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From 1905 to 1908, Phan Boi Chau lived in Japan where he wrote political tracts calling for the liberation of Vietnam from the French colonial regime. After being forced to leave Japan, he moved to China where he was influenced by Sun Yat-Sen. He formed a new group called the Vietnamese Restoration League (Viet Nam Quang Phuc Hoi), modeled after Sun Yat-Sen's republican party. In 1925, French agents seized him in Shanghai. He was convicted of treason and spent the rest of his life under house arrest in Huế.
Anarchism in Vietnam can be traced to several organizations, thinkers, and political activists in China and Japan which greatly influenced Phan Boi Chau. The Chinese anarchist journal Natural Justice was launched in 1907 by several individuals included Chang Chi, who was a friend of Chau's. The Worldwide League for Humanity, an internationalist organization started in 1912 that Chau joined, went unrecognized by "newly formed [Chinese] Republican government" due to its "extreme-left program."