá palm patauá
*imi ingá (tree and edible fruit) ingá
*jani palm sp. paxiubinha
*jawana palm sp. murumuru
*jawida peach palm
*kahami palm sp. urucuri
*majo tree sp. pajurá
*nabohi palm sp. paxiúba-barriguda
*ora genipap jenipapo
*para'i assai palm
*sanaro passion fruit maracujá
*tamajara matamatá tree, envira tree matamatá, envira
*tamino jackfruit tree
*waishowa several trees of genus Lucuma abiurana
*wasina, *wasini kapok ceibe tree samaúma, Ceiba pentandra
*wekhe'i rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis
*xidepe tree sp.; red paint made from fruit urucu, Bixa orellana

Fauna

Mammals

Proto-Arawá English gloss Portuguese gloss
*gapha woolly monkey
*hijama white-lipped peccary
*hojawa giant anteater
*ja'o sloth sp.
*jajiko howler monkey
*jotomi coati quati
*jowi(hi) capuchin monkey
*kawina howler monkey
*kiriwe three-toed sloth
*kishi- armadillo tatu
*kiso capuchin monkey
*kosikosi kinkajou, night monkey jupará
*mase bat
*modo anteater tamanduá
*mowi night monkey
*pishi squirrel monkey; marmoset (small monkey) macaco-de-cheiro, Saimiri sciureus
*shawa(ri) weasel sp. irara
*shinama agouti cutia
*tamakori monkey sp. macaco parauaçu, Pithecia monachus

Birds

Proto-Arawá English gloss Portuguese gloss
*ama'ahawa socó heron socó
*amasawari socozinho heron socozinho
*dapo guan (bird sp.)
*DiroDiro kingfisher
*hiriti motmot bird
*jakhi toucan (Ramphastos)
*kamowa dove sp. juriti, rolinha
*kawashiro oriole
*komi trogon (bird sp.)
*khere kingfisher ariramba
*okoko pigeon, dove sp. juriti
*shabiria eagle-hawk Harpia harpyja
*tano pied-crested oropendola (type of oriole) japu
*tawikhoro(ro) black-fronted nunbird bico-de-brasa
*tobejaro, *tobejero) nighthawk bacurau
*wara- chachalaca (bird) aracuã

Fish

Proto-Arawá English gloss Portuguese gloss
*aba majaro arowana (fish sp.) aruanã
*'awida piau sp. (fish) piau
*bahama surubim (large fish) surubim
*basani pacu (fish sp.) pacu
*bidama catfish sp. mandi
*dawi big leaf calathea (fish sp.)
*kosop(h)a tucunaré (fish sp.) tucunaré
*khorobo fish sp. jeju?
*moro fish sp. (cangati sp.; large catfish) cangati; jai preto, Paulicea luetkeni
*otawi cará (fish sp.) cará
*siraba fish sp. cangati, cará, acará
*shako lungfish traíra

Other animals

Proto-Arawá English gloss Portuguese gloss
*kowasa tortoise
*shire turtle tartaruga
*bitha large mosquito carapanã
*'Diriri cicada
*jimo, *jomo ant sp. tocandira
*karajati biting fly mutuca
*waharo large mosquito carapanã

Bibliography

  • Buller, Barbara; Buller, Ernest; & Everett, Daniel L. (1993). Stress placement, syllable structure, and minimality in Banawá. International Journal of American Linguistics, 59 (1), 280-293.
  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Dixon, R. M. W. (2001). Internal reconstruction of tense-modal suffixes in Jarawara. Diachronica, 18, 3-30.
  • Dixon, R. M. W. (2004a). The Jarawara language of southern Amazonia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-927067-8.
  • Dixon, R. M. W. (2004b). Proto-Arawá phonology. Anthropological Linguistics, 46, 1–83.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1990). Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages (pp. 13–67). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70414-3.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1994). The native languages of South America. In C. Mosley & R. E. Asher (Eds.), Atlas of the world's languages (pp. 46–76). London: Routledge.
Lexicons
  • Chapman, Sh.; Salzer, M. (1998). Dicionário bilíngue nas línguas paumarí e portuguesa. Porto Velho: Sociedade Internacional de Lingüística.
  • Koop, G.; Koop, L. (1985). Dicionário Dení Português (com introdução gramatical). Porto Velho: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  • Ssila, A. O.; Monserrat, R. M. F. (1984). Dicionário kulina-português e português-kulina (dialeto do Igarapé do Anjo). Acre: Conselho Indigenista Missionário.
  • Suzuki, M. (2002). Dicionário suruwahá-português and vocabulário português- suruwahá. Hawaii: University of the Nations.
  • Vogel, A. R. (2005). Dicionário Jarawara - Português. Cuiabá: SIL.

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Arawan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ a b Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho De Valhery. 2016. Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Brasília.
  3. ^ Dienst, Stefan (2010). The internal classification of the Arawan languages. LIAMES: Línguas Indígenas Americanas, 8(1), 61-67. doi:10.20396/liames.v8i1.1471
  4. ^ Mason, John Alden (1950). "The languages of South America". In Steward, Julian (ed.). Handbook of South American Indians. 6. Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143. pp. 157–317.
  5. ^ a b Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  6. ^ Dixon, R. M. W. 2004. Proto-Arawá Phonology. Anthropological Linguistics 46: 1-83.

External links

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