Anti-Manchuism (Chinese: 排滿) refers to sentiment held against the Manchus, or against Qing Dynasty rule over Chinese civilization which was often resented for being supposedly barbaric foreign peoples ruling over Chinese civilization despite a high degree of cultural integration by the Manchus. This ethnic-based sentiment tended to be a subset of the greater anti-Qing sentiment. Some of the anti-Manchuists in the Qing dynasty stated "Fan qing fu ming" (simplified Chinese: 反清复明; traditional Chinese: 反清復明) to say they want to rebuild the Ming dynasty and overthrow the Qing dynasty.
Sun Yat Sen was the founder of Chinese Republic who overthrew the Qing Dynasty which ruled over all of China from 1644 to 1911 proclaimed as such when he launched his rebellion against the Qing Dynasty which was ruled by Manchus:
|“||In order to restore our national independence, we must first restore the Chinese nation. In order to restore the Chinese nation, we must drive the barbarian Manchus back to the Changbai Mountains. In order to get rid of the barbarians, we must first overthrow the present tyrannical, dictatorial, ugly, and corrupt Qing government. Fellow countrymen, a revolution is the only means to overthrow the Qing government!||”|
In 1911 Xinhai revolutionaries proclaimed that Han and Muslims were equal, but deliberately left out the Manchus in the original proclamation, and thus "can be seen as sanctioning" the massacre of Manchus in Xi'an. The Hui Muslim community was divided in its support for the revolution. The native Hui Muslims of Gansu province led by Ma Anliang and Ma Qi proceeded to ignore the proclamation, and continued to fight for Qing against the revolutionaries. Only some wealthy Manchus who were ransomed and Manchu females survived. Wealthy Han Chinese seized Manchu girls to become their slaves and poor Han Chinese troops seized young Manchu women to be their wives.
Due to their hatred of the Manchus, the Taipings launched a large scale massacres against them to exterminate their entire race from Chinese civilization.
In every area they captured, Taipings exterminated all the Manchus immediately such as i into the Manchu fort in cities all over China. One Qing loyalist in the province of Hunan observed the massive massacres of the Manchus by Taiping forces against the Manchus and wrote of the "pitiful Manchus", the Manchu men, women and children who were exterminated by Taiping warriors. Once Hefei capitulated, the Taiping forces rushed into the Manchu fort shouting "Kill the demons (Manchus)!" and executed all the Manchus. Ningbo's entire Manchu population was also annhialated.
After conquering Nanjing, Taiping forces stormed the Manchu fort, killing some 40,000 Manchus (the entire Manchu population of the city). On june, Taiping troops captured Suzhou where another 40,000 Manchus were also exterminated. On 27 October 1853 they crossed the Yellow River in T'sang-chou and butchered another 10,000 Manchus. In Shaoxing some 2,000 Manchus were also killed. Taipings later captured Hangzhou where hundreds of thousands of Manchu were also killed by Taiping massacre or famine.
Gasster, Michael (1998). "Anti-Manchuism." In Modern China: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Nationalism, edited by Ke-Wen Wang, pp. 11–13. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0815307209.