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Apple cider vinegar

Vinegar, cider
Apple cider vinegar.jpg
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy88 kJ (21 kcal)
0.93 g
Sugars0.40 g
Dietary fiber0 g
0 g
0 g
VitaminsQuantity %DV
Vitamin A equiv.
0%
0 μg
Thiamine (B1)
0%
0 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0%
0 mg
Niacin (B3)
0%
0 mg
Vitamin B6
0%
0 mg
Folate (B9)
0%
0 μg
Vitamin B12
0%
0 μg
Vitamin C
0%
0 mg
Vitamin E
0%
0 mg
Vitamin K
0%
0 μg
MineralsQuantity %DV
Calcium
1%
7 mg
Iron
2%
0.20 mg
Magnesium
1%
5 mg
Phosphorus
1%
8 mg
Potassium
2%
73 mg
Sodium
0%
5 mg
Zinc
0%
0.04 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water93.81 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Apple cider vinegar, or cider vinegar, is a vinegar made from fermented apple juice,[1] and used in salad dressings, marinades, vinaigrettes, food preservatives, and chutneys. It is made by crushing apples, then squeezing out the juice. Bacteria and yeast are added to the liquid to start the alcoholic fermentation process, which converts the sugars to alcohol. In a second fermentation step, the alcohol is converted into vinegar by acetic acid-forming bacteria (Acetobacter species). Acetic acid and malic acid combine to give vinegar its sour taste.[1] Apple cider vinegar has no medicinal or nutritional value.

Nutrition

Apple cider vinegar is 94% water, with 1% carbohydrates and no fat or protein. Its caloric and nutrient contents are negligible (USDA nutrition table).

Folk medicine

Despite its history of use in traditional medicine, there is no clinical evidence to support any health claims – such as for weight loss or skin infections – and its use is not recommended in medical guidelines of any major public health organization.[2] There is no high-quality evidence that consuming apple cider vinegar has an effect on blood glucose and cholesterol.[2]

Safety

Ingestion of apple cider vinegar in tablet form poses a risk of injury to soft tissues of the mouth, throat, stomach, and kidneys.[3] Irritation and redness are common when the eyes come into contact with vinegar, and corneal injury can occur.[2] Using vinegar as a topical medication, ear cleaning solution, or eye wash, is hazardous.[2] Due to its acidity, exposure of teeth from consuming undiluted apple cider vinegar may damage tooth enamel.[1] Although small amounts of apple cider vinegar may be used as a food flavoring,[2] it may be unsafe for use by pregnant and breastfeeding women and by children.[1]

If used as a homemade cleaning agent, apple cider vinegar should not be mixed with chlorine bleach, the combination of which may release chlorine gas and irritate airways, eyes, nose and throat.[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Ulbricht CE, ed. (2010). "Apple Cider Vinegar". Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Guide: An Evidence-Based Reference (1st ed.). Elsevier. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-323-07295-3.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Mary Elizabeth May (2017). "Vinegar: Not Just for Salad". National Capital Poison Center, Washington, DC. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  3. ^ Hill, LL; Woodruff, LH; Foote, JC; Barreto-Alcoba, M (2005). "Esophageal injury by apple cider vinegar tablets and subsequent evaluation of products". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 105 (7): 1141–1144. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2005.04.003. PMID 15983536.