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Andal (community development block)

Andal

Ondal
Community development block
Andal is located in West Bengal
Andal
Andal
Location in West Bengal
Coordinates: 23°35′00″N 87°11′00″E / 23.58333°N 87.18333°E / 23.58333; 87.18333
Country India
StateWest Bengal
DistrictPaschim Bardhaman
Parliamentary constituencyAsansol
Assembly constituencyRaniganj
Area
 • Total32.77 sq mi (84.87 km2)
Elevation
292 ft (89 m)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total186,915
 • Density5,700/sq mi (2,200/km2)
Time zoneUTC+5.30 (IST)
PIN
713321 (Andal South Bazar)
713338 (Kajoragram)
713363 (Ukhra)
Telephone/STD code0343
Vehicle registrationWB-39,WB-40
Literacy Rate77.25 per cent
Website[bardhaman.gov.in]

Andal (also spelled Ondal) is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Durgapur subdivision of Paschim Bardhaman district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

Geography

Andal is located at 23°35′N 87°11′E / 23.59°N 87.18°E / 23.59; 87.18.

Andal CD Block is part of the Ajay Damodar Barakar tract. This area is sort of an extension of the Chota Nagpur Plateau. It is a rocky undulating area with laterite soil, with the Ajay on the north, the Damodar on the south and the Barakar on the west. For ages the area was heavily forested and infested with plunderers and marauders. The discovery of coal, in the eighteenth century, led to industrialisation of the area and most of the forests have been cleared.[1][2]

Andal CD Block is bounded by Pandabeswar CD Block on the north, Faridpur Durgapur CD Block on the east, Barjora CD Block, in Bankura district, on the south and Raniganj CD Block on the west.[3]

Andal CD Block has an area of 84.87 km2. It has 1 panchayat samity, 8 gram panchayats, 146 gram sansads (village councils), 14 mouzas and 12 inhabited villages. Andal, Pandabeswar and Durgapur police stations serve this block.[4] Headquarters of this CD Block is at Andal.[5]

Singaran, a small stream about 35 km long has its origin near Ikra in the Jamuria area, flows past Topsi and Andal and joins the Damodar near Waria.[6]

Gram panchayats of the Andal block, or panchayat samiti, are: Andal, Dakshin Khanda, Kajora, Khandra, Madanpur, Ramprosadpur, Srirampur and Ukhra.[7]

Demographics

Population

As per the 2011 Census of India Ondal CD Block had a total population of 186,915, of which 35,611 were rural and 151,304 were urban. There were 98,149 (53%) males and 88,766 (47%) females. Population below 6 years was 20,893. Scheduled Castes numbered 52,518 (28.10%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 7,628 (4.08%).[8]

As per 2001 census, Andal block had a total population of 168,807, out of which 91,633 were males and 77,174 were females. Andal block registered a population growth of 9.47 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for Bardhaman district was 14.36 per cent.[9] Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84 per cent.[10] Scheduled castes at 54,611 formed around one-fourth the population. Scheduled tribes numbered 9,883.[11]

Census Towns in Ondal CD Block are (2011 census figures in brackets): Siduli (8,961), Khandra (15,383), Chak Bankola (part) (1,965), Ukhra (24,104), Mahira (4,188), Dakshin Khanda (8,449), Parashkol (part) (845), Kajora (27,275), Harishpur (8,980), Palashban (4,811), Dignala (13,633), Andal (gram) (6,177), Ondal (19,924) and Baska (6,609). Chak Bankola and Parashkol are partly in Andal CD Block and partly in Pandabeswar CD Block.[8]

Large villages (with 4,000+ population) in Ondal CD Block are (2011 census figures in brackets): Bhadur (4,278), Madanpur (4,631) and Shrirampur (4,235).[8]

Other villages in Ondal CD Block are (2011census figures in brackets): Mukundapur (2,913), Madhusudanpur (3,435), Gaidhoba (2,471), Dhandadihi (3,800), Madhabpur (2,216), Chak Rambati (1,557), Babuisol (1,941), Tamla (732) and Dhubchururia (3,402).[8](All villages included in 2011 census data are mentioned here. Other villages or localities, if any, are parts of these villages.)

