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Anti-Manchuism

Anti-Manchuism (Chinese: 排滿) refers to sentiment held against the Manchus, or against Qing Dynasty rule over Chinese civilization which was often resented for being supposedly barbaric foreign peoples ruling over Chinese civilization despite a high degree of cultural integration by the Manchus. This ethnic-based[citation needed] sentiment tended to be a subset of the greater anti-Qing sentiment. Some of the anti-Manchuists in the Qing dynasty stated "Fan qing fu ming" (simplified Chinese: 反清复明; traditional Chinese: 反清復明) to say they want to rebuild the Ming dynasty and overthrow the Qing dynasty.

Sun Yat Sen was the founder of Chinese Republic who overthrew the Qing Dynasty which ruled over all of China from 1644 to 1911 proclaimed as such when he launched his rebellion against the Qing Dynasty which was ruled by Manchus:

In 1911 Xinhai revolutionaries proclaimed that Han and Muslims were equal, but deliberately left out the Manchus in the original proclamation, and thus "can be seen as sanctioning" the massacre of Manchus in Xi'an.[1] The Hui Muslim community was divided in its support for the revolution. The native Hui Muslims of Gansu province led by Ma Anliang and Ma Qi proceeded to ignore the proclamation, and continued to fight for Qing against the revolutionaries. Only some wealthy Manchus who were ransomed and Manchu females survived. Wealthy Han Chinese seized Manchu girls to become their slaves[2] and poor Han Chinese troops seized young Manchu women to be their wives.[3]

Genocide by Taiping

Due to their hatred of the Manchus, the Taipings launched a large scale massacres against them to exterminate their entire race from Chinese civilization.

In every area they captured, Taipings exterminated all the Manchus immediately such as i into the Manchu fort in cities all over China. One Qing loyalist in the province of Hunan observed the massive massacres of the Manchus by Taiping forces against the Manchus and wrote of the "pitiful Manchus", the Manchu men, women and children who were exterminated by Taiping warriors. Once Hefei capitulated, the Taiping forces rushed into the Manchu fort shouting "Kill the demons (Manchus)!" and executed all the Manchus. Ningbo's entire Manchu population was also annhialated.[4]

After conquering Nanjing, Taiping forces stormed the Manchu fort, killing some 40,000 Manchus (the entire Manchu population of the city).[5] On june, Taiping troops captured Suzhou where another 40,000 Manchus were also exterminated. On 27 October 1853 they crossed the Yellow River in T'sang-chou and butchered another 10,000 Manchus.[6] In Shaoxing some 2,000 Manchus were also killed.[7] Taipings later captured Hangzhou where hundreds of thousands of Manchu were also killed by Taiping massacre or famine.

See also

References

  1. ^ Edward J. M. Rhoads (2001). Manchus & Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861-1928. University of Washington Press. p. 191. ISBN 0295980400. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  2. ^ Rhoads, Edward J. M. (2000). Manchus and Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861–1928 (illustrated, reprint ed.). University of Washington Press. p. 192. ISBN 0295980400.
  3. ^ Rhoads, Edward J. M. (2000). Manchus and Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861–1928 (illustrated, reprint ed.). University of Washington Press. p. 193. ISBN 0295980400.
  4. ^ Thomas H. Reilly (2011). The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom: Rebellion and the Blasphemy of Empire. University of Washington Press. Copyright. p. 139. ISBN 9780295801926.
  5. ^ Matthew White (2011). Atrocities: The 100 Deadliest Episodes in Human History. W. W. Norton. p. 289. ISBN 978-0-393-08192-3.
  6. ^ Micheal Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures. Mcfarland. p. 256.
  7. ^ [1]

Further reading

  • BILLETER, TERENCE: L’empereur jaune: Une tradition politique chinoise (2005). Les Indes savantes.
  • CHOW, KAI-WING: Narrating Nation, Race and National Culture: Imagining the Hanzu Identity in Modern China, in: CHOW KAI-WING, DOAK, KEVIN M. und POSHEK FU (ed.): Constructing nationhood in modern East Asia (2001). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 47–84.
  • HARRELL, PAULA: Sowing the Seeds of Change – Chinese Students, Japanese Teachers, 1895-1905 (1992). Stanford/California: Stanford University Press.
  • JUDGE, JOAN: Talent, Virtue and Nation: Chinese Nationalism and Female Subjectivities in the Early Twentieth Century, in: The American Historical Review (Vol. 106, No. 3, June 2001, pp. 765–803).
  • LIU QINGFENG [劉青峰] (ed.): Minzuzhuyi yu Zhongguo xiandaihua [民族主義與中國現代化] (1994). Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
  • LUST, JOHN: The Su-pao Case: An Episode in the Early Chinese Nationalist Movement, in: Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. XXVII, Part 2, pp. 408–429.
  • SHEN SUNG-CHIAO [沈松僑]: Wo yi wo xue jian Xuanyuan – Huangdi shenhua yu wan Qing de guozu jiangou [我以我血薦軒轅─ 黃帝神話與晚清的國族建構], in: Taiwan shehui yanjiu jikan, Ausgabe 28, Dezember 1997, pp. 1–77.
  • SHEN SUNG-CHIAO (together with QIAN YONGXIANG [錢永祥]): Delimiting China: Discourses of 'Guomin' (國民) and the Construction of Chinese Nationality in Late Qing, paper presented at the Conference on Nationalism: The East Asia Experience, May 25–27, 1999, ISSP, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 20pp.(沈松僑/中研院近代史所助理研究員).
  • SAKAMOTO, HIROKO [坂元ひろ子]: Chūgoku minzokushugi no shinwa: jinshu – shintai – jendā [中国民族主義の神話 : 人種・身体・ジェンダー] (2004). Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.

External links

Gasster, Michael (1998). "Anti-Manchuism." In Modern China: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Nationalism, edited by Ke-Wen Wang, pp. 11–13. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0815307209.