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Androgen deficiency

Androgen deficiency
Other namesHypoandrogenism, androgen deficiency syndrome, men with hypogonadism[1]

Androgen deficiency is a medical condition characterized by not enough androgenic activity in the body.

Signs and symptoms

Symptoms of the condition in males consist of loss of libido, impotence, infertility, shrinkage of the testicles, penis, and prostate, diminished masculinization (e.g., decreased facial and body hair growth), low muscle mass, anxiety, depression, fatigue, vasomotor symptoms (hot flashes), insomnia, headaches, and osteoporosis. In addition, symptoms of hyperestrogenism, such as gynecomastia and feminization, may be concurrently present in males.

In females, hypoandrogenism consist of loss of libido, decreased body hair growth, depression, fatigue, vaginal vasocongestion (which can result in cramps), vasomotor symptoms (e.g., hot flashes and palpitations), insomnia, headaches, osteoporosis and reduced muscle mass.[2][3][4] Symptoms of hypoestrogenism may be present in both sexes in cases of severe androgen deficiency (as estrogens are synthesized from androgens).

Causes

Hypoandrogenism is caused primarily by either dysfunction, failure, or absence of the gonads (hypergonadotropic) or impairment of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland (hypogonadotropic), which in turn can be caused by a multitude of different stimuli, including genetic conditions (e.g., GnRH/gonadotropin insensitivity and enzymatic defects of steroidogenesis), tumors, trauma, surgery, autoimmunity, radiation, infections, toxins, drugs, and many others. Alternatively, it may be the result of conditions such as androgen insensitivity syndrome or hyperestrogenism. More simply, old age may also be a factor in the development of hypoandrogenism, as androgen levels decline with age.[citation needed]

Diagnosis

Diagnosis of androgenic deficiency in males should be based on symptoms together with at least two measurements of testosterone done first thing in the morning after a period of not eating.[1] In those without symptoms testing is not generally recommended.[1]

Androgen deficiency is not usually a checked for diagnosis in healthy women.[5]

Treatment

Treatment may consist of hormone replacement therapy with androgens in those with symptoms.[1] Treatment mostly just improves sexual function in males.[1]

Alternatively, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/GnRH agonists or gonadotropins may be given (in the case of hypogonadotropic hypoandrogenism). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) stated in 2015 that neither the benefits nor the safety of testosterone have been established for low testosterone levels due to aging.[6] The FDA has required that testosterone pharmaceutical labels include warning information about the possibility of an increased risk of heart attacks and stroke.[6]

Androgen replacement therapy formulations and dosages used in men

Route Medication Major brand names Form Dosage
Oral Testosteronea Tablet 400–800 mg/day (in divided doses)
Testosterone undecanoate Andriol, Jatenzo Capsule 40–80 mg/2–4x day (with meals)
Methyltestosteroneb Android, Metandren, Testred Tablet 10–50 mg/day
Fluoxymesteroneb Halotestin, Ora-Testryl, Ultandren Tablet 5–20 mg/day
Metandienoneb Dianabol Tablet 5–15 mg/day
Mesteroloneb Proviron Tablet 25–150 mg/day
Buccal Testosterone Striant Tablet 30 mg 2x/day
Methyltestosteroneb Metandren, Oreton Methyl Tablet 5–25 mg/day
Sublingual Testosteroneb Testoral Tablet 5–10 mg 1–4x/day
Methyltestosteroneb Metandren, Oreton Methyl Tablet 10–30 mg/day
Intranasal Testosterone Natesto Nasal spray 11 mg 3x/day
Transdermal Testosterone AndroGel, Testim, TestoGel Gel 25–125 mg/day
Androderm, AndroPatch, TestoPatch Non-scrotal patch 2.5–15 mg/day
Testoderm Scrotal patch 4–6 mg/day
Axiron Axillary solution 30–120 mg/day
Androstanolone (DHT) Andractim Gel 100–250 mg/day
Rectal Testosterone Rektandron, Testosteronb Suppository 40 mg 2–3x/day
Injection (IM or SC) Testosterone Andronaq, Sterotate, Virosterone Aqueous suspension 10–50 mg 2–3x/week
Testosterone propionateb Testoviron Oil solution 10–50 mg 2–3x/week
Testosterone enanthate Delatestryl Oil solution 50–250 mg 1x/1–4 weeks
Xyosted Auto-injector 50–100 mg 1x/week
Testosterone cypionate Depo-Testosterone Oil solution 50–250 mg 1x/1–4 weeks
Testosterone isobutyrate Agovirin Depot Aqueous suspension 50–100 mg 1x/1–2 weeks
Mixed testosterone esters Sustanon 100, Sustanon 250 Oil solution 50–250 mg 1x/2–4 weeks
Testosterone undecanoate Aveed, Nebido Oil solution 750–1,000 mg 1x/10–14 weeks
Testosterone buciclatea Aqueous suspension 600–1,000 mg 1x/12–20 weeks
Implant Testosterone Testopel Pellet 150–1,200 mg/3–6 months
Notes: Men produce about 3 to 11 mg testosterone per day (mean 7 mg/day in young men). Footnotes: a = Never marketed. b = No longer used and/or no longer marketed. Sources: See template.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Bhasin, S; Brito, JP; Cunningham, GR; Hayes, FJ; Hodis, HN; Matsumoto, AM; Snyder, PJ; Swerdloff, RS; Wu, FC; Yialamas, MA (1 May 2018). "Testosterone Therapy in Men With Hypogonadism: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 103 (5): 1715–1744. doi:10.1210/jc.2018-00229. PMID 29562364.
  2. ^ Jakiel G, Baran A (2005). "[Androgen deficiency in women]". Endokrynologia Polska (in Polish). 56 (6): 1016–20. PMID 16821229.
  3. ^ Bachmann GA (April 2002). "The hypoandrogenic woman: pathophysiologic overview". Fertility and Sterility. 77 Suppl 4: S72–6. doi:10.1016/S0015-0282(02)03003-0. PMID 12007907.
  4. ^ Bremner WJ (27 May 2003). Androgens in Health and Disease. Humana Press. pp. 365–379. ISBN 978-1-58829-029-8. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
  5. ^ Wierman ME, Arlt W, Basson R, Davis SR, Miller KK, Murad MH, Rosner W, Santoro N (October 2014). "Androgen therapy in women: a reappraisal: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 99 (10): 3489–510. doi:10.1210/jc.2014-2260. PMID 25279570.
  6. ^ a b Staff (3 March 2015). "Testosterone Products: Drug Safety Communication - FDA Cautions About Using Testosterone Products for Low Testosterone Due to Aging; Requires Labeling Change to Inform of Possible Increased Risk of Heart Attack And Stroke". FDA. Retrieved 5 March 2015.