Literacy

As per the 2011 census, the total number of literates in Ondal CD Block was 128,254 (77.25% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 74,218 (85.02% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 54,036 (68.64% of the female population over 6 years). The gender disparity (the difference between female and male literacy rates) was 16.38%.[8]

As per 2001 census, Andal block had a total literacy of 72.01 per cent for the 6+ age group. While male literacy was 80.86 per cent female literacy was 61.36 per cent. Bardhaman district had a total literacy of 70.18 per cent, male literacy being 78.63 per cent and female literacy being 60.95 per cent.[12]

See also – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate


Languages and religion

As per census definition, mother-tongue is the language spoken in childhood by the person's mother to the person. As a mother-tongue, Bengali has decreased its share from 82.3% of the population of Bardhaman district in 1961 to 79.9% in 2001, Hindi has increased its share from 8.5% in 1961 to 10.9% in 2001 Santali has remained steady at around 4.9% during the period, and Urdu has increased its share from 2.4% in 1961 to 2.6% in 2001. Other mother-tongues spoken in 2001 were: Odiya (0.3%), Punjabi (0.2%), Koda/Kora (0.2%), Telugu (0.1%), Bhojpuri (0.1%), Nepali (0.1%) and Kurukh/ Oraon (0.1%).[13]

As of 2017, CD Block-wise/ other region-wise break-up of mother tongue is not available in census/ other official sources. There have been reports in the media about the Hindi speaking population being substantial in the Asansol (Lok Sabha constituency).[14][15] Bardhaman district provided attractive livelihood opportunities for immigrants from Bihar/ Jharkhand.[16]

The West Bengal Official Language (Second Amendment) Bill, 2012, included Hindi, Santhali, Odiya and Punjabi as official languages if it is spoken by a population exceeding 10 per cent of the whole in a particular block or sub-division or a district. Subsequently, Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi and Kurmali were also included in the list of minority languages by the West Bengal Official Language (Second Amendment) Bill, 2018.[17][18]However, as of 2019, there is no official / other reliable information about the areas covered.

Religion in Ondal CD Block
Hindu
90.52%
Muslim
8.69%
Christian
0.25%
Others
0.54%

In the 2011 census Hindus numbered 169,195 and formed 90.52% of the population in Ondal CD Block. Muslims numbered 16,240 and formed 8.69% of the population. Christians numbered 472 and formed 0.25% of the population. Others numbered 1,008 and formed 0.54% of the population.[19]

Rural poverty

As per poverty estimates obtained from household survey for families living below poverty line in 2005, rural poverty in Andal CD Block was 18.35%.[20]

Economy

Livelihood

Livelihood
in Andal CD Block

  Cultivators (2.19%)
  Agricultural labourers (3.43%)
  Household industries (2.55%)
  Other Workers (91.83%)

In Andal CD Block in 2011, amongst the class of total workers, cultivators numbered 1,296 and formed 2.19% of the total workers, agricultural labourers numbered 2,026 and formed 3.43%, household industry workers numbered 1,507 and formed 2.55% and other workers numbered 54,302 and formed 91.83%. Total workers numbered 59,131 and formed 31.64% of the total population, and non-workers numbered 127,784 and formed 68.36% of the population.[21]

The coalmines are spread across the Andal, Pandaveswar, Raniganj, Jamuria, Barabani and Salanpur region, including municipal areas. Livelihood in this region is coal-centred. The area does not produce much of agricultural products. Overall work participation rate, and female work participation rate, in the mining area are low. Interestingly the work participation rate in the predominantly agricultural rural areas of erstwhile Bardhaman district is higher than in the predominantly urbanised mining area. Human development in the mining area does not at all look good. However, in the composite livelihood index the mining area performs much better than the non-mining areas of erstwhile Bardhaman district. The decadal (1991-2001) change in composition of workers shows the growing pressure of population growth, as well as of migrants from adjacent Jharkhand.[22]

Note: In the census records a person is considered a cultivator, if the person is engaged in cultivation/ supervision of land owned by self/government/institution. When a person who works on another person's land for wages in cash or kind or share, is regarded as an agricultural labourer. Household industry is defined as an industry conducted by one or more members of the family within the household or village, and one that does not qualify for registration as a factory under the Factories Act. Other workers are persons engaged in some economic activity other than cultivators, agricultural labourers and household workers. It includes factory, mining, plantation, transport and office workers, those engaged in business and commerce, teachers, entertainment artistes and so on.[23]

