An architectural foundation-nail figurine depicting king Amar-Sin himself carrying the builder's wicker traybasket
|King of the Neo-Sumerian Empire|
|Reign||c. 2046 BC – 2038 BC|
|Dynasty||3rd Dynasty of Ur|
Amar-Sin (Akkadian: 𒀭𒀫𒀭𒂗𒍪: DAmarDSîn, after the Moon God Sîn", the "𒀭" being a silent honorific for "Divine"), initially misread as Bur-Sin (ca. 1981–1973 BC short chronology) was the third ruler of the Ur III Dynasty. He succeeded his father Shulgi (ca. 2029–1982 BC). His name translates to 'immortal moon-god'.
Year-names are known for all nine years of his reign. These record campaigns conducted against Urbilum, and several other regions with obscure names: Shashrum, Shurudhum, Bitum-Rabium, Jabru, and Huhnuri. Amar-Sin is otherwise known to have campaigned against Elamite rulers such as Arwilukpi of Marhashi, and the Ur Empire under his reign extended as far as the northern provinces of Lullubi and Hamazi, with their own governors. He also suppressed a rebellion in Assur where he appointed an Akkadian governor, Zariqum as confirmed by his monumental inscription.
Amar-Sin's reign is notable for his attempt at regenerating the ancient sites of Sumer. He apparently worked on the unfinished ziggurat at Eridu. Eridu was abandoned during his reign. Salinity problems had made agricultural pursuits in this region unprofitable.
The Babylonian Weidner Chronicle records the following: "Amar-Sin... changed the offerings of large oxen and sheep of the Akitu festival in Esagila. It was foretold that he would die from goring by an ox, but he died from the [scorpion?] 'bite' of his shoe."
Fired clay brick stamped with the name of Amar-Sin, Ur III, from Eridu. British Museum.
Cuneiform tablet impressed with cylinder seal. Receipt of goats, ca. 2040 BC, year 7 of Amar-Sin. Neo-Summerian.
Cuneiform tablet impressed with cylinder seal. Receipt of goats, ca. 2040 BC, Neo-Summerian (drawing).
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