Infrastructure

All 14 or 100% of mouzas in Andal CD Block were electrified by 31 March 2014.[24]

All 14 mouzas in Andal CD Block had drinking water facilities in 2013-14. There were 14 fertiliser depots, 8 seed stores and 55 fair price shops in the CD Block.[24]

Coal mining

Purushattompur open cast project in Bankola Area of Eastern Coalfields has a mineable reserve of 8 million tonnes.[25]

Siduli opencast project in Kenda Area of Eastern Coalfields has a mineable reserve of 9.70 million tonnes.[25]

Banbahai open cast project in Kenda area of Eastern Coalfields has a mineable reserve of 5.26 million tonnes.[25]

Amongst the mines of Eastern Coalfields selected for introduction of mass production technology with the installation of the continuous miner are: Siduli UG (1.02 million tonnes year), Shankarpur UG (1.163 mty), Naba Kajora Madabpur (1.08 mty) and Parasea-Belbaid UG (1.83 mty).[25]

See also – Bankola Area, Kajora Area and Kenda Area of Eastern Coalfields

Agriculture

Although the Bargadari Act of 1950 recognised the rights of bargadars to a higher share of crops from the land that they tilled, it was not implemented fully. Large tracts, beyond the prescribed limit of land ceiling, remained with the rich landlords. From 1977 onwards major land reforms took place in West Bengal. Land in excess of land ceiling was acquired and distributed amongst the peasants.[26] Following land reforms land ownership pattern has undergone transformation. In 2013-14, persons engaged in agriculture in Andal CD Block could be classified as follows: bargadars 17.10%, patta (document) holders 38.31%, small farmers (possessing land between 1 and 2 hectares) 1.47%, marginal farmers (possessing land up to 1 hectare) 11.83% and agricultural labourers 31.29%.[24]

In 2003-04 net cropped area in Andal CD Block was 1,551 hectares and the area in which more than one crop was grown was 1,275 hectares.[27]

In 2013-14, Andal CD Block produced 3,060 tonnes of Aman paddy, the main winter crop, from 1,196 hectares and 7 tonnes of wheat from 5 hectares. It also produced pulses and oilseeds.[24]

Banking

In 2013-14, Andal CD Block had offices of 8 commercial banks.[24]

Transport

Andal CD Block has 8 originating/ terminating bus routes.[24]

The Bardhaman-Asansol section, which is a part of Howrah-Gaya-Delhi line, Howrah-Allahabad-Mumbai line and Howrah-Delhi main line, passes through this CD Block and there is a station at Andal.[33]

The Andal-Sainthia branch line originates from Andal.[34][35]

NH 19 (old numbering NH 2)/ Grand Trunk Road passes through this CD Block.[36]

Kazi Nazrul Islam Airport is a domestic airport at Andal. The airport has been built over 650 acres and was officially inaugurated in 2013. It is 15 km from Durgapur's City Centre and 25 km from Asasol's city bus terminus.[37]

Education

In 2013-14, Andal CD Block had 61 primary schools with 9,424 students, 8 middle schools with 526 students, 9 high school with 6,350 students and 11 higher secondary schools with 13,804 students. Andal CD Block had 1 general college with 1,624 students, 3 technical/ professional institutions with 420 students, 293 institutions for special and non-formal education with 11,750 students[24]

Khandra College was established at Khandra in 1981. It is affiliated with Kazi Nazrul University.[38]

Healthcare

In 2014, Andal CD Block had 1 block primary health centre, 2 primary health centres, 3 central government/ PSU medical centres and 6 private nursing homes with total 274 beds and 40 doctors (excluding private bodies). It had 47 family welfare sub centres. 7,937 patients were treated indoor and 311,148 patients were treated outdoor in the hospitals, health centres and subcentres of the CD Block.[24]

Andal CD Block has a block primary health centre at Khandra (Ukhra) and a primary health centre at Andal.[39][40]

External links

References

  1. ^ "Census of India 2011, West Bengal: District Census Handbook, Barddhaman" (PDF). Physiography, pages 13-14. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
  2. ^ Chattopadhyay, Akkori, Bardhaman Jelar Itihas O Lok Sanskriti (History and Folk lore of Bardhaman District.), (in Bengali), Vol I, pp 14-15, Radical Impression. ISBN 81-85459-36-3
  3. ^ "Tehsil Map of Barddhaman". CD Block/ Tehsil. Maps of India. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
  4. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Burdwan". Tables 2.1, 2.2. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 2017-07-29. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
  5. ^ "District Census Handbook: Barddhaman" (PDF). Map of Barddhaman with CD Block HQs and Police Stations (on the fourth page). Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
  6. ^ Chattopadhyay, Akkori, p. 34.
  7. ^ "Directory of District, Subdivision, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal". Bardhaman - Revised in March 2008. Panchayats and Rural Development Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d e "C.D. Block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". 2011 census: West Bengal – District-wise CD Blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
  9. ^ "Provisional population totals, West Bengal, Table 4, Barddhaman District". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  10. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  11. ^ "TRU for all Districts (SC & ST and Total)". Census 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  12. ^ "Provisional population totals, West Bengal, Table 5, Bardhaman District". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2011-09-28. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  13. ^ "Census of India 2011, West Bengal: District Census Handbook, Barddhaman" (PDF). Mother-tongue: Table 11, page 51. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  14. ^ "Red Corridors in West Bengal a Headache for EC". The New Indian Express, 7 May 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
  15. ^ "Hindi speaking voters 'Modi'fied, Didi looks for answers". Maps of India, 1 April 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
  16. ^ "District Human Development Report: Bardhaman" (PDF). Chapter I, Page 8. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 August 2017. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
  17. ^ "Multilingual Bengal". The Telegraph, 11 December 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  18. ^ "Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi make it to the list of official languages in Bengal". Outlook, 28 February 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  19. ^ "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  20. ^ "District Human Development Report: Bardhaman" (PDF). Table 4.2: Empirical Measurement of Rural Poverty in Bardhaman 2005, page 94. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 August 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  21. ^ "District Census Handbook Bardhaman, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Page 96, Table 33: Distribution of Workers by Sex in Four Categories ofEconomic Activity in Sub-district 2011; Page 86, Table 30: Number and Percentage of Main Workers, Marginal Workers and Non-workers by sex in sub-districts, 2011. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  22. ^ "District Human Development Report: Bardhaman". Pages 294-300. Department of Planning, Statistics and Programme monitoring, Government of West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  23. ^ "District Census Handbook Bardhaman, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Census Concepts and Definitions, Page 33. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Bardhaman". Tables 2.7, 2.1, 8.2, 16.1, 17.2, 18.1, 18.2, 20.1, 21.2, 4.4, 3.1, 3.3 – arranged as per use. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  25. ^ a b c d "Planning". Eastern Coalfields Limited. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  26. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". (1) Chapter 1.2, South 24 Parganas in Historical Perspective, pages 7-9 (2) Chapter 3.4, Land reforms, pages 32-33. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
  27. ^ "District Human Development Report, Bardhaman" (PDF). Table 3.10, Gross Cropped Area, Net Cropped Area and Cropping Intensity of different blocks of Bardhaman district 2003-04, Page 53. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, May 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 August 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  28. ^ "Bardhaman-Asansol MEMU 63505". India Rail Info.
  29. ^ "Asansol Division System Map". Eastern Railway. Archived from the original on 26 April 2016.
  30. ^ "South Eastern Railway Pink Book 2017-18" (PDF). Indian Railways Pink Book.
  31. ^ "Asansol Division Railway Map". Eastern Railway.
  32. ^ "Adra Division Railway Map". South Eastern Railway.
  33. ^ "63509 Bardhaman-Asansol MEMU". Time Table. indiarailinfo. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  34. ^ "73531=>63531 Andal-Sainthia MEMU". Time Table. indiarailinfo. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  35. ^ "73539 Andal-Jasidih DEMU". Time Table. indiarailinfo. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  36. ^ "Rationalisation of Numbering Systems of National Highways" (PDF). New Delhi: Department of Road Transport and Highways. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
  37. ^ "Kazi Nazrul Islam Airport". Bengal Aerotropolis. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
  38. ^ "Khandra College". KC. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  39. ^ "Bardhaman district". Medical Institutions. Bardhaman district administration. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
  40. ^ "2011 District Census Handbook Bardhaman Part XII A" (PDF). Andal Block Map on page 227. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 6 March 2